Chemistry 222 Week 1 notes
Chemistry 222 Week 1 notes Chem 222
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Pike on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 222 at Western Kentucky University taught by Darwin Dahl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Week 1 notes Chem 222 Class was cancelled Monday. Briefly went over the syllabus Wednesday. The final will be the ACS standardized exam. The final will cover Chem 120 AND Chem 222. The final WILL BE ADMINISTERED ON Wednesday of finals week. This is not a mistake, Chem 222 is one of those unusual classes that has a different final time. ACS has a study guide for sale for the final; I also have one for sale. Sign up to get it! There are seven fundamental SI units: Mole is the unit of quantity. Mole has the value 6.02*10 23 Meter is the unit of length. Kilogram is the unit of mass, NOT WEIGHT. Weight is a force, not a fundamental property, and it is measured in newtons, not in kilograms. Second is the unit of time. Candela is the unit of light intensity. Kelvin is the unit of temperature. Celsius is NOT the unit of temperature. Ampere is the unit of electric current. Examples of what are NOT fundamental SI units: Liters (or any other volume measurement). Volume is measured in length * width * height; therefore, the unit for volume is the cubic meter, which is derived from the meter. 2 Energy. T2e SI unit for energy, the joule, is defined to be kilograms * meters / seconds . Obviously, it is a derived unit. Weight. Weight is measured in newtons. One newton is equal to kilogram * meter / seconds . Weight IS NOT MASS. Mass is a scalar, weight is a vector quantity having both direction and magnitude. Everything else (power, speed, pressure, etc.). Just because something has a nice, metric-sounding name does NOT mean that it is a fundamental SI unit. Liters, joules, pascals, newtons, watts, and the like are DERIVED units, not FUNDAMENTAL units. To sum up, there are seven fundamental SI units, and all other units are derived units. The mole is used by chemists because the mass of mole of atoms or molecules, in grams, is equal to the mass of one atom or one molecule in AMUs. The periodic table does double duty. For example, helium has a weight of 4 on the periodic table. This means four AMUs per one helium atom, and four grams per mole of helium. Moles are very important in stoichiometry because equations are written in mole-to-mole relationships. For solid substances, grams are converted to moles using the molar mass. For liquid solutions, multiply the molarity by the volume used (molarity is defined as moles per liter). For gases, use the ideal gas law, PV=nRT. (These things should be familiar to you from Chem 120. If not, I have a complete set of notes for Chem 120 available for you to review.) Percent yield is actual yield divided by predicted maximum yield. Reactions do not always go to completion; thus, you may have less product than stoichiometry predicts. A solution contains a solvent and a solute. Theoretically, the solute is dissolved and the solvent does the dissolving. Sometimes, such as in a mixture of two metals, the solvent-solute relationship is not exceptionally clear. In this case, the solvent is the substance present in the largest amount. Miscible substances can be mixed with one another and will not separate back out. The solubility of something is how much of that something will dissolve in a given amount of a given solvent at a given temperature. In a saturated solution, the dissolved solute and the precipitated solute are in equilibrium; the solvent is full. In a supersaturated solution, there is too much dissolved solute which has no way of escaping. Scratch the glass of the container, and the solute will precipitate out on the scratches. Entropy is the measure of the disorder of a system. Polar solvents (i.e. water) dissolve polar solutes because the polar water is attracted to the polar molecules (sugar, alcohol, some salts, etc.) and vice versa. Oil and water will not mix because oil is a nonpolar hydrocarbon and is less dense than water. Oil is more attracted to itself than to water and vice versa; therefore, the two liquids will not mix. Not all salts dissolve in water. If the lattice energy is higher than the ion- dipole attraction (the charged ions’ attraction to the polar water molecules), the crystal stays together. Molecular geometry determines whether or not a molecule is polar. Carbon tetrachloride has four polar bonds, but these four directions cancel each other out, resulting in a net polarity of zero. (Polarity was covered in Chem 120 and should be familiar to you; if not, I have materials that explain it.)
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