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PSYC 1000 - Week 3 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 3 Notes Psyc 1000-04

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psyc 1000-04 > PSYC 1000 Week 3 Notes
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Notes from Lecture and Textbook
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
Rollins, Introductory Psychology, psych
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
PSYC 1000 Notes Week 3 Jan 25­29 Notes from Textbook Neural and Hormonal Systems (p. 51­65) ­ Phrenology: studying bumps on the skull ­ Localization of function: various brain regions have specific functions ­ Biological perspective: concerned with links between biology and behavior ­ Neurons: nerve cells ­ Dendrites: receive information ­ Axon: passes message to other neurons ­ Insulated by myelin sheath ­ Glial cells: support nerve cells and participate in information transmission ­ Action potential: brief electrical charge emitted by neurons ­ Neurons generate electricity from chemical events ­ Excitatory: increasing resultant reactions ­ Inhibitory: decreasing resultant reactions ­ If excitatory signals exceed inhibitory signals by a certain threshold, the  combined signals trigger an action potential ­ Refractory period: resting phase in between firing action potentials ­ All­or­none response: neurons either fire or they don't ­ Neurotransmitters ­ Endorphins: natural neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure ­ Agonist molecules: increase a neurotransmitter's action ­ Antagonist molecules: decrease a neurotransmitter's action ­ Central nervous system: made up of neural networks and spinal chord ­ Neural networks: work groups into which neurons are clustered ­ Reflexes: automatic responses to stimuli ­ Endocrine system: a chemical communication system that secretes hormones ­ Slower than nervous system ­ Effects last longer than nervous system ­ Hormones: chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream ­ Adrenal glands: endocrine glands above the kidneys that secrete  epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline) ­ Pituitary gland: endocrine glands that regulate growth and control other  endocrine glands Tools of Discovery and Older Brain Structures (p. 66­73) ­ Mapping the brain ­ Scientists can lesion (destroy) or stimulate tiny clusters of brain cells ­ Electroencephalogram (EEG): readout of electrical activity waves ­ PET (position emission tomography) scan: visual display of brain  activity by showing consumption of glucose ­ MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): uses magnetic fields to produce  images of brain structure ­ fMRI: shows functioning as well as structure ­ Ventricles: fluid­filled brain areas ­ Brain structures ­ Brainstem: central core of brain, responsible for automatic survival  functions ­ Medulla: base of brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing ­ Thalamus: brain's sensory control center, receives and transmits  information ­ Reticular formation: nerve network that controls arousal ­ Cerebellum: processes sensory input, coordination, and memory ­ Limbic system ­ Hippocampus: processes memories for storage ­ Amygdala: linked to emotion, aggression, and fear ­ Hypothalamus: directs maintenance activities (eating, drinking),  helps govern endocrine system, linked to emotion and reward  Cerebral Cortex and Divided Brain (p. 74­89) ­ Cerebral cortex: fabric of neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; control and information­processing center ­ Frontal lobes: behind the forehead, controls movement and judgment ­ Motor cortex: control voluntary movements ­ Parietal lobes: at the top and to the rear, controls sensory input for touch ­ Somatosensory cortex: registers touch and movement ­ Occipital lobes: back of the head, controls visual information ­ Temporal lobes: above the ears, controls auditory information ­ Association areas: areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher mental functions, instead of motor or sensory functions ­ Found in all four lobes ­ Plasticity: brain's ability to modify itself after damage ­ Reorganization: ability to change and create new pathways ­ Neurogenesis: formation of new neurons ­ Divided brain ­ Corpus collosum: band of neural fibers connecting the two brain  hemispheres, which shares information across the hemispheres ­ Split brains: brains whose corpus collosum is severed ­ Leaves the patient with "two separate minds" ­ Left hemisphere can make quick, literal interpretations of language  (speech and calculation) ­ Right hemisphere excels in making inferences, helps modulate speech,  and helps orchestrate self­awareness Experience and Brain Development (p. 152­3) ­ Enriched environments and parenting can help babies develop faster  neurologically and gain weight more rapidly ­ Plasticity allows the brain to constantly change and react to new  experiences The Brain and Language (p. 376­8) ­ Aphasia: impairment of language caused by damage to the left hemisphere in  Wernicke's area or Broca's area ­ Broca's area: left frontal lobe, linked to language expression ­ Wernicke's area: left temporal lobe, linked to language reception:  comprehension and expression ­ Brain divides language processing into sub functions like speaking, thinking,  remembering, and perceiving Notes from lecture Organization of the nervous system ­ Peripheral nervous system (PNS) ­ Somatic division ­ Carries messages from senses to CNS, then to skeletal muscles ­ Conscious sensations ­ Voluntary movements ­ Autonomic division ­ Carries messages between CNS and internal organs ­ Sympathetic: activates body (fight or flight: responses to threat) ­ Parasympathetic: calms the body (rest and digestion) ­ Central nervous system (CNS) ­ Spinal Chord ­ Column of neurons ­ Communication between brain and PNS ­ Brain ­ Brainstem: hindbrain and midbrain; essential for life ­ Medulla (hindbrain) ­ Heartbeat, breathing ­ Reticular formation (hindbrain and midbrain) ­ Consciousness ­ Cerebellum ­ Balance, movement, learning, memory ­ Ventricles: fluid­filled spaces in the brain ­ Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ­ Surrounds brain and spinal chord ­ Forebrain ­ Larger in humans than in other species ­ Fissure separates into right and left hemispheres ­ Mirror images, paired cerebral hemispheres ­ Corpus callosum: connects hemispheres ­ Each hemisphere controls opposite half of body ­ Paired structures ­ Thalamus ­ Sensory relay station ­ Limbic system (memory and emotion) ­ Hypothalamus ­ Autonomic, pituitary, and  endocrine control ­ Motivated behaviors and  maintenance  functions ­ Eating, sleep, temperature ­ Hippocampus ­ Memory  ­ Amygdala ­ Generates proper emotional  response to stimuli ­ Basal ganglia ­ Motor functions ­ Parkinson’s, Tourette's, OCD ­ Cerebral cortex ­ Outer surface of brain ­ Gray matter made up of neuron cell bodies ­ Folds and cognitive complexity in humans ­ Increased surface area ­ Gyri: bumps (Gyrus: 1 bump) ­ Fissures/sulci: grooves (Sulcus: 1 groove) ­ Lobes of the forebrain ­ Frontal ­ Primary motor cortex ­ Voluntary movement ­ Contralateral control (left  hemisphere controls right side of  body) ­ Parietal ­ Primary somatosensory cortex ­ Sensory information from skin ­ Touch, temperature, pain, pressure ­ Contralateral input (left hemisphere gets sensory info from right side of body) ­ Temporal ­ Primary auditory cortex ­ Occipital ­ Primary visual cortex ­ Association areas of the cortex ­ Integration, more complex processing ­ Involved in higher level function ­ Prefrontal cortex ­ Thinking, planning, emotional regulation ­ Phineas Gage discovered functions ­ Language association areas ­ Aphasia: results from damage to the language  association areas, involves problems understanding/producing language ­ Broca's area (left frontal) ­ Broca's aphasia (Expressive aphasia/Non­ fluent aphasia): lose the ability to express themselves fluently (spoken and written); slow  but meaningful speech ­ Can count or sing without problems ­ Severe form: can only speak with  one/two syllables ­ Wernicke's area (left temporal) ­ Wernicke's aphasia (Receptive  aphasia/Fluent aphasia): difficulty with language comprehension; nonsensical speech ­ Result of a tumor or injury ­ Can say common phrases ­ Lateralization of function: one hemisphere controls a  function more than the other does  ­ Hemispheric specialization ­ Language (strongly lateralized to left hemisphere) ­ Split­brain patients: show effects of lateralization ­ Severed corpus callosum to control epilepsy ­ Hemispheres act semi­independently ­ Testing procedure: exhibit information to one  hemisphere at a time ­ Left visual field/right hemisphere/left hand ­ Right visual field/left hemisphere/right hand ­ Left hemisphere: words, language ­ Right hemisphere: illustrations ­ Alien/renegade left hand: left hand/side does  things that the left hemisphere doesn't want it to do ­ Plasticity: ability of the brain to change as the result of an  experience, reorganize after damage ­ Environment shapes brain ­ Alteration of synaptic connections with experience ­ Reorganization occurs after damage, usually no  replacement of neurons when neurons die (other neurons take on function of neurons that  die, may or may not be capable of this) ­ Children's brains demonstrate greater plasticity than  adults because their neurons haven't fully specialized ­ Children have extra neurons ­ Hemispherectomy can be performed on  children if they have several seizures a day/aren't responding to medication Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Overview ­ Sensation: process by which stimulation of sensory receptors leads to messages  to the brain/CNS ­ Perception: brain's interpretation of sensory messages ­ Sensation without perception is common ­ Perception without sensation include hallucination, dreaming, optical illusion ­ Sensory system functions ­ Detect environmental energy ­ Sensory receptors: specialized cells that detect certain forms of  environmental energy (light, temperature) ­ Adaptation: decreased response to unchanging stimulation ­ Encode environmental energy ­ Transduction: translate info about environmental energy into  patterns of action potentials ­ Give the brain info about quality and intensity of stimuli ­ Relay info to brain ­ Sensory nerves, thalamus, cortex ­ Nerve: bundle of fibers that transmits sensation to the CNS ­ Sensory energy ­ Light and sound travel in waves ­ Wavelength: the length of one complete wave (or the distance  between two peaks) ­ Related to color ­ Frequency: number of waves that pass a certain point in space per second (or other unit of time) ­ Amplitude: height of waves  ­ Related to perception of loudness/brightness ­ High amplitude ­­> brighter ­ Vision ­ Light: electromagnetic radiation ­ Visible light spectrum for humans is ~400­750 nm/s ­ Window decals that reflect UV light prevent birds from flying into  windows: visible to birds but not humans


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