PSYCH 101 week 1-3 notes
PSYCH 101 week 1-3 notes PSYCH 101
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Bowman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
PSYCH Fri 1-‐24 www.learning-‐styles-‐online.com WHY SCIENCE? 1. Errors in thinking a. Unknown cause of behavior b. Pre-‐conceived notions c. Flawed memory d. Wrong heuristic e. Power of anecdotes 2. Science and science methods are tools – like white board markers – can be misused. 3. Introspection-‐ reflect upon own personal experiences a. Gives us information that’s subjective (your version on reality) b. Objective-‐ (free from personal bias) ( what really happened) 4. Errors in thinking not = to errors in judgment 5. Salient-‐ naturally draw your attention ( brain ignores whats not salient) a. Motion b. Bright color c. Loud/ intense d. Unusual/ unexpected 6. Unknown cause of behavior a. Reactance-‐ more external pressure-‐> more reactance ( do it more bc feels like our freedom is taken away aka rebel against pressure) 7. Pre-‐ conceived notions a. Human brain sees what they expect to see (takes in what they want to see, ignores what dont want to see) i. Lack of evidence doesn’t mean its true 8. Flawed Memory a. Short-‐ term memory – limited capacity i. Input=”encoding” ii. Not in memory= details ( not important ) b. Selective-‐ you decide what you remember (whats important to you/ internal) c. Scalene-‐ you don’t control what you remember (external control) Mon 1-‐27 1. Output > retrieval(reconstruction) > 1. plausible or 2. Outside influence • Output= retrieve info from long term memory • Reconstruction/retrieval -‐ start w/ scalene things &rebuild memory around it • Plausible= what seems real to you/ your version of what happened • Outside influence can influence your answer ( ex: hit or smash car) 2. Heuristic-‐ a. problem solving strategy ( shortcut, quick and easy to use) b. Not guarantee to give correct solution i. Availability heuristic -‐ easiest to access in memory a. Most recent heard/ most often ii. Representativeness heuristic-‐ shortcut based on stereotypes 3. Algorithm –take forever to get to right answer • guarantee to give correct solution 4. power of anecdotes • anecdotes-‐ personal story filled w/ emotion • brain can NOT be emotional and logical at same time (1 or other) i. reactants= emotional not logical Wed 1/29 ERRORS 1. Power of anecdotes 2. Illusory correlation a. Examples in the real world 3. The P.T. Barnum Effect Power of anecdotes • Emotions >(overrule) logic in critical thinking every time • Antidotes = way to have emotions cloud critical thinking • Small sample size Illusory correlation • Brain automatically connects/ simplify/ combine things close together in time and space even if they’re not connected o (magicians, superstitious behavior, lucky sneakers= relate things even though not realated) • If things separated in time and space= don’t make connections • Error= thinking sneakers= luck; Sneakers= perceived control o Thinking its lucky= you feel less stressed so do better on test; no sneakers= feel like going to do worse and distraught 1. Representativeness= stereotypes a. Gambler’s Fallacy = seeing a link that doesn’t exist • thinking 2 things are dependent of each other when they’re actually independent P.T Barnum • invented the sideshow – took something normal &make is sound extraordinary (man eating chicken = guy eating fried chicken) • horoscope – give info that apply to everyone all the time • hoaxing people (psychics) Fri 1/31 Errors P.T Barnum Research Methods – objectivity (free of personal bias) Goals of Science Techniques Goals of Science WHAT is happening? Objective description WHY will happen? • Prediction; when things will/ wont happen ( speeding and not getting ticket) • Control of variable o If A causes B, then control A (causal variables) *Science is naturally empirical (testable) * Techniques What/ objective description 1. Naturalistic observation – observe what happens in natural setting o Unobtrusive-‐ doesn’t get involved in event/ doesn’t change/taint natural setting o Hi frequency behaviors (repeated behaviors) and patterns of when it happens o Non-‐judgmental – don’t want opinion of what happened but the facts o Coding sheet (like spread sheet that categorize behaviors)-‐ give regularity/ guidelines to organize what you’re observing 2. Participant Observation – makes presence known/ make contact o Behavior changes bc of presence but you don’t know that 3. Self-‐ Report – ask ppl what they do o But ppl can be dishonest ; can go both ways o Anonymous questioning – gets more honest result Mon 2/3 START DOING PSYCH PAPER-‐ LOOK IN MAJOR NEWSPAPERS, MAGS ETC FOR SCIENCE RESEARCH-‐ LOOK FOR ARTICLE THAT HAS LINK TO ACTUAL RESEARCH ARTICLE ( 1 pg double space of summary of article, 1 pg review of the actual research article. 1-‐2 sent if research is right/ wrong. Psych: Brain function, how it works etc. no drug research; medicine Newspaper last year: Research Methods Techniques for Description/ WHAT 1. Naturalistic Observation o Coding Sheets 2. Participant Observation 3. Self-‐ Report o ANON. SURVEY /Haven’t seen actual behavior (don’t know if they actually did it) 4. Testing I. ASS/U/ME: o You have internal &stable characteristic (personality trait) o Trait causes behavior (shyness causes shy behavior) o Test can measure it II. Drug Test o (+) result = have it o (-‐) result = don’t have it o can be false +/-‐ ; Tests not perfectly accurate 5. Archival Research + Advantage: Huge sample size (millions) -‐-‐ Disadvantage: limited; cant go back and get more answers 6. Case Study -‐-‐ Very small sample size ( 1 person) + In depth examination of person ( trade quantity for quality) o Damage to 1 part of brain & see how behavior changes to see what that part of brain does Correlation – mathematical expression of degree of relationship between 2 variable *CORRELATON NOT = CAUSATION * Correlation coefficient: r Congruent (positive)= A act same as B ( ^A ^B) ( vA vB) = less hours study= lower GPA Inverse ( negative) : ( vA ^B) Less hours study, higher GPA -‐1.00 0 r=+.20 +1.00 strong weak strong Closer to 0= more inaccurate; if 0, not accurate WED 2/5 METHODS Correlation Experimentation Examples Biology of behavior Neurons-‐ structure and function Correlation: measuring A; measuring B Experimentation: manipulate A ; measure B Aà( covariation) B Causes Effect A X B Y Z Covary = A changes, B changes ; XYZ don’t change Pepsi coke experiement 1. formulate hypothesis ( educated guess) Aà B (fearà affiliation) 2. Define variables theoretical: broad/ vague; taking account specific details ( fearà affiliation) independent variable = A Dependent Variable= B 3. design procedure Operational: specifically what will do & how will do it ( fear what & how will scare them) physical fear psychoogical HI FEAR à want to be alone / want to be w/other LO FEARà -‐safe -‐repeatable -‐controlled (only change IV, independent variable) Theoretical independentà theoretical dependent ( heat à aggression) operational independentà operational dependint degree insults/ rating opponent HI temp – 105 LO temo-‐ 45 4. select subjects / convenience sample = randomly assign subject to conditions + large sample size both start off same if diff after experiment, you now why ( covariation)
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