Parts of Speech and Clause structure
Parts of Speech and Clause structure ENGL 2161
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Tyson on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 2161 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Abby Dobbs in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Grammar for Writing in Foreign Language at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
English 2161: Grammar for Writing Parts of Speech Closed Class Words/functional words: 1. Determiners 2. Prepositions 3. Conjunctions 4. Modals “Closed” because we rarely create new words out of them and there is usually one form Determiners: Modify nouns and answers, “which one?” and “how many?” This, That, These and Those Examples: 1. The fuzzy cat was sweet. 2. That man can really play. 3. Several students aced the exam. Prepositions: A preposition links a noun phrase to another word or phrase in the sentence A noun phrase= (def) + (adj) + (noun) Examples: 1. The dog by the fence is barking. 2. The dog behind the fence is barking. 3. He skipped the rock across the glass of water. Qualifiers: Qualifiers modify adjectives and adverbs and answer the question “to what extent?” Examples: 1. She sings very beautifully. 2. He is awfully funny. Coordinate Conjunctions: For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Coordinate conjunctions connect units in an equal grammatical structure Example: 1. You can read a book or do a cross word puzzle. Subordinate conjunctions: Subordinate conjunctions connect units in an unequal manner Example: 1. If you finish your dinner you can play. Modals: Can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would Examples: 1. He can run five miles but usually runs 2. 2. You should not talk loud. English 2161: Grammar for writing Clause structure and sentence patterns Sentence types: 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound complex Simple sentence: consists of a single clause, one subject and one predicate Example: Koda ate hungrily. Compound sentence: consists of two clauses, connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction or by a semi colon Example: Koda ate hungrily; he finished all his food. Complex sentence: consists of one or more independent clause and one or more dependent clauses Example: Koda hungrily ate the special food that my mom brought for him. Compound- Complex sentence: consist of at least one dependent clause and two independent clauses. Example: Koda hungrily ate the special food that my mom brought for him, but he couldn’t finish the whole bowl. Types of dependent clauses: 1. Adverb clauses 2. Noun clauses 3. Adjective clauses Dependent clauses express meaning, place, reason, purpose and condition Example: when wherever because, if, although, so and that Punctuating adverb clause: When an adverb clause occurs before the independent clause, a comma is placed at the end of the adverb clause Example: After the sales person sailed through the morning, appointments starting coming in left and right. When an adverb clause occurs after the independent clause, a comma is generally not needed. Example: Appointments started coming in left and right after the salesperson sailed through the morning. Adjective clauses: Adjective clauses usually begin with relative pronouns (that, who, whom or which) Example: Please remove the car that is blocking the drive way. Noun clauses: Noun clauses usually begin with that or what. A noun clauses in not a modifier if it necessary part of the sentence as subject, object or complement. Example: I believe that John is involved.
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