HIST 2020 - Week 1
HIST 2020 - Week 1 HIST 2020
University of Memphis
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyree Griffin on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2020 at University of Memphis taught by Marler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see the US since 1877 in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
US Since 1877: 01/25 – 01/27 Ch. 15 – Reconstruction (summary) + Ch16 – The Gilded Age Part I (18701900) Lecture Overview: Chapter 15 Reconstruction Summary Chapter 16 The Gilded Age (Part 1) o The Second Industrial Revolution o Railroads & Industry o Cities & New Technologies o Big Business o Class Divisions Chapter 15: Reconstruction Summary Reconstruction Amendments ( 13 , 14 , 15 ) th Sou. Democratic Party + [Klu Klux] Klan = “Redemption” o Terror used to intimidate black voters and leaders o Dem. Party rules south for over 75 years. Repub. Party less committed to black rights o Abolitionists leaders dying off (i.e. Charles Sumner) Supreme Court dilutes freedom’s meanings o [Slaughterhouse Cases] There are some decisions/rights that should be left solely up to the states Gov. left to upper class whites Widespread corruption: local, state, nat’l. o Pres. U.S. Grant (186977) o Divides GOP (Republican Party): spoilsmen vs. reformers Neither side really cared about black rights Spoilsmen – rich rule/concern Reformers – concerned with good government Pres. Election 1876 results in deadlock. Compromise of 1877 o Close pres. Election decided in backroom bargain. 1875 – Parrish, LA – Blacks massacred by local whites for putting Blacks into office Southern Democratic Party Land holders (whites) – antiblack Shift in political views between Democrats & Republicans o Democrats go from company/money to liberal (human rights) o Republicans viceversa Poor [South] through WWII US Since 1877: 01/25 – 01/27 o AfricanAmericans stay lower class through 1960s Chapter 16: The Gilded Age Pt. I Rapid economic growth, 18701900 Railroads and the national market o Population Growth Mass Marketing Industrialization o Federal Governments promotion of economy Cities and New Technology o Urban Growth Thomas Edison Big Businesses and the leaders o Carnegie (steel) & Rockefeller (oil) o ‘Captains of industry’ or ‘robber barons’? Labor in an industrial age o Labor demand increase Giving out massive land grants (esp. to RR companies – 65mil. Acres to N. Pacific RR) RR made 1nd revolution possible X3 18601880 x3 < 1920 o RR are chief source for rapid transportation. o RR oversaw switch to standard age track. Certain age, certain space between tracks (South moved tracks to match north and west tracks) o Estab. Of National Time Zones Makes travel [times] more convenient\ th th o Soveirn Powers in late 19 and Early 20 Century 18701920 – population almost triples o Natural reproduction o 25Mil. New Immigrants Foster new nat. systems – mass production, distribution and marketing Brands o Ivory Soap o Quaker Oats Chain Stores US Since 1877: 01/25 – 01/27 o A&P Groceries o Woolworth’s o Department Stores Mailorder firm’s o Sears, Roebuck o Montgomery Ward th Genesis of consumeroriented society we become in late 20 Century 1913 – 1/3 of the entire globes industrial output Majority of American workers earned nonfarmer jobs (1880 census) 1890 – worked for wages Urban Growth o 11Mil. People moved from rural areas to urban areas. o 50* years after civil war Percentage continues to increase Core: The Great Lakes Region o Chicago, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, etc. (Growth of far west) Communications o Telegraph System (used in civil wars) becomes transatlantic o 1880s introduce the telephone Steel Manufacturing o Cities grow outward and upward ( skyscraper ) o Construction/Material Science Practices Electirc power: o Pioneered during 1880s o Associated with T. Edison Thomas A. Edison (18471931) o From his ‘invention factory’ at Menlo Park, NJ: Phonograph Telephone Turn into a system Electric light Grid that would light and sustain entire cities US Since 1877: 01/25 – 01/27 Electric power distribution, and… Electric chair (yikes) Invented as a way to prove that AC systems were dangerous Master of patents and litigation Big Business o Unstable economy o Downward pressure on prices and wages The first “Great Depression” (18731897) o Ruthless competition leads to o Initiatives to stabilize profits Pools: (markets divvied up & prices fixed) Trusts: multiple firms under single directorship Mergers: multiple firms consolidated into one 18971904 o Monetary policy provokes deflation spiral Helped capitalists – hurt every day Americans Business leaders o Thomas A. Scott (Penn RR) Prototype of modern business organization Divided internally (Engineers paid more than breakmen, etc. Pecking order) o Andrew Carnegie (Homestead / Steel) Vertical integration Rather than have lots of little corporations that are in charge of one thing, vertical corp. control all those aspects (creating monopolies) 1901 – sell out rights to U.S. Steel by JP Morgan Mentored by Scott, rises above Scott, betrays Scott. o J.D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil) 1870s start – Horizontal integration; later, vertical (oil trust) Oil Refineries without, oil industry won’t work/develop Important for heating/energy More efficient than coal Early 1900s, controls 90% of oil production and distribution. Destroys small independent producers 1901 – fight for control again due to massive oil finds in Texas Monopolies of market Interfirm cooperation – control prices and keep prices up. 1900* privatized form of socialism to help interfirm cooperation Captains of Industry or Robber Barons? (pp 598600) o A. Carnegie (Steel) JD Rockefeller (Oil) US Since 1877: 01/25 – 01/27 o Admirably effective at what they did