Nutrition and Health Chapter 2 Notes
Nutrition and Health Chapter 2 Notes NTRI 2000
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. B. D. White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Nutrition and Health January 20, 2016 Food Philosophy - Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food - Characteristics of a healthy diet: Adequacy Balance Caloric Control Moderation Variety Adequacy - Obtaining all of the essential nutrients in order to meet the body’s needs, plus some for storage - Question: Are you getting enough of the essential nutrients? - Can refer to portion size (calories, but also diet composition) How many fats? Saturated fatty acids Trans- fatty acids How much sodium? How much cholesterol? How many refined carbohydrates (sugar)? Caloric Control - Ensures that you receive enough, but not too many calories - Needed to maintain a healthy body weight Balance - Selecting foods from five major food groups every day Grains: cereal, bread, rice (have complex carbohydrates, dietary fibers, B vitamins) Vegetables (have vitamin A, carbohydrates, fiber) Fruits Milk Meats and Beans “Oils” (not essential, but is used to prepare most of our foods) - Different food groups have different essential nutrients, so: THERE IS NO ONE PERFECT FOOD GROUP Variety - Choosing a number of different foods within any given food group (no single good meets all of our nutritional requirements) Recommendations - Haven’t changed much over the past 50 years 1.Control how much you eat 2.Focus on major food groups Whole grains & cereals Fruits Vegetables 3.Stay physically active Nutrient Density - Has to do with the nutritional quality of food - Nutrient content of the food per calorie - Generally this is determined with respect to individual nutrients - The greater the nutrient density, the better the food is as a nutrient source - Diet planning should focus mainly on total diet, not on the selection of one critical food for adequacy - Foods with a high nutrient density help balance foods with low nutrient density - Foods with low nutrient density commonly called “junk food” OR empty calories Energy Density - Caloric content of food per gram - Foods with a high fat content will have increased greater energy density - Foods with a high water or fiber content will have a lower energy density - Important in body weight control States of Nutritional Health - Body’s nutritional health is determined by considering the nutritional state of each needed nutrient - Three categories: 1.Desirable nutrition 2.Under-nutrition (not enough) 3.Over-nutrition (too much) - Amount of each nutrient needed to maintain a state of desirable nutrition is the basis for dietary intake recommendations - State of under-nutrition and over-nutrition are both considered to be malnutrition Under-nutrition: results from an inadequate diet Over-nutrition: results from a diet that is not moderate Under-nutrition - Intake of nutrients not meeting the body’s needs; body’s surplus is used and health declines - Early on: biochemical changes (subclinical) Example (iron): hemoglobin levels decrease, low hematocrit - Later: clinical symptoms develop Example (iron): decreased oxygen to tissues leads to fatigue - Can take years to develop clinical symptoms Over-nutrition - Short run: may cause few symptoms - Excess intake leads to a toxic amount of nutrients accumulated Vitamin A: can cause birth defects Calories: lead to obesity; increased risk of Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, some forms of cancer How is nutritional state measured? - Done by a physician or a registered dietician - Background factors determined: Family health history Medical history Medication intake Social history Level of education Economic status - Assessments: Anthropometric (physical measurements) Biochemical (blood tests, etc.) Clinical (changes in skin or body parts; physical symptoms) Dietary (literally analyzing the diet) Economic - Limitation: long period of time can elapse between the initial development of poor nutrition and the first clinical evidence of the problem Specific Nutrient Standards - The overarching of any healthy diet is to meet nutrient need - Must determine what amount of each essential nutrient is needed to maintain health - Standards are based on populations of healthy people Lactating women, pregnant women, men, women, children, etc. [these are examples of groups that are studied] Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) - Umbrella term for dietary standards Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) standard for adequacy Adequate Intake (AI) standard for adequacy Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) standard for caloric control Tolerable Upper Intake Limit (UL) standard for moderation Daily Value (DV) found on food labels; standard for adequacy and moderation Recommended Dietary Allowance Where