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Week 3 Notes

by: Nicole Encardes

Week 3 Notes 3020

Nicole Encardes
GPA 3.32

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About this Document

Fruit Set, Abscission, Management of Crop Load, Fruit Parts, Types of Fruit
Fruit Crops
Anish Malladi
Class Notes
horticulture, fruit, abscission, crop load, fruit types, fruit parts
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Encardes on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3020 at University of Georgia taught by Anish Malladi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Fruit Crops in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
1-25-16 Monday, January 25, 2016 10:06 AM  Fruit set o Process of transition from flower to fruit o Ovary starts to grow after seed set o Unfertilized fruit often abscise o Characterized by the increase growth of the organ that will grow to become the fruit  Factors affecting fruit set o Genetics of the parent plant o Temperature - effect on pollination and fruit growth o Sunlight - cloudy weather decreases fruit set o Drought (water stress) o Plant nutritional status  Nitrogen  Boron  Fruit abscission and June drop o Many fruit abscise before complete development o Abscission common within the first few weeks after bloom - in phases o Final phase usually referred to as 'June drop'  Not usually in June though o Many tree fruits ~10% fruit set is sufficient  Abscission zones o Region where the process of abscission takes place o The point where the pedicle connects the flower to the rest of the plant  Excessive fruit set o Under optimal weather and pollination conditions o Usually induces greater abscission  The plant is trying to maintain the balance of the fruit it has and the resources it has o More competition for limited resources  The fruit itself can produce 10-15% of the photosynthesis that the fruit needs to grow o Can affect final fruit size and yield  Small fruit size doesn't affect the tree but is bad for growers  Bigger fruit costs more  Management of crop load o Thinning - removal of fruit to adjust fruit load  Balance reproductive and vegetative growth  Improves fruit size o Can be done manually of chemically  Labor intensive when done manually  Not all chemical options available o Needs to be done early in fruit development (within weeks) 1-27-16 Wednesday, January 27, 2016 10:05 AM  Chemical thinning o Manual thinning is expensive o Many growth regulators useful for thinning  GAs  Auxins (NAA)  Cytokinins (Benzyl Adenine - BA)  Ethylene (Ethephon)  Other novel compounds  Fruit set/crop load affects flowering o Excessive fruit set one year can decrease flowering for the next year  There can be very little or no flower production o Phenomenon - biennial bearing  Cycle of 'on' years and 'off' years  The cyclical habit is formed because the tree needs to conserve the nutrients used in different processes in the tree o Common: apple, pecans, avocados, apricots  Not an issue in grapes  Biennial bearing o Signal from the seed to the embryo  Can be in the form of a phytohormone  The signal could possibly inhibit the growth for the next year so when there's a lot of seeds then the signal is produced in large quantities which leads to no flowers the next yea  When it's an 'off' year the signal isn't produced so the next year the tree will flower  The signal could be localized o Carbohydrate reserves o Genetically controlled o Needs special attention in fruit production  Parts of a fruit o Talking mostly about true fruits o The outermost layer of the ovary becomes the outermost part of the fruit --> exocarp o A few cell layers present in the ovary wall become the fleshy part of the fruit --> mesocarp o The inner most layer of cells of the ovary wall become the inner most layer of the fruit --> endocarp o The ovule becomes the seed o Can have modifications depending on how much of each part you have or the structure which gives rise to the different fruit types o The 3 parts of the fruit are referred to together as the pericarp  There are some fruits where you can't distinguish the layers of the fruit so the whole region is referred to as the pericarp  Basic fruit types o Simple fruit  Derived from one flower and one pistil  Ex: peaches o Aggregate fruit  Derived from one flower with many pistils  Ex: raspberries o Multiple fruit  Derived from many flowers  Ex: pineapples o Accessory fruit  Derived from tissue other than the ovary  Ex: strawberries  Types of simple fruit o Fleshy - fruit consisting of mostly soft tissue  Berry  Fruit with soft and thin skin (exocarp)  Fleshy mesocarp and endocarp that make up the bulk of the fruit  Retains water  A true berry is derived from a superior ovary  A false berry is derived from an inferior berry  Ex: grape, tomato  Hesperidium  Exocarp is leathery  Sometimes referred to as the flavedo  Mesocarp is thin and papery  Endocarp is fleshy/juicy and in sections  Ex: citrus o Dry - fruit where the pericarp is mostly composed of dry/or hardened tissue  Dehiscent  The fruit splits and disperses its seeds  Indehiscent  The fruit stays intact 1-29-16 Friday, January 29, 2016 10:08 AM  Types of fleshy fruit continued o Pepo  Exocarp is thick and hard  Mesocarp and endocarp fleshy  Ex: cucurbits, watermelon o Pome  Pericarp largely fused to accessory tissue  Innermost layer - papery/cartilaginous  The rest of the fruit is non-ovarian tissue  Ex: apple, pear o Drupe  Exocarp thin and soft  Mesocarp fleshy  Endocarp hardened (bony)  Ex: peach, mango, some nuts are closer to drupes than nuts  Types of dry dehiscent fruits o Follicle  Fruit has one carpel only  Fruit splits along one stem  Ex: magnolia o Legume  Fruit has one carpel only  Fruit splits along two seams  Ex: bean pods o Silique  Fruit has two carpels  Seeds persist on a thin septum (papery)  Ex: mustard and other Brassicaceae members  Some can be like silique and slightly modified called silicle  Broader than normal o Capsule  Fruit has more than 2 carpels  Fruit splits in many ways  Septicidal (splits along the septum)  Yucca  Loculicidal (splits along locules)  Iris  Circumscissile (opens by a lid)  Portulaca  Poricidal (opens by small pores)  Poppy  Types of dry indehiscent fruits o Achene  Fruit small, thin walled  One seed  Seed attached to the fruit at one point only  Can’t really distinguish the different parts of the fruit  Ex: sunflower, true fruit in strawberries o Caryopsis/grain  Fruit - thin walled pericarp  Seed coat completely fused to the fruit wall  Ex: rice, wheat


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