Industrial Psych Notes 1/25-1/29
Industrial Psych Notes 1/25-1/29 Psyc 3640
Popular in Industrial Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for Industrial Psych Notes 1/25-1/29
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/29/16
1/25/2016 Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology Science—approach that involves the understanding, prediction, and control as some phenomenon of interest o Systematic process to help us achieve goals o Common scientific methods Begins with observation, generate theory, generate specific questions you can test, create a hypothesis, create an experiment (collect additional data) o Logical approach to investigation Based on a theory, hypothesis, or basic interest Theory—educated explanation based on observations o Science depends on data Gathered in a laboratory or the field o Research must be communicable, open, & public Research published in journals, reports, or books Methods of data collection described Data reported Analyses displayed for examination Conclusions presented o Scientists set out to disprove theories or hypotheses (not prove!) Goal is to eliminate all plausible explanations except one o Scientists are objective Expectation that researchers will be objective & not influenced by biases or prejudices Why do I-O psychologists engage in research? o Better equip HR professionals in making decisions in organizations o Provide an aspect of predictability to HR decisions o Helps to explain why people do what they do Common Research Designs o Experimental Random assignment of participants to conditions Allows you to say that all groups are essentially equal Correlation does equal causation in this case Advantage—Can outline a true causal relationship Independent variable causes dependent variable Disadvantage—takes a lot of time, resources, and energy Conducted in a laboratory or the workplace Involves alteration/manipulation o Non-experimental Does not include manipulation or assignment to different conditions Disadvantage—correlation does not equal causation Advantages—huge sample set very quickly and cheaply 2 common designs: Observational design—observes and records behavior Survey/questionnaire—most common o Quasi-experimental Non-random assignment of participants to conditions Quantitative methods—rely on tests, rating scales, questionnaires,& physiological measures o Yield results in terms of numbers Qualitative methods—include procedures like observation, interview, case, study, & analysis of written documents o Generally produce flow diagrams & narrative descriptions of events/processes Quantitative vs Qualitative o One is not better than the other; not mutually exclusive o Triangulation—examining converging info from different sources (qual & quan research) Generalizability—application of results from one study or sample to other participants or situations (a broader population) o The more areas a study includes, the greater the generalizability o Every time a compromise is made, the generalizability of results is reduced Sampling o Participantsjob titlestimeorganizations o Students in this particular psych classstudents in other psych classescertain point in timeClemson University Experimental control—eliminates influences that could make results less reliable or harder to interpret Statistical control—statistical techniques used to control for the influence of certain variables o Always factors you cannot think of o Does not allow you to say there is a casual relationship 1/27/2016 Histogram—has observed values on x axis and frequency on the y axis Ethical Behavior of I-O Psychology Ethical standards of the APA SIOP book of 61 cases (Lowman, 1998) o Cases illustrate ethical issues that are likely to arise in I-O psychology Joel Lefkowitz (2003) published a recent book on values and ethics in I- O psychology Descriptive statistics o Summarize, organize, describe sample of data Frequency Distribution: o Horizontal axis = Scores running low to high o Vertical axis = Indicates frequency of occurrence Measures of central tendency o Mean—add up all values and divide by number of observations o Mode—which value occurs the most frequently o Median— middle number Variability o Standard deviation How much change there is between the numbers and the average of change there is between a number and the mean o Or you could look at the range Lopsidedness or skew o Mean is affected by high or low scores, median is not o Mean pulls in direction of skew Inferential Statistics o Aid in testing hypotheses & making inferences from sample data to a larger sample/population o Include t-test, F-test, chi-square test Statistical Significance o Defined in terms of a probability statement o Threshold for significance is often set at .05 or lower o Significance refers only to confidence that result is NOT due to chance, not strength of an association or importance of results. Statistical Power o Likelihood of finding statistically significant difference when true difference exists o The smaller the sample size, the lower the power to detect a true or real difference Concept of Correlation o Scatterplot Displays correlational relationship between 2 variables o Regression Straight line that best “fits” the scatterplot and describes the relationship between the variables in the graph Correlation Coefficient o Slope of z scores o Statistic or measure of association o Reflects magnitude (numerical value) & direction (+ or –) of relationship between 2 variables o Ranges from -1.00 to 1.00 o 1.00 = perfect positive relationship; same z score; perfect diagonal line (45 degrees) o 0.00 = scattered dots; horizontal line o Positive correlation → As one variable increases, other variable also increases & vice versa o Negative correlation → As one variable increases, other variable decreases & vice versa o Strong positive correlation DOES NOT mean causation! Curvilinear Relationship o If correlation coefficient is .00, one cannot conclude that there is no association between variables o A curvilinear relationship might better describe the association o Ex. stimulation (stress levels) vs performance Multiple Correlation o Multiple correlation coefficient Overall linear association between several variables & a single outcome variable Meta-Analysis o Statistical method for combining results from many studies to draw a general conclusion o Statistical artifacts Characteristics of a particular study that distort the results Sample size is typically the most influential statistical artifact Interpretation o Reliability Consistency or stability of a measure Test-retest reliability Calculated by correlating measurements taken at Time 1 with measurements taken at Time 2 Memory vs extroversion Memory—if you take a test once and then 24 hours after Extroversion—if you take a test once and then a month later o Equivalent forms reliability Calculated by correlating measurements from a sample of individuals who complete 2 different forms of same test Problem: boredom sets in when the second test comes around; as we become fatigued, our ability to answer the questions appropriately wane o Internal consistency Assesses how consistently items of a test measure a single construct Calculates all of the possible correlations of items to come up with a value (alpha) We want the value to be close to 1 Bare minimum is >0.7 o Inter-rater reliability Can calculate various statistical indices to show level of agreement among raters Values in the range of .70 to .80 represent reasonable reliability o Generalizability theory Simultaneously considers all types of error in reliability estimates Validity o Whether measurements taken accurately & completely represent what is to be measured o Measurement of how accurate the test is o Predictor Test chosen or developed to assess identified abilities or other characteristics (KSAOs) o Criterion Outcome variable describing important performance domain Criterion-Related Validity o Correlate a test score (predictor) with a performance measure; resulting correlation often called a validity coefficient o Predicts outcome o Predictive validity design Time lag between collection of test data & criterion data Test often administered to job applicants Predicts performance o Concurrent validity design No time lag between collection of test data & criterion data Test administered to current employees, performance measures collected at same time Disadvantage: No data about those not employed by the organization Use current data from current employees & then give intelligence test Content-Related Validity o Demonstrates that content of selection procedure represents adequate sample of important work behaviors & activities or worker KSAOs defined by job analysis o I-O Psychologists can use incumbents/SMEs to gather content validity evidence o One question about this!! Construct-Related Validity o Investigators gather evidence to support decisions or inferences about psychological constructs o Construct - concept or characteristic that a predictor is intended to measure; examples include intelligence, extraversion, and integrity o One question about this!!
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'