Week 2--Lectures 3-5
Week 2--Lectures 3-5 Nutri Sci 132
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutri Sci 132 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Peter Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Food Security In Indigenous societies o Quantity of Available Food Plentiful 38% Adequate 46% Subsistence 12% Minimal 4% o Frequency of Food Shortage Annual 24% Rare 29% Occasional 24% Frequent 24% Food shortage seems to be a fact of life for the indigenous peoples o Extent of Food Shortage Mild 36% Moderate 34% Severe 29% o Scarcity Abundance Obesity comes from this because when food was scarce, people need to make the fat last, while now that food is not close to scarce the fat keeps piling on. Comparing Ancient and Modern Diets o Availability of food improved Contrasting Ancient and Modern Diets Availability improved Diet composition has changed o Gone from high in complex carbohydrates and fiber (ancient) to high fats and sugars and low fibers and carbohydrates (modern) Ancient death o Injury o Nutrient deficiency o Infectious disease Modern death o Nutrient excess o Less infectious disease o Chronic disease Cancer Heart Diabetes Nutrient Specific substance Essential o Necessary and vital You could die! More is not better. “Just right” is better o Can’t synthesize it 3 possible nutrient states o Deficient o Adequate o Toxic Likely will get from a supplement. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) o Covers about 98% of the population o Usually this is more than enough o This is meant for people in “normal good health” Dietary Guidelines Follow a healthy eating pattern o Appropriate calorie levels o Healthy body weight o Nutrient adequacy o Reducing the risk of chronic disease Focus on variety o nutrient density not many calories, high nutrients o amount Limit calories from… o Added sugars o Saturated fats (animal fats) Prevents heart disease o Reduce sodium intake (salt) High salt intakes contribute to high blood pressure and lead to strokes, heart problems, and heart disease o Moderation ***Big things: balance, moderation, and variety Shift to healthier food and beverage choices o Nutrient dense Support healthy patterns for all Key Recommendations** (Not in book) Consume a healthy eating pattern that accounts for all foods within an appropriate calorie level Patter o Variety of vegetables Dark green leafy Orange/yellow Legumes (beans) Starchy Other o Fruits o Grains At least half should be whole grains o Low fat milk products o Variety of proteins Lean meats Fish Legumes o Oils o d Limiting Saturated fat o Less than 10% daily intake Trans fat (processing) Both can cause heart disease^^ Sodium o High blood pressure o <2300 mg/day Added sugars o <10% of kcals Alcohol o Moderation o 1 drink/day women o 1-2 drink/day men Digestive Process Motility o Movement Peristalsis o Mixing Segmentation Secretion o Acids o Emulsifiers o Enzymes o Fluid Digestion o Chemical breakdown Absorption Mouth Chewing Saliva o Enzyme Amylase breaks down amylose (starch) Esophagus Peristalsis Stomach Churning Secretions o Acid-HCl Sterilizes food Denatures protein Protease Reservoir for the slow release of food. Mucus barrier o If this fails…ulcer
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