PSYC 1000 - Week 3 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 3 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
PSYC 1000 Notes Week 3 Jan 2529 Notes from Textbook Neural and Hormonal Systems (p. 5165) Phrenology: studying bumps on the skull Localization of function: various brain regions have specific functions Biological perspective: concerned with links between biology and behavior Neurons: nerve cells Dendrites: receive information Axon: passes message to other neurons Insulated by myelin sheath Glial cells: support nerve cells and participate in information transmission Action potential: brief electrical charge emitted by neurons Neurons generate electricity from chemical events Excitatory: increasing resultant reactions Inhibitory: decreasing resultant reactions If excitatory signals exceed inhibitory signals by a certain threshold, the combined signals trigger an action potential Refractory period: resting phase in between firing action potentials Allornone response: neurons either fire or they don't Neurotransmitters Endorphins: natural neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure Agonist molecules: increase a neurotransmitter's action Antagonist molecules: decrease a neurotransmitter's action Central nervous system: made up of neural networks and spinal chord Neural networks: work groups into which neurons are clustered Reflexes: automatic responses to stimuli Endocrine system: a chemical communication system that secretes hormones Slower than nervous system Effects last longer than nervous system Hormones: chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream Adrenal glands: endocrine glands above the kidneys that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline) Pituitary gland: endocrine glands that regulate growth and control other endocrine glands Tools of Discovery and Older Brain Structures (p. 6673) Mapping the brain Scientists can lesion (destroy) or stimulate tiny clusters of brain cells Electroencephalogram (EEG): readout of electrical activity waves PET (position emission tomography) scan: visual display of brain activity by showing consumption of glucose MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): uses magnetic fields to produce images of brain structure fMRI: shows functioning as well as structure Ventricles: fluidfilled brain areas Brain structures Brainstem: central core of brain, responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla: base of brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing Thalamus: brain's sensory control center, receives and transmits information Reticular formation: nerve network that controls arousal Cerebellum: processes sensory input, coordination, and memory Limbic system Hippocampus: processes memories for storage Amygdala: linked to emotion, aggression, and fear Hypothalamus: directs maintenance activities (eating, drinking), helps govern endocrine system, linked to emotion and reward Cerebral Cortex and Divided Brain (p. 7489) Cerebral cortex: fabric of neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; control and informationprocessing center Frontal lobes: behind the forehead, controls movement and judgment Motor cortex: control voluntary movements Parietal lobes: at the top and to the rear, controls sensory input for touch Somatosensory cortex: registers touch and movement Occipital lobes: back of the head, controls visual information Temporal lobes: above the ears, controls auditory information Association areas: areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher mental functions, instead of motor or sensory functions Found in all four lobes Plasticity: brain's ability to modify itself after damage Reorganization: ability to change and create new pathways Neurogenesis: formation of new neurons Divided brain Corpus collosum: band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres, which shares information across the hemispheres Split brains: brains whose corpus collosum is severed Leaves the patient with "two separate minds" Left hemisphere can make quick, literal interpretations of language (speech and calculation) Right hemisphere excels in making inferences, helps modulate speech, and helps orchestrate selfawareness Experience and Brain Development (p. 1523) Enriched environments and parenting can help babies develop faster neurologically and gain weight more rapidly Plasticity allows the brain to constantly change and react to new experiences The Brain and Language (p. 3768) Aphasia: impairment of language caused by damage to the left hemisphere in Wernicke's area or Broca's area Broca's area: left frontal lobe, linked to language expression Wernicke's area: left temporal lobe, linked to language reception: comprehension and expression Brain divides language processing into sub functions like speaking, thinking, remembering, and perceiving Notes from lecture Organization of the nervous system Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Somatic division Carries messages from senses to CNS, then to skeletal muscles Conscious sensations Voluntary movements Autonomic division Carries messages between CNS and internal organs Sympathetic: