PY 372- Week 3 Notes
PY 372- Week 3 Notes PY 372
Popular in PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 372 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William Hart in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Lecture 3 -The Self- !!Self-recognition develops at approximately 2 years old How do we know?? Recognition Red rouge test Infantile amnesia= most people do not have memories before 2 years old when recognition comes: you can develop who you are Self Concept- the belief that the self has about the self **I am… (1)…(2)….(3)….(4)= Spontaneous self concept your “core” self beliefs -self concept changes the way you perceive things -Self concept (schema)- **organize and guide how we think about other people, things and events ---They are the lens that “colors” all perceptions EXcooler than me by Mike Posner STUDY TIP: Self-reference effect- phenomenon in which info is better recalled when it is related to the self -Self Esteem- whether or not you like yourself **Global evalution that one has of oneself (+ or -) related to mental/physical health High self esteem is NOT the same as conceit, arrogance etc. **Self-knowledge: knowing yourself** -we don’t really know ourselves - out of touch w/ who we are/ skills we possess - sometimes because certain sources feed us inaccuracies of ourselves -Sources of Self- Knowledge- 1. Reflected appraisals: our PERCEPTION of how others perceive and evaluate us 2. Direct Feedback: Verbal info received from others about our traits/ abilities a. Most people say what you want to hear i. “if you have nothing nice to say, say nothing at all” b. Most people tend to want to sugarcoat reality i. People get mad at negative feedback 3. Social Comparison: Act of comparing our traits and abilities with the traits/ abilities of others a. Usually try to make flattering social comparisons b. Your B when everyone got A’s, vs. D’s and F’s Types of Social Comparisons: upward: compare yourself to someone who’s doing better than you - sometimes motivating - sometimes depressing (when that person’s level seems unattainable) downward: compared to opposite of ^ - my life’s not that bad: perspective - positive mood - often leads to complacency 4. Our own behavior: making guesses about our personality, views and beliefs by observing our own behavior and the circumstance under which it occurs. (self-perception) a. What do my actions say about me? i. Are you selfless? Lecture 4 -Protecting Self Esteem- 1. Self-Serving Bias: tendency to attribute success to internal factors (skill) while attributing failure to external factors (bad luck) 2. Self-Centered Bias: Tendency to take more than one’s share of responsibility for a jointly produced outcome 3. Comparative optimism: Tendency to believe that we are less likely than others to experience negative events & more likely than others to experience positive events. ***Major exception to optimistic tendency: -bracing for the worst: Tendency to get pessimistic right before learning of an important outcome EX when you’re about to check a test grade -we lower our standards systematically so that if something bad DOES happen- you’re happy SO sometimes pessimism makes us smile 5. Better-than-average effect: tendency to perceive ourselves as better than average person. a. Nobody sees themselves as lower than average i. Everyone has own strategic definitions of certain traits 6. False-consensus effect: Tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s undesirable traits or unsuccessful behaviors a. EX grades (hurt a lot less when others= same) b. Cheating (ok if other people do it) 7. False- Uniqueness effect: Tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s desirable traits or successful behaviors. !!You think about yourself in comparison to others!!! -Do people discourage others to get ahead? Look better? EX politicians -Dark Side of Self Esteem Striving- **Friend study- give correct clues to stranger to avoid friend getting ahead (detrimental to relationship) -niches in family prevent tension because of people fighting for same niche *sometimes self esteem striving puts others down because they represent standards of comparison why do we care so much about liking ourselves? 1. Terror Management Theory: People don’t really strive for self- esteem, really trying to get over the fact that we are all going to die a. By product of a desire to feel impermanent b. Culture is not going anywhere- contribute big and achieve symbolic immortality (connection) c. EX tombstone, children, awards **Life is easier when we’re a part of a group and rejection hurts -inherent human goal- get social acceptance, avoid rejection 2. Sociometer Theory: people don’t strive for self esteem, evolutionary purpose, protects against isolation; measure of social inclusion/exclusion **Self esteem is a measure of how well we are fitting in*** 3. Self- affirmation theory: we do not strive for self esteem, self esteem is a buffer against daily stress and keep progressing toward goals a. Takes longer to give up -Social Cognition- Social Cognition: the study of how people understand and make sense of events, others, themselves and their environment !!How thoughtful are we? Photocopier study: you hear “because” and mind shuts off… we are on autopilot -mistakes are endearing SO “because”= person has a legit reason, so we don’t need to listen Errors & Biases 1. Assimilation: interpreting new info in terms of existing beliefs and goals a. See what we expect to see b. CONCLUSION: Expectations actively shape our interpretations of others’ behavior c. IMPORTANT: Do you think people know they are stereotyping? i. Most of the time- no !!Tendency to not allow ourselves to learn and change!!! 2. Confirmation Bias: Tendency to search for info that confirms our ideas and neglect info that disconfirms them.
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