Truman's Arguments and Pluralism
Truman's Arguments and Pluralism POLI 368 E01
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POLI 368 E01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joseph Lucas on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 368 E01 at University of South Carolina taught by Terry Kimel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Interest Groups and Social Movements in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
January 20 Notes- Chapter 2-POLI-368-E01 1. Truman and Pluralism a. Disturbance Theory 2. Salisbury a. Interest Groups Entrepreneurs 3. Olsen a. Selective Incentives I. David B. Truman & Theory of Pluralism a. Groups are just apart of the human experience b. Begins in the family unit, biological ties are less than daily social interactions c. Routine association with nonfamily members introduces groups in society and our roles in them d. The more frequently we interact with a group, the more important the group becomes. e. Group affiliation with family as most important; structure our ideology, education, recreation, friends, and most aspects of our human experience. f. Truman separated family groups from interest groups because the differences required to from an maintain the groups. g. Theory of Pluralism i. 2 conditions must be met 1. Shared attitudes 2. Claims upon others ii. Shared attacks or common interests or goals iii. This is the most fundamental of the two—there can’t be any group without any interest to align them. h. Claims upon others i. This makes it clear that they will purse the goals of interest groups even at the expense or well being of others ii. The claims enforced by a governing body, which makes the interest group a political interest group. iii. The government has an important role in the distribution of cost in public projects. iv. If the property rights are well established, the negotiation costs are low, the government has a small role. i. But if the legal rules are unclear, a group is necessary to represent the needs of the group; interest group. 1 . Zerosum game: the winner wins exactly the amount the loser loses. a. If one person gets the job, the other loses. j. Disturbance Theory: The creation and elimination of interest groups is linked to economical, political, social, and technological disturbances. i. Leads to a spontaneous formation of groups. ii. Pretty to see in recent years. January 20 Notes- Chapter 2-POLI-368-E01 iii. Economical disturbances lead to the creation of the tea party, occupy, and other current movements to improve “Wage Inequality” iv. We also see it in primaries: Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump v. Political disturbances, like changes in political parties, spur interest group movements in support of and opposition to these parties. vi. Actions by politicians, passage of the ACA (Obamacare), spur interest groups in support of or opposition against these laws. vii. Truman argues that the fundamental disturbances affect the interactions in these groups lead to their creation or their demise. viii. Our interconnectedness is what leads us to group affiliations, and it becomes complex, so do the group affiliations ix. Truman’s theory hangs on the belief that humans are only humans when they interact within groups. x. Only social misfits, such as hermits, chose to live alone. xi. These group affiliations are predetermined by sociological factors. xii. Individual concerns or activity matter very little in this view of the world. k . Pluralist Theory political power is distributed between a wide and array of interest groups who compete. i. This assumes wide ranging and diverse participation among individuals II. Salisbury a. One of the first political scientists to offer a response to Truman was… b. Leadership, rather than disturbances, is the underlying reason that a group succeeds or dies. c. Salisbury examined farm groups during hard times in the 1800s and found that many of them disappeared before they achieved their goals of high stable prices. d. If people chose groups to overcome a disadvantage, then whey quit before they have achieved their goals? e. Members join a group because they will achieve some benefits. f. If they feel that they are not getting their money’s worth, they will leave. g. Salisbury focused on the leader of the group, which are called organizers or entrepreneurs. h. He argue that in the “interest group” marketplace, organizers/entrepreneurs will succeed when they provide attractive benefits. III. Three types of benefits a. Material benefits that have concrete value b . Purposive benefits associated with the ideological or issueoriented goals that offer no tangible rewards to new members. i. Joining the WWF ideological commitment c. Solidary benefits: Social rewards from being a group member. i. Good work with people in the community IV . Mancar Olson & The Theory of Collective Action a. Olson takes aim at Truman’s theory in many places January 20 Notes- Chapter 2-POLI-368-E01 b. He says rather than joining interest groups because they are adversely affected, individuals join interest groups because they receive benefits in return. c. The benefit only goes to group members and is not a collective good. d . Collective Good Goods that are collectively produced and are freely available for anyone’s consumption. e . The Chamber of Commerce: conservative interest groups organization lobbies on behalf of businesses interest around the country—pretty powerful group f . Private good: benefits and services over which the owner has full control over their use. g. It is irrational to support the chamber because of its advocacy. They can just be free riders and enjoy its benefits h. Valued by many because it is an excellent opportunity to network and meet other members. i. They key contribution of Olson’s work is pointing out the importance of selective incentives. i. Few problems with that… 1. Selective incentives only really work for economic interest groups 2. Theory is much weaker 3. Very few selective benefits that lead people to contribute to the National Resource Defense Council V. Review a. Truman disturbances and spontaneous development b. Salisbury Leadership matters c. Olsen Self interest is a vital driver
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