o ‘Rags to Riches’ Rosenwald Schools o For underprivileged black kids to be allowed to go to school Extremely ruthless: Carnegie betrays mentor to take over rr and steel monopolies Harsh in getting rid of competitors Wealth distribution becomes more equitable – 1930s1970s 1870s – GW Airbrake technology for railroads Over 2000 workers died, b/c rr owners wouldn’t instay^ Labor conditions in industrial U.S. o Advantages for skilled labor elite (minority) o Hardships for semi and unskilled majority Continuously replaced workers to avoid having to fix working conditions/risk of employees banding together. Unreliable employment & wages No workers’ compensation (payment from injury on job) or pensions (retirements) 18801900 aver. 35,000 deaths a year in American factories and mines – highest rate of industrial accidents in the world o Poor working conditions Long workdays & dangerous workplaces o Odds against collective action (i.e., unisons) Growing Class Divisions o Great RR Strike (1877) Shot/Put Down by Federally ordered armies and soldiers o New urban middleclass o Exclusive world of the rich Veblen (1899): ‘Conspicuous Consumption’ Wealthy wore their wealth and aristocratic privilege on their sleeve o Extremes of wealth & poverty Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives (1891) January 27 (Wednesday) Lecture Overview: Ch. 16 The Gilded Age (Part II) o Transformation of the West Farms on the “Middle Border” US Since 1877: 01/25 – 01/27 California & Corporate agriculture Cowboys and Miners NativeAmerican depossession o Politics in the Gilded Age Corruption TwoParty Politics of Distraction o Freedom in the Gilded Age Social Darwinism & the Courts Knights of Labor & Middle Class Reformers The Haymarket Incident, 1886 Chapter 16: The Gilded Age (Part II) The Transformation of the West o Farms on the “Middle Border” Homestead Act – 1862 – passed by Republican Party Free parcels of land to settlers who moved to the west (Land owned by fed. gov’t.) Dwarfed in comparison to RR Companies o California & Corporate agriculture o Cowboys and Miners Advent of Barbed wire Livestock farming Corporate Owned Destroyed smaller farmers who depended on open spaces to graze livestock Many indentured Workers Company Towns A single company controls everything in a given town. o NativeAmerican dispossession 1871: end of the treaty system 1887: the Dawes Act Eliminating attacking tribalism Children taken from parents and sent to American Boarding School Broke up tribal holdings established by treaties (broke into smaller parcels to distribute to certain families) o Made easier to attack impoverished NA 1890: the Battle of Wounded Knee W/Ch. Slaughtered by US Troops (150mil.) o California Agribusiness Depended heavily on machinery Chemicals US Since 1877: 01/25 – 01/27 Irrigation systems. Exploiting Migrant Labor & Indentured Labor (Bound to terms of service by contract) o US Army launched campaigns against Native Americans (10 yrs. After CW) Destroy livestock and property to destroy Native American Economy/Life Esp. Buffalo Politics in the Gilded Age o Mark Twain’s term: “The Gilded Age” o Political corruption Urban machines like William “Boss” Tweed’s in NYC o The two major parties Lasting impact of Civil War on each Social/religion support Republican: tariffs (protect Amer. Job/industry) & pensions (anyone who fought in CW were entitled to ongoing pensions for their work in CW even after they passed, family/wife would receive pension) = dominance Southerners didn’t receive pensions as they didn’t fight for the o 18601912 wins majority of executive polls Democrats: strong in South & urban immigrants o The parties were closely divided But GOP wins 11/13 of Pres. Elections, 18601908 Political stalemate in Congress o The state of American democracy Intense party loyalty, high voter turnout But small fed. Gov’t. unable to deal w/ econ. Problems Interstate Commerce Commission (1887) Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) o Band combos. In restraint of free trade and competition o Poorno enforcement authority State Gov’t. try to assume greater public role Thirdparty movements & the Grange Freedom of the Gilded Age o Defenses of Gilded Age Inequality Social Darwinism Survival of the Fittest – was as natural in humans as in nature Fears of lowerclass threat to property rights o The antilabor judiciary Gov’t. regs help contrary to ‘freelabor’ rights Support business resistance to gov’t. oversight. US Since 1877: 01/25 – 01/27 Sherman Act applied not to businesses—but to labor “Gov’t. by injunction”: courts retrain workers’ 1 Amendment rights. Lochner v. NY (1905) Limits on hours violates workers’ “liberty of contract” th 14 amendment redefined by fed. Gov’t. applies equality and freedom to corporations as if they were people instead of for freed people as exslaves Labor and the republic o The Knights of Labor (1880s) Allinclusive union (skilled/unskilled; biracial) Nostalgic ideal of “cooperative commonwealth” Peaks at 800K member in 1886, then breaks up. o Middleclass Reformers Henry George’s Progress & Poverty (1879) The ‘single tax’; welcomes social interdependence (1879) But rejects activist gov’t. Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward (1889) Weird utopian ‘nationalism’ (socialism?) The Social Gospel movement Christian missions & poorrelief programs (Jane Addams) o 1886: Labor’s year of upheaval Massive growth of Knights of Labor Nat’l. May Day demonstration for 8hour day Haymarket Affair (Chicago) May 3: Killing of 4 strikers by Police May 4: Bomb kills policeman at Haymarkey Square 8 foreignborn labor leaders tried & convicted o No evidence of guilt, but 4 hung anyway Incident used to scapegoat labor movement Rapid decline of Knights of Labor
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