standards are Frequen set so that 98% of a populationple cy of the shows that everyone has different needs Amount of nutrient to meet individual Recommendations for Food Choice - How do we translate the science of nutrition into practical terms? (i.e., what and how much do we eat?) - USDA (1950s): Four Food Groups Milk, Meat, Fruits and Vegetables, Bread and Cereal Food Guide Pyramid - 1992: Plan was illustrated using a pyramid shape - Still have food groups, but split fruits and vegetables into separate food groups - The base of the pyramid was group with the greatest recommended servings. The apex (top) of the pyramid had Fats, oils, groups with sweets recommended servings. Milk, yogurt, cheese Meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, nuts (proteins) Vegetabl es Fruits Breads, cereals, rice, pasta Recommended servings range: lower numbers for smaller people, higher numbers for larger people MyPyramid - 2005: USDA introduced MyPyramid (Steps to a Healthier You) - More individualized approach to improving diet and lifestyle - Goal: provide advice to live a longer, better and healthier lives - The logo is supposed to be : Interactive Personalized Encourage activity, as well as diet Show variety Show proportionality Show moderation Show gradual improvement - Basically, translated latest nutritional advice into 12 separate pyramids based on caloric needs (1000- 3200 Kcal/ day) Recommendations - Grains (1 oz. equivalent) 1 slice of bread, 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal - Meats and dried beans (1 oz. equivalent) 1 oz. meat, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon peanut butter, ¼ cup cooked dried beans, or ½ oz. nuts or seeds - Milk (1 cup) 1 cup yogurt, 1 ½ oz. natural cheese, 2 oz. processed cheese - Fruits (1 cup) 1 cup fruit juice, ½ cup dried fruits - Vegetables (1 cup) 1 cup raw or cooked vegetables, 2 cups raw leafy greens My Plate Dair y Fruits Veggies Grains Proteins Dietary Guidelines for Americans - MyPyramid/ MyPlate good for adequacy; need to make good choices for moderation - Most of major chronic “killer” diseases are not associated with nutrient deficiencies but rather with overconsumption of calories, saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, alcohol, or sodium 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans - 29 key recommendations to support three major goals Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight Consume more of certain foods and nutrients (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat- free/ low- fat dairy products, and seafood) Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains Food Labels - MUST HAVE: product name, name and address of manufacturer, amount of product in the package, and a list of ingredients in descending order by weight - List of certain food constituents on Nutrition Fact panel Nutrition Fact Panel - Serving size: must be consistent among similar foods - Included: Total calories Calories from fat Total fat Saturated fat Trans fat Cholesterol Sodium Total carbohydrates Fiber Sugar Protein Vitamin A Vitamin C Calcium Iron - Manufacturer can choose to list other nutrients as well THIS LABEL ASSUMES THAT THE PERSON IS CONSUMING 2000 CALORIES PER DAY New Regulations for Food Labels have been Proposed by the FDA - Will provide a greater understanding of Nutritional Science - Update serving size and new requirements for certain size packages - Refreshed design (same information for some things with a greater influence made by new nutrients that affect long-term health) - Should go into effect two years after approval Nutritional Claims - Closely regulated by the FDA - Good Source: serving contains 10-19% of DV (daily value) for a certain nutrient - Excellent Source: serving contains 20% or more of DV for a nutrient - Fat-free: a serving contains less than .5 grams of fat per serving (doesn’t necessarily mean that there is no fat, just less than that amount) - Low-fat: 3 grams or less of fat per serving - Reduced fat: at least 25% more fat per serving than reference food Scientific Method - How do we know what our nutrient need is? Answer: Scientific Research - Method: Observation (in professional sciences, this will also include reading the literature pertaining to the subject) Hypothesis Experiment (epidemiological, case-control, animal) Epidemiological: looking at associations between things Case-control: looking at the specifics behind a certain subject Animal Results (either support or refute hypothesis) Publish results in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. This becomes part of the scientific literature (i.e., a source for new observations) Most rigorous type of study is randomized double- blind, placebo controlled study (when participants don’t know if they are in the control group [placebo] or experimental)
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