CDAE 002: Week 2
CDAE 002: Week 2 CDAE 002
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Popular in Human Development
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Skrable on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
World, Food, Population and Sustainable Development Week 2 Development and Globalization What are the advantages of developing and globalizing the textile industry for developing countries? - Job creation for low-skilled workers - The pay is higher than traditional agriculture - There is potential to learn new technical skills What are the disadvantages? - Advancement opportunities are limited for many workers - There is no accounting for environmental and mental and physical health costs - The ownership is foreign and the plants are mobile (they want the workers to move the second they ask) Workers Segmentation - Segmented by Race, Religion, Ethnicity, Age, Gender - Ex) Segmentation by Race o Filipino migrant workers came to Hawaii for many reasons… o Began to take Hawaiians’ jobs- Hawaii sugar planters preferred Filipinos over Hawaiians § Pitting them against each other § Factories could pay Filipinos less, also cheaper to import them to Hawaii - Ex 2) Segmentation by Gender o Factories tend to hire women over men § Men tend to be managers • More likely to be rebellious, restless, more likely to unionize § Women are “biologically suited for assembly work” • More docile, willing to comply • Age o Girls below 30 are easier to train and adapt quicker (older and married women have too many obligations) o DON’T HAVE TO PAY WOMEN AND CHILDREN AS MUCH AS MEN How to Shape Human Behavior Structure vs. Agency Structure: relationships, institutions, and elements of social structure that work together to shape the thought, behavior, and choices of people - Limits the choices and opportunities available - Individual lives are shaped by o Economic policies, Trade agreements, Job opportunities, the Quality of Education, Family, Values, and Culture § These shape and constain the behaviors Agency: power of individuals to act independently of the determining constraints of the social structure - Individuals can act independently and make their own free choices - Based on individual thoughts, actions and power - Act INDEPENDENTLY Who profits? Differences between manufacturing How much does it cost to make a shirt in Bangladesh? $3.72 (Laundry- $0.20, Materials- $3.30, Labor costs- $0.22) What about the US? $13.22 (Laundry- $0.75, Materials- $5.00, Labor costs- $7.47) Those differences in labor costs are astonishing… Workplace conditions in a sweat shop: low wages, long work hours, health and or safety hazards, arbitrary discipline by managers, no job security, physical abuse, no voice in government, child labor COTTON Environmental Impacts - Water o Needs 7,000-29,000 liters water per kg of cotton, compared to wheat that only needs 900 l/kg o Channel Irrigation (taking from rivers) or Overhead Irrigation o Top cotton producing countries are all going through freshwater withdrawal - Pesticides o Cotton pesticides are 25% of the global insecticide market o Impact of freshwater ecosystems § Drift and Soil Contamination lead to the surface water being contaminated § Runoff and drainage water lead to groundwater contamination Social Impacts of Cotton - Who harvests it? - Uzbekistan & Cotton Production o Economic impacts: fish industry no more § Unemployment § Loss of fishing industry leads to no jobs • Leads to no reinvestment into the society o Social impacts § Children being forced to labor rather than go to school § Affected with diseases caused by pesticides o Political Impacts § Government controls the market (dictatorship) § Concentration of wealth in the elite of business and government § No freedom of press or information o Environmental Impacts § ARAL SEA!!!!!! Dried out • Contaminated water, air § Pesticides lead to birth defects CAPITALISM How to Make a Profit - Labor is considered a commodity to be purchased or rented - To make a profit, need to keep the money spend on input as low as possible (minimize production costs) Working Class Laborer - Mobility (free to move) - Discipline (subject to new kinds of discipline and control) - Resistance - Segmentation (divided by race, ethnicity, age and gender)
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