Global Geography Notes Week 3
Global Geography Notes Week 3 GEOG 1010 - 003
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GEOG 1010 - 003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Bixler on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Daniel A McGowin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
`Global Geography Notes Week 3 January 26, 2016 Office hours Monday and Friday (10-11 am Map quiz opens Monday Assignments due by Friday (South/Latin America continued) Altitudinal Zonation- Mountains can change climate (even in a tropical zone). This is most prevalent in the Andes in South America. Tierra Caliente- First zone you would encounter as you go up the mountains. Hot and humid zone. Low population count. Tropical rain forests. Not many crops except bananas and corn. Tierra Templada- Variation of temperature throughout the year (moderation temperatures). Most of the population lives in this zone. Introduction of fruits, grains, coffee. Temperate zone. Tierra Frio- Cold Zone. Forests start to thin out. Population starts to thin out. Barley and wheat are still grown. Animals are burlier in terms of their fur (lamas for example). Lake Titicaca is in this zone Tierra Helada- smaller animals. No trees- less vegetation in general. Just small shrubs. Little human activity Tierra Nevada- Snowy land. No human involvement. Amazon River- Largest river in the world (not the longest) meaning that it has the most volume of water that is discharged into the ocean. Very slow moving. The size of the river basin is comparable to the size of the United States. Wild life- Red Belly Parana. Not as aggressive as they are made out to be. Shields- Generally flat with little elevation change. Brazilian Highlands- Elevated, flat, volcanic soil, heavily population. 50% of all of South America’s population lives here. Guyana Shield- small population. Has the tallest waterfall (Angle Falls) in the world- water evaporates before it gets to the ground. Non-forest areas- Pampas- well know for agriculture (known as the Iowa of South America). Cattle ranching is prevalent. Llanos- another grassland that is well known for petroleum production. Atacama Desert- one of the driest deserts in the world. (note- deserts are not defined by temperature- they are defined by lack of precipitation) Deserts are created by two things- mountains and cold ocean currents. Cold ocean currents create even drier conditions than mountains. Atacama- cold ocean currents and mountains meet- making it one of the driest places of earth. El Nino Southern Oscillation- normal conditions- Warm water pushes away from South America. There is low pressure over South America and high pressure toward Africa-ocean currents more towards the low pressure in South America. Upwelling- when the cold waters from deep beneath the oceans surface is pulled up and replaces the warm water that has been pushed away. This water brings nutrients that attract fish- this makes it important for the fishermen to now where this occurs. SO what causes El Niño? the high and low pressure areas flip and the winds shift- Thus is goes against the ocean currents creating a counter current. This counter current pushes the warm water towards South America- this blocks the upwelling. The fish die, the fishermen cannot make a living. How does this affect us? One change affects everything else- places that usually don’t get rain start to get warmer and wetter than they usually are and vice versa. La Nina- the ocean and atmosphere goes back to the way they were but they usually over do it. Effects of El Nino on North America- South- cooler and wetter conditions Alaska- warmer conditions Pacific Northwest- drier conditions Southern California- rainier conditions Northeast- warmer conditions Atlantic Ocean- less active hurricane seasons- fewer tornados? True impact of El Nino? Bush fires are amplified in Australia. This heavily impacts agriculture, as crops are destroyed-this caused food prices to go up. People protested in Africa because they blamed their governments. Next thing you know there is an outbreak of revolution (the Arab Spring) Cultural Geography Lack for indigenous cultures Tenochtitlan- located in the valley of Mexico- large population, well planed and laid out Incan Empire- great road builders. Took control of much of the Andes. Their great city was Machupichu- wasn’t discovered by westerners until 1911 Mesoamerica- Mayan Empire and Aztec Empire European “Discovery”- diseases wiped out 90% of indigenous population. This destroyed their culture. Treaty of Tordesillas- divided the new world between the Spanish and the Portuguese. With the indigenous population wiped out- the African slave trade is brought in. Brazil- heavily influenced by African culture. Umbanda- brings together African traditions with Catholicism and South American culture. Samba- Afro-Brazilian dance. Argentina- Less impacted by African culture because they had less slaves. Tango- seen as more European. “non-traditional” European migration- German and Italian immigration. January 28, 2016 Asian Migration – Brazil has the largest Japanese population outside Japan. Sumo wrestling was brought to Brazil. The Japanese were seen has having a higher social status in Brazil. However, if they returned to Japan they were seen as a lower class and not even Japanese (unless you play soccer.) Guyana- when slavery was outlawed in Britain, the British hired laborers from south Asia and sent them to their colonies. Guyana’s largest ethnic group is South Asian. Hinduism may be the most practiced religion Maroon Society- people of African decent who escaped slavery. Escaped tot the highlands where it was difficult to find them. They then began to mix with the indigenous population of northern South America. Jonestown- project created in Guyana lead by a cult (called the Peoples Temple) leader named Jim Jones. Known for the mass suicide and murder of a US senator. Bolivia- Indigenous society that did survive. One of the poorest countries in the world. Languages- Bolivia recognizes 12 languages. One of the few countries that have elected indigenous leaders (Alejandro Toledo). Coca leaf is large part of their culture. Coca chewing is done as a social practice, also given as a token of gratitude. The US wanted to eradicate coca plants because it is used to make cocaine. Mexico- Southern Mexico is the poorest part. Zapatistas in Chipas- pushed back against the government- they revolted the day that the North American Free Trade Agreement was passed. Mexicans were afraid of what NAFTA would do to Mexican farmers. Eventually the government did meet with the Zapatistas in order to work out arrangement. Eventually they joined with other indigenous groups they decided to stop being a militant group and work together to get more done. Religion- Roman Catholicism is the most dominant religion Artists like Shakira brought Latin based music to a global scale. Soccer- South America is known for a passionate style of soccer Telenovelas- Soap operas are being popularized around the world Migration and Urbanization- favelas- slums on the outskirts of the large cities. They push up against wealthy areas and pirate electricity. City of God- movie that focuses on a favela that was the murder capital of Brazil at the time. Brasilia- capital of Brazil that was created by the Government that was built in the middle of the rain forest. This is known as a forward capital. Created in order to shift some of the population. Fastest growing city in terms of income. Political Geography Colonial division of Latin America- Simon Bolivar and Gran Colombia- revolutionary figure in that her tried to unify South America. After 10 years Gran Columbia ended and many countries became independent. Simon Bolivar is still seen as an important figure. Panama- an extension of Columbia that became independent. This is because of the Panama Canal. Columbia did not want to allow the US to build the canal. In order to achieve their goal, the US stoked the flames for Panama gaining independence. Many people died during the construction of it. The canal was considered US territory up until the 1970s. War for Territory- War of the Pacific- Bolivia, Peru and Chile. During this war Bolivia lost their access to the coastline. It can be argued that because of this war this is why Bolivia is one of the poorest countries. Honduras- The Futbol war- 1969 El Salvador vs. Honduras trying to qualify for the world cup-riots during the games in both countries. Real reason for the war was immigration. Lack of land in El Salvador cause immigrants to spill over into Honduras. Nahuaterique- a village where El Salvadorans were allowed to stay- no mans lands where neither El Salvador nor Honduras takes care of. 1996 the people of this village were given dual citizenship.
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