Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA
Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Posted on web 22807 at 530 pm Plant Diversity Ecol 182 312007 quotO Summary from last time We talked about Big Questions What have been the important constraints and or principles that have shaped the evolution of plants Diversi cation Form and function The Conquest of the Land Tracheids Chlorophytes Ancestral alga Charophytes Liverworts Protected Hornworts embryos First true vascular Club mosses tissue Ferns and allies v v sal qdoaqaenuoN peasuoN v squad squdoaqamJ P998 a w W First seed 0 Gymno plants sperms Flowering plants squdoatpml aeluuld 1210198qu LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Sammy Edition gure 294 Fran Green Algae to Phil 9 2004 Smauy Assma es mo and w H Freeman E Co Water and nutrient acquisition by non tracheophytes Many grow in dense masses through which water can move by capillary action They have leaflike structures that catch and hold water that splashes onto them They are small enough that a Mmham Sp minerals can be distributed evenly by diffusion Nontracheophytes Liverworts Hornworts and Mosses Grow in dense mats in moist habitats typically they are small in size Layers of maternal tissue prevent loss of water from the embryo Have a thin cuticle but not an effective water containment substance Are Widespread across the globe Nontracheophytes Sporophyte produces unicellular haploid spores through meiosis within sporangium or capsules Spores germinate and give rise to a rnulticellular haploid gametophyte Gametophytes n i 9 Ar homum n Photosynthetic filament Protonem a Antheridium n with bud Bud HAPLOID n Gametophyte generation Rhizoid DIPLOID 2n Sporophyte generation mg Sporophyte 2n Gametophyte 1 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seventh Edivian Figure 295 A Nnmracheophyxe Lila Cycle 9 2004 Smauev Assamales me and w H Fveeman 5 Co Gametangia are where gametes are formed The archegonium is a multicellular female seX organ that contains a single egg a above The antheridium produces sperm b above The sporophyte produces a sporangium or capsule within which meiotic diVisions produce spores and thus the next gametophyte generation Liverworts Rhizoids Several genera have both sexual and asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction by simple fragmentation of the garnetophyte n Marclmntin sp 7 Mnrchantia sp The hornworts Anfhuccