KINS 2100, Week 4 Notes
KINS 2100, Week 4 Notes 2100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Christine Samson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
KINS 2100 Unit 2 02/04/2016 ▯ Chapter 6: Environmental Considerations Hyperthermia- has caused a lot of deaths in sports ▯ Heat stress: the elderly and the young are most susceptible They are either unaware of what’s happening to them or their body is less optimal in releasing heat Equipment and clothing in certain weather are important Metabolic Heat Production- heat the body generates off of general functions o Begins to increase as you start exercising Losing/Gaining Heat o Conductive Heat Exchange- losing heat when you come in contact with objects o Convective Heat Exchange- flow of a medium (air, water) around a body Radiant Heat Exchange- from the sun, increase in temperature Evaporation: a way to lose heat o Someone in a more humid environment would be less likely to dissipate heat o You need to make sure the individual always has the chance to cool themselves down through sweat ▯ Preventing Heat Illness Start hydrating 24 hours before an athletic event The darker the urine, the less hydration in the body; indicator of heat illness Should consume fluid at regular intervals Dehydration o Once you begin getting thirsty, you are already dehydrated o Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses begin to decrease the more you are dehydrated Using Sports Drinks- more effective because they have electrolytes and carbohydrates o Optimal carbohydrate level for uptake is 14g per 8 ounces of water Gradual Acclimatization: most effective method of avoiding heat stress o Equipment restrictions- gradually adding on pieces of equipment until they are acclimated to the heat with the amount of equipment they need to play o You must complete each day in order to go on to the next day with more equipment o Ideal period over 7-10 days; 80% can be achieved in first 5-6 days o Different considerations based off region Important to identify susceptible individuals o Someone with high muscle mass o Overweight individuals o Women are more efficient with body temperature regulation Uniform selection based on temperature and humidity Weight Records are relative to individual’s starting weight o Weight individual before and after practice ▯ Monitoring Heat Index WBGT- provides the objective measure that determines whether or not it’s safe to practice outdoors o Dry Bulb: standard mercury temperature o Wet Bulb: thermometer wet gauze o Black Bulb: radiant heat Once you use the formula, you can determine how practice needs to be altered in order to accommodate for the heat Psychrometer measures WBT and DBT ▯ Heat Illness/Injury: continuum based off of severity Heat Syncope (heat collapse): standing out side for a long period of time or overexposure to the sun and becoming fatigued o All of the blood goes to the extremities and leaves the brain, causing the individual to faint o Treat by bringing individual inside, keeping them in a cool environment, fluids, and laying down Heat Cramps: painful muscle spasms due to dehydration or electrolyte imbalance o Can occur in individuals in good shape o The next day individual feels extremely sore where the cramps occurred Exertional Heat Exhaustion: not replacing fluids adequately so can’t sustain adequate cardiac output o Symptoms: sweating, core temperature elevation (<104 degrees), pale skin o Replenish individual’s fluids immediately, remove them from environment, remove excess clothing o Monitor vital signs: pulse, blood pressure o Cannot participate until fully hydrated again Exertional Heat Stroke: most serious condition, life threatening if not treated appropriately o Core temperature becomes >104 degrees; this leads organs to “cook” inside body o The organs begin to shut down, heat is retained inside themselves; no longer able to regulate temperature on their own o Should be cooled as quickly as possible: ice water/ice bath Must cool until about 102 or 101 degrees Circulation of water with hand while in tub is good o Must call 911 Acute Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: destruction/degeneration of skeletal muscle o Individual begins to feel very weak during intense exercise o Can lead to kidney failure and death o Associated with individuals who have sickle cell disease Exertional Hyponatremia: an abnormally low concentration of sodium in the blood o Can result from too much fluid intake before, during, and after exercise or too little sodium in diet o Preventable—must maintain balance o Individuals will have extremely clear urine, headaches, swelling in extremities because of excess fluids ▯ Cold Injuries Hypothermia: must consider wind chill and how wet the area is; this will determine how safe the environment is to practice in o Problems arise when heat loss exceeds heat production Core temperature drops below 85-90 degrees: shivering stops and the body begins to shut down 75-80 degrees will result in death o Prevention: apparel 1 layer must be able to wick away sweat nd 2 layer should be insulating 3 layer should be water resistant Can be localized to a certain area which results in tissue damage Frost Nip: basic cold injury, limited exposure where you experience coldness in ears, nose, fingers, etc. o Severity depends on temperature and length of exposure Frostbite: Chilblains o Due to poor peripheral circulation o Superficial frostbite- skin and subcutaneous tissue: looks more pale and hard Re-warm gradually, submerge in warm water (not hot water) o Deep frostbite- frozen skin that causes cell tissue death Requires hospitalization ▯ Altitude As height increases, maximum oxygen decreases resulting in a decrease in performance Body compensates through tachycardia- fast heart beat, hyperventilation Illnesses: o Acute Mountain Sickness- headache, nausea, vomiting, sleep disturbance o Sickle Cell Trait Reaction- blood cannot uptake oxygen which leads to cell death Cause enlarged spleen which could possibly rupture ▯ ▯ ▯
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