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PSYCH 101 week 1-3 notes

by: Theint Myint

PSYCH 101 week 1-3 notes PSYCH 101

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8
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Class Notes
psych, PSYC, Psych 101, PSYC 101, Psychology, Intro to psych, Introduction to Psychology, bowman, cal state fullerton, CSUF





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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theint Myint on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Bowman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
PSYCH   Fri  1-­‐24     www.learning-­‐styles-­‐     WHY  SCIENCE?   1. Errors  in  thinking     a. Unknown  cause  of  behavior     b. Pre-­‐conceived  notions   c. Flawed  memory     d. Wrong  heuristic     e. Power  of  anecdotes   2. Science  and  science  methods  are  tools  –  like  white  board  markers  –  can  be   misused.   3. Introspection-­‐  reflect  upon  own  personal  experiences     a. Gives  us  information  that’s  subjective  (your  version  on  reality)   b. Objective-­‐  (free  from  personal  bias)  (  what  really  happened)   4. Errors  in  thinking  not  =  to  errors  in  judgment     5. Salient-­‐  naturally  draw  your  attention  (  brain  ignores  whats  not  salient)   a. Motion   b. Bright  color   c. Loud/  intense   d. Unusual/  unexpected   6. Unknown  cause  of  behavior     a. Reactance-­‐  more  external  pressure-­‐>  more  reactance     (  do  it  more  bc  feels  like  our  freedom  is  taken  away  aka  rebel  against   pressure)     7. Pre-­‐  conceived  notions     a. Human  brain  sees  what  they  expect  to  see  (takes  in  what  they  want  to   see,  ignores  what  dont  want  to  see)     i. Lack  of  evidence  doesn’t  mean  its  true     8. Flawed  Memory   a. Short-­‐  term  memory  –  limited  capacity     i. Input=”encoding”   ii. Not  in  memory=  details  (  not  important  )   b. Selective-­‐  you  decide  what  you  remember  (whats  important  to  you/   internal)   c. Scalene-­‐  you  don’t  control  what  you  remember  (external  control)     Mon  1-­‐27     1. Output  >  retrieval(reconstruction)  >  1.  plausible    or  2.  Outside  influence     • Output=  retrieve  info  from  long  term  memory     • Reconstruction/retrieval  -­‐  start  w/  scalene  things  &rebuild  memory  around   it     • Plausible=  what  seems  real  to  you/  your  version  of  what  happened   • Outside  influence  can  influence  your  answer  (  ex:  hit  or  smash  car)     2. Heuristic-­‐     a. problem  solving  strategy  (  shortcut,  quick  and  easy  to  use)     b. Not  guarantee  to  give  correct  solution     i. Availability  heuristic  -­‐  easiest  to  access  in  memory     a. Most  recent  heard/  most  often     ii. Representativeness  heuristic-­‐  shortcut  based  on  stereotypes     3. Algorithm  –take  forever  to  get  to  right  answer   •  guarantee  to  give  correct  solution     4. power  of  anecdotes     • anecdotes-­‐  personal  story  filled  w/  emotion     • brain  can  NOT  be  emotional  and  logical  at  same  time  (1  or  other)   i. reactants=  emotional  not  logical       Wed  1/29       ERRORS   1. Power  of  anecdotes     2. Illusory  correlation     a. Examples  in  the  real  world     3. The  P.T.  Barnum  Effect       Power  of  anecdotes     • Emotions  >(overrule)    logic  in  critical  thinking  every  time     • Antidotes  =  way  to  have  emotions  cloud  critical  thinking     • Small  sample  size         Illusory  correlation     • Brain  automatically  connects/  simplify/  combine  things  close  together  in   time  and  space  even  if  they’re  not  connected     o (magicians,  superstitious  behavior,  lucky  sneakers=  relate  things  even   though  not  realated)     • If  things  separated  in  time  and  space=  don’t  make  connections     • Error=  thinking  sneakers=  luck;  Sneakers=  perceived  control       o Thinking  its  lucky=  you  feel  less  stressed  so  do  better  on  test;  no   sneakers=  feel  like  going  to  do  worse  and  distraught     1. Representativeness=  stereotypes     a. Gambler’s  Fallacy  =  seeing  a  link  that  doesn’t  exist     • thinking  2  things  are  dependent  of  each  other  when  they’re   actually  independent     P.T  Barnum   • invented  the  sideshow  –  took  something  normal  &make  is  sound   extraordinary  (man  eating  chicken  =  guy  eating  fried  chicken)     • horoscope  –  give  info  that  apply  to  everyone  all  the  time     • hoaxing  people  (psychics)     Fri  1/31     Errors   P.T  Barnum       Research  Methods  –  objectivity  (free  of  personal  bias)   Goals  of  Science   Techniques     Goals  of  Science   WHAT  is  happening?   