activates body (fight or flight: responses to threat) Parasympathetic: calms the body (rest and digestion) Central nervous system (CNS) Spinal Chord Column of neurons Communication between brain and PNS Brain Brainstem: hindbrain and midbrain; essential for life Medulla (hindbrain) Heartbeat, breathing Reticular formation (hindbrain and midbrain) Consciousness Cerebellum Balance, movement, learning, memory Ventricles: fluidfilled spaces in the brain Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Surrounds brain and spinal chord Forebrain Larger in humans than in other species Fissure separates into right and left hemispheres Mirror images, paired cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum: connects hemispheres Each hemisphere controls opposite half of body Paired structures Thalamus Sensory relay station Limbic system (memory and emotion) Hypothalamus Autonomic, pituitary, and endocrine control Motivated behaviors and maintenance functions Eating, sleep, temperature Hippocampus Memory Amygdala Generates proper emotional response to stimuli Basal ganglia Motor functions Parkinson’s, Tourette's, OCD Cerebral cortex Outer surface of brain Gray matter made up of neuron cell bodies Folds and cognitive complexity in humans Increased surface area Gyri: bumps (Gyrus: 1 bump) Fissures/sulci: grooves (Sulcus: 1 groove) Lobes of the forebrain Frontal Primary motor cortex Voluntary movement Contralateral control (left hemisphere controls right side of body) Parietal Primary somatosensory cortex Sensory information from skin Touch, temperature, pain, pressure Contralateral input (left hemisphere gets sensory info from right side of body) Temporal Primary auditory cortex Occipital Primary visual cortex Association areas of the cortex Integration, more complex processing Involved in higher level function Prefrontal cortex Thinking, planning, emotional regulation Phineas Gage discovered functions Language association areas Aphasia: results from damage to the language association areas, involves problems understanding/producing language Broca's area (left frontal) Broca's aphasia (Expressive aphasia/Non fluent aphasia): lose the ability to express themselves fluently (spoken and written); slow but meaningful speech Can count or sing without problems Severe form: can only speak with one/two syllables Wernicke's area (left temporal) Wernicke's aphasia (Receptive aphasia/Fluent aphasia): difficulty with language comprehension; nonsensical speech Result of a tumor or injury Can say common phrases Lateralization of function: one hemisphere controls a function more than the other does Hemispheric specialization Language (strongly lateralized to left hemisphere) Splitbrain patients: show effects of lateralization Severed corpus callosum to control epilepsy Hemispheres act semiindependently Testing procedure: exhibit information to one hemisphere at a time Left visual field/right hemisphere/left hand Right visual field/left hemisphere/right hand Left hemisphere: words, language Right hemisphere: illustrations Alien/renegade left hand: left hand/side does things that the left hemisphere doesn't want it to do Plasticity: ability of the brain to change as the result of an experience, reorganize after damage Environment shapes brain Alteration of synaptic connections with experience Reorganization occurs after damage, usually no replacement of neurons when neurons die (other neurons take on function of neurons that die, may or may not be capable of this) Children's brains demonstrate greater plasticity than adults because their neurons haven't fully specialized Children have extra neurons Hemispherectomy can be performed on children if they have several seizures a day/aren't responding to medication Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Overview Sensation: process by which stimulation of sensory receptors leads to messages to the brain/CNS Perception: brain's interpretation of sensory messages Sensation without perception is common Perception without sensation include hallucination, dreaming, optical illusion Sensory system functions Detect environmental energy Sensory receptors: specialized cells that detect certain forms of environmental energy (light, temperature) Adaptation: decreased response to unchanging stimulation Encode environmental energy Transduction: translate info about environmental energy into patterns of action potentials Give the brain info about quality and intensity of stimuli Relay info to brain Sensory nerves, thalamus, cortex Nerve: bundle of fibers that transmits sensation to the CNS Sensory energy Light and sound travel in waves Wavelength: the length of one complete wave (or the distance between two peaks) Related to color Frequency: number of waves that pass a certain point in space per second (or other unit of time) Amplitude: height of waves Related to perception of loudness/brightness High amplitude > brighter Vision Light: electromagnetic radiation Visible light spectrum for humans is ~400750 nm/s Window decals that reflect UV light prevent birds from flying into windows: visible to birds but not humans
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