Anatomy & Physiology I
Anatomy & Physiology I BIOL 2404
Arkansas Tech University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Stackhouse on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2404 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Jennifer A. Lewter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
A&P I Notes for Chapter 1 • Anatomy • The study or structure and form. • Physiology • The study of the function of the body parts. • Microscopic anatomy Examines the structures that cannot be observed by the unaided eye. Cytology • • The study of body cells and their internal structure • Histology • The study of the tissues • Gross anatomy • (macroscopic anatomy) investigates the structure and relationships of the body parts that are visible to the unaided eye. (ex. intestines, stomach, brain, heart) • Systemic anatomy • studies the anatomy of each functional body system (ex. urinary system) • Regional Anatomy • examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit (ex. axillary region, which is the armpit) Surface anatomy • • focuses on both superﬁcial anatomic markings and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering then. • Comparative Anatomy • examines similarities and differences in the anatomy of the different species. • Embryology • is the discipline concerned with the developmental changes occurring from conception to birth. • Pathologic Anatomy • examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease. • Radiographic Anatomy investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by speciﬁc • scanning procedures, such as ultrasound, X-ray. • Cardiovascular Physiology • examines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. • Neurophysiology • examines how the nervous system works and how nerve impulses move throughout the body. • Respiratory Physiology • studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between the lungs and blood vessels. • Reproductive Physiology • explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproduction cycle and inﬂuence sex cell production and maturation. Pathophysiology • • investigates the relationship between the functioning of an organ system and the disease or injury to that organ system. • Metabolism • the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur within the body. • anabolism- when small molecules are joined to form large molecules • catabolism- when large molecules are separated to form small molecules • Macromolecules • more complex molecules that include some protein and DNA molecules. • Organelles • specialized microscopic units found within the cells. • Levels of Body Structure- chemical, cell, tissue, organ , organ system, organism There are 11 organ systems in our body Abdominal Regions • • Homeostasis- a term that describes the many physiologic processes to maintain the health of the body. • receptor- the body structure that detects changes in a variable, which is either the substance or process that is regulated. • stimulus- the actual change in the receptor • control center- the structure that interprets the input from the receptor and initiates changes through the effector. effector- the structure that brings about the change to alter the stimulus. •
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