Objective  description   WHY  will  happen?   • Prediction;  when  things  will/  wont  happen  (  speeding  and  not  getting  ticket)   • Control  of  variable     o If  A  causes  B,  then  control  A  (causal  variables)     *Science  is  naturally  empirical  (testable)  *     Techniques   What/  objective  description     1. Naturalistic  observation  –  observe  what  happens  in  natural  setting     o Unobtrusive-­‐  doesn’t  get  involved  in  event/  doesn’t  change/taint   natural  setting     o Hi  frequency  behaviors  (repeated  behaviors)  and  patterns  of   when  it  happens     o Non-­‐judgmental  –  don’t  want  opinion  of  what  happened  but  the   facts   o Coding  sheet  (like  spread  sheet  that  categorize  behaviors)-­‐  give   regularity/  guidelines  to  organize  what  you’re  observing       2. Participant  Observation  –  makes  presence  known/  make  contact     o Behavior  changes  bc  of  presence  but  you  don’t  know  that     3. Self-­‐  Report  –  ask  ppl  what  they  do     o But  ppl  can  be  dishonest  ;  can  go  both  ways     o Anonymous  questioning  –  gets  more  honest  result     Mon  2/3    START  DOING  PSYCH  PAPER-­‐  LOOK  IN  MAJOR  NEWSPAPERS,  MAGS  ETC     FOR  SCIENCE  RESEARCH-­‐  LOOK  FOR  ARTICLE  THAT  HAS  LINK  TO  ACTUAL   RESEARCH  ARTICLE  (  1  pg  double  space  of  summary  of  article,  1  pg  review  of  the   actual  research  article.  1-­‐2  sent  if  research  is  right/  wrong.    Psych:  Brain  function,   how  it  works  etc.  no  drug  research;  medicine     Newspaper  last  year:       Research  Methods     Techniques  for  Description/  WHAT   1. Naturalistic  Observation     o Coding  Sheets     2. Participant  Observation   3. Self-­‐  Report     o ANON.  SURVEY  /Haven’t  seen  actual  behavior  (don’t  know  if   they  actually  did  it)   4. Testing     I. ASS/U/ME:   o You  have  internal  &stable  characteristic  (personality  trait)     o Trait  causes  behavior  (shyness  causes  shy  behavior)   o Test  can  measure  it     II. Drug  Test     o (+)  result  =  have  it     o (-­‐)  result  =  don’t  have  it     o can  be  false  +/-­‐        ;  Tests  not  perfectly  accurate     5. Archival  Research     +        Advantage:  Huge  sample  size  (millions)   -­‐-­‐      Disadvantage:  limited;  cant  go  back  and  get  more  answers   6. Case  Study     -­‐-­‐        Very  small  sample  size  (  1  person)     +        In  depth  examination  of  person  (  trade  quantity  for  quality)     o Damage  to  1  part  of  brain  &  see  how  behavior  changes  to   see  what  that  part  of  brain  does       Correlation  –  mathematical  expression  of  degree  of  relationship  between  2  variable       *CORRELATON  NOT  =  CAUSATION  *     Correlation  coefficient:  r     Congruent  (positive)=  A  act  same  as  B  (  ^A    ^B)       (  vA  vB)  =  less  hours  study=  lower  GPA     Inverse  (  negative)  :  (  vA  ^B)           Less  hours  study,  higher  GPA           -­‐1.00     0   r=+.20     +1.00       strong     weak       strong             Closer  to  0=  more  inaccurate;  if  0,  not  accurate     WED  2/5     METHODS   Correlation     Experimentation     Examples   Biology  of  behavior     Neurons-­‐  structure  and  function         Correlation:  measuring  A;  measuring  B     Experimentation:  manipulate  A  ;  measure  B                                Aà(  covariation)    B     Causes     Effect     A     X     B     Y     Z     Covary  =  A  changes,  B  changes  ;  XYZ  don’t  change         Pepsi  coke  experiement     1.  formulate  hypothesis  (  educated  guess)       Aà  B       (fearà  affiliation)     2.  Define  variables       theoretical:  broad/  vague;  taking  account  specific  details           (  fearà  affiliation)     independent  variable  =  A     Dependent  Variable=  B     3.  design  procedure       Operational:  specifically  what  will  do  &  how  will  do  it           (  fear  what  &  how  will  scare  them)                physical  fear                              psychoogical   HI  FEAR  à  want  to  be  alone  /        want  to  be  w/other     LO  FEARà         -­‐safe     -­‐repeatable     -­‐controlled  (only  change  IV,  independent  variable)       Theoretical  independentà  theoretical  dependent     (  heat  à  aggression)       operational  independentà  operational  dependint       degree         insults/  rating  opponent       HI  temp  –  105       LO  temo-­‐  45       4.  select  subjects  /  convenience  sample  =  randomly  assign  subject  to  conditions  +                     large  sample  size       both  start  off  same     if  diff  after  experiment,  you  now  why  (  covariation)                


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