Ch. 8 notes
Ch. 8 notes 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Ball State University taught by Metzger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Journalism in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 8 J101 Television. 1. People spend more time watching than any other media. a. Tele = distance. b. Vision = viewing. 2. Functions. a. Not as entertainment first. b. Used to spread information need. c. Replaced radio, which replaces newspapers. d. Powerful medium. e. Entertainment. f. Surveillance. i. Watch for latest news. 3. Distributed. a. Broadcast. b. Cable. c. Satellite. d. DVD. e. Netflix. 4. Subscriptions. a. HBO. i. Pay extra fee because satellite pays for it. ii. Didn’t catch on until 1970s (originally in 1943). iii. First national pay TV network. b. DirectTV. i. 1994. ii. ++200 channels. c. CNN. i. First broadcast- June 1, 1980. ii. First war- Operation Desert Storm. Digital VS. HDTV On-demand services; free of advertising. Higher resolution; most shows are HD today. 5. History: TV Milestone. a. Television is born. i. “Radio with pictures”. ii. Sparked throughout the 1920s and 1930s. b. Demand for television channels grew so fast that the FCC put a “temporary” freeze on new stations in 1948 while it came up with a plan that it hoped would ensure plenty of viewing choices for everyone. i. Cable television systems sprang up to distribute signals from distant cities to the residents of small cities and towns without stations of their own. Chapter 8 J101 ii. Had the effect of limiting almost everyone’s choices to three (NBC, CBS, and ABC) for decades to come. c. Television was a “social medium” of sorts. d. By the mid-1950s television was the leading advertising medium in the United States, ahead of radio, newspapers, and magazines. 6. The Golden Age. a. Tribute to live drama anthologies. i. Different storyline and characters each week and often dealt with through-provoking subject matter. b. News and public affair programs were also hallmarks. 7. Into the Wasteland. a. The Golden Age audience shifted and ratings ruled. b. Advertising practices changed so that sponsors could purchase minute- long “spots” rather than entire programs. i. This focused attention on “buying” audiences by the thousands, and programs that appealed to refined, but uncommon, tastes had prohibitively high costs on the basis. c. As television influences grew, its power to offend audiences and degrade culture as well as to entertain and enlighten became evident. d. 1961, FCC Chairman Newton Minow called America television a “vast wasteland” of mediocre, uninformative programs. 8. Television Goes to Washington. a. The FCC imposed the Financial Interest in Syndication Rules in 1970. i. Push the networks out of the syndication businesses through which they profited from reruns of popular shows. b. 1975, the Justice Department put limits on the number of hours of entertainment programming the networks could make in-house. c. The FCC’s Sixth Report and Order. i. Allocated hundreds of channels nationwide for noncommercial educational television. d. Public Broadcasting Act of 1967. i. Established a Corporation for Public Broadcasting to finance programing for federal tax refunds. e. Public Broadcasting Service in 1969. i. Distribute programs to public stations. 9. The Rise of Cable. a. Spread as cable operators built networks of microwave antennas that picked up broadcasts from major market television stations and relayed their signals to smaller communities. b. Expand by amplifying old program formulas to entire channels and further recycling old reruns of the Big Three. c. VCRs appeared in 1975. 10.The Big Three in Decline. a. Cable TV extended the audience coverage and economic viability of UHF stations, and the FCC increased the number of stations on corporation could own. i. Made it feasible to create a national television network built around a collection of major market UHF stations. 1. Vertical integration. Chapter 8 J101 b. The new networks largely imitated the Big Three, even further pushing the bounds of good taste with offbeat family comedies and sexy youth- orientated shows. c. 1992 Cable Act. i. Forced cable programmers to offer their services on an equitable basis to competing distribution systems. d. Telecommunications Act of 1996. i. Relaxed media ownership rules and triggered a merger binge that married broadcast networks to cable television, music, print publishing, internet enterprises, and movie studios. 11.Television in the Information Age. a. Inter related changes in technology, audience behavior, industry structure, and economics are transforming the television medium. i. The spread of DVRs and iPads, streaming video sites, video games, and new social media options have freed audiences from the tyranny of broadcast television schedules. b. Internet ads had replaced the television spot as the staple of advertising. c. Streaming video over the internet and smartphones is beginning to threaten both conventional broadcast and cable distribution with the prospect of “cord cutting”. i. Viewers switch to online sources for their video fare. 12.Technology Trends: From a Single Point of Light. a. Paul Nipkow i. 1884. ii. Pixels. b. 1941 the National Television System Committee (NTSC). i. Set the technological standards that defined the analog television service in the United States and much of the rest of the world for the next 7 decades. 