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Concepts week 3 notes

by: kmb0095

Concepts week 3 notes SCMH 1010 - 002

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concepts notes
Concepts of Science
Allen Lee Landers
Class Notes
Concepts of Science




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by kmb0095 on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCMH 1010 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Allen Lee Landers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Science in Science at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
1/27/16  Mathematics: the language of science o Description  General  Mathematical o Mathematics  Equation  Description  Fact, hypothesis, laws, and theories o Fact  Confirmed observation  Objects fall  Iron rusts  There are different species of plants and animals  There are other stars and galaxies o Hypothesis  Educated guess o Law  Description of nature  Law of gravity o Theory  Well-substantiated description  Newton’s Theory of Movement  Relativity Theorem  Theory of Chemical Reactions  Theory of Evolution  Theory of Big Bang Which of the following statements would be true of a theory? The word theory in science can refer to an unproven hypothesis or one that has been tested many times and not disproven (Landers); the word theory in science is only used when a hypothesis has been tested many times and not disproven (book)  Occam’s Razor o A principle attributed to the 14 century English logician, theologian and Franciscan friar William of Ockham o The simplest explanation is usually the correct one. Here, simplest referring to the theory with the fewest new assumptions  Prediction and Testing o Predictions  Hypothesis, theory, law  Must be quantitatively testable o Testing  Do not prove or disprove immediately  Define range of validity  Classical mechanics/quantum mechanics o Every law and theory of nature is subject to change, based on new observations  We don’t believe this or believe that, we have evidence that shows us  The scientific method in operation o Cycle  Not rigid o Believe results  No fixed preconceptions o No true starting place o Results must be reproducible o Cycle is continuous  The ongoing process of science o Dynamic process of scientific research  Science in the making o Dimitri Mendeleev and the Periodic Table  The science of life o William Harvey and the blood’s circulation  Pseudoscience o Believe, dogma o Ideas not testable o Evaluation of a claim  Are the ‘facts’ true as stated?  Is there an alternative explanation?  Is the claim falsifiable?  Have claims been tested?  Do claims require unreasonable changes in accepted ideas? o Fortune telling 1/29/16  The Ordered Universe (ch.2) o Great Idea: Newton’s laws of motion and gravity predict the behavior of objects on Earth and in space o Fundamental idea  Physical events are quantifiable and therefore predictable  Throw something up for a second, it falls  Do it again, it’ll have the same result  Without the predictability of physical events, pursing science is not possible o The night sky  Movement of stars, planets, sun was key for survival of ancestors  Astronomy – first science  Ancient observers  Physical events are quantifiable and therefore predictable o Stonehenge, Wiltshire, UK  Aligned to know when summer solstice is  Midsummer solstice is easier to observe than equinox  What did the builders of Stonehenge actually accomplish? Demonstrated that some natural events are predictable o Sun Dagger – Chaco Canyon, NM  Sun dagger at equinox o Chichen Itza, Yucatan, MX  Snake image at the equinox at El Castillo o Astronomy and time  Why is a day about 24 hours? Related to the rotation of the earth on its axis  Why is a month about 30 days? Related to the motion of the moon around the earth (moon orbits the earth in ~30 days, earth orbits the sun in ~365 day)  Why is a year about 365 days? Related to the motion of the earth around the sun ^^ o The historical background:  Aristotle (~350 BC)  Aristotle was the final word on any scientific question th  influenced scientific thought until the end of the 17 century  believed that the natural state of object was to be at rest  Ptolemy (2 ndcentury AD)  First planetary model  Earth at center, stationary  Stars and planets revolved around earth  Geocentric Model  “geo” = “earth” o planetary motion – changing ideas  geocentric view persisted for almost 2000 years until being challenged in the 1500s  Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) o “Heliocentric model” – sun at the center o 1543: On the Revolutions of the Spheres  published after death for fear of the church  Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) o “first observatory” o did highly detailed observations of planet motion WITHOUT a telescope o showed that Ptolemy’s geocentric model had flaws: why should planets back up on their paths? o Introduction to the new astronomy (1588)  Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) o “laws of planetary motion” o used Tycho’s observations to develop the laws of planetary motion o A New Astronomy – 1609 o A strong endorsement of the Copernicus (heliocentric) view o 3 laws:  the orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the two foci  a line segment joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time  the square of the orbital period of a planet if proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit What were the two models that were used to describe the motion of the planets? Geocentric and Heliocentric o The Birth of Mechanics  Galileo Galilei  “first true astronomer”  Mechanics: motions of material objects  Mathematics professor, inventor  First to record observations with telescope o Supported Copernicus’ view o Observed moons of Jupiter o Measured speed of light o Science in the Making  The Heresy Trial of Galileo (~1610)  Heliocentric model contrasted both established church dogma and writing in the Old Testament  Galileo almost got burnt at the stake o Giordano Bruno burnt at stake in 1600 for teaching Copernicus’ model  First clash bw science and religious dogma  350 years later, Galileo’s findings were accepted by the church


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