13.Digital Television is here. a. The original goal of digital television was to improve the viewing experience by making the picture seem clearer and wider and sound better. b. Digital television has also produced new viewing options in the form of on-demand video. i. More and more television is being delivered as internet data streams through high-speed connections. 14.Video Recording. a. The key development that paved the way for home VCR was helical scanning. b. Video-on-demand services offered by cable and satellite companies and streaming video internet services aim to make home recording technologies obsolete. 15.Video Production Trends. a. Digital graphics, special effects, and computer animation are also becoming routine. Chapter 8 J101 i. Migrating from specialized studio equipment to personal computers so that what once required a professional editing suite can migrate to an ordinary desktop. 16.Interactive TV. a. Today, the DVR offers limited forms of modifying the content such as “skipping” commercials and getting instant replays. 17.Internet TV. a. Social media are providing to be a way to attract and hold a highly involved audience. b. The integrations of computer ad television technology may also make the television remote obsolete. 18.3-D TV. a. First appeared in the United States in 2010. b. Relies on ticking the brain into thinking it sees a three-dimensional object on a flat screen by flashing slightly different views of the picture to the left and right of the eyes. 19.Industry: Who Runs the Show? a. Once-clear separation between the companies that produce, distribute, and exhibit television programs locally have been erased by industry deregulation, converging technologies, and a wave of mergers and buyouts. i. Apple ii. Microsoft. iii. Netflix. iv. Google. v. Amazon. vi. Verizon. 20.Inside the Big Five. a. Dominant television. i. Time Warner. ii. Disney. iii. National Amusement (Viacom/ CBS). iv. News Corp. v. Comcast. 1. Vertically integrated conglomerates that combine film and video production, national and local distribution, and other media properties under a single corporate umbrella. 21.Video Production. a. Entertainment. b. Network News. c. Local News. d. Sports. e. Public TV. f. Cable Production. 22.National Television Distribute. a. Commercial broadcast networks all develop and schedule programs for national audiences, distribute them to their local affiliates via satellite, and profit from the sale of spots to national advertisers. i. CBS. Chapter 8 J101 ii. NBC. iii. ABC. iv. Fox. v. The CW. vi. MyNetworkTV. vii. Ion. viii. Univision. b. The Big Five media conglomerates control many of the leading cable channels. 23.Local television Distribution. a. To prevent monopolization, limits were set on the number of stations ne group could own. b. The Big Five are also group owners. c. Network affiliation is desirable because of the ratings draw of prime- time shows. 24.Noncommercial Stations. a. There are over 350 public television stations. 25.Television Advertisers. a. Advertisers spend about $13 billion a year on television network advertising and another $19 billion on cable networks. b. Several basic types of television advertisers with differing needs. 26.Genres: What’s on TV? a. Genres evolve to pursue audiences that interest advertisers and also in the response to changing economics of production. 27.Broadcast Network Genres. a. Television genres continue to develop over time in response to changes in audience tastes and original creative ideas. 28.What is on Cable? a. Narrowcasting. b. Other channels are built around audience characteristic. 29.Programing Strategies. a. The underlying assumption of program scheduling has long been that television viewing is a deeply ingrained habit that most people sit down to watch television as opposed to specific programs. i. Key to rating success is to be the least objectionable choice among the many programs offered at a particular time of the day. 30.The New Television Hegemony. a. Horizontal integration. b. The Big Five influence culture as well as public affairs. i. Diversity in entertainment might be improved through rules assuring more diverse ownership of television stations, but those rules also have been eliminated. 31.Children and television. a. 1996 Telecommunications Act. i. Required a v-chip that enables viewers to block programing, via and electronically encoded system that works off voluntary content ratings supplied by the networks. ii. Children’s Television Act in 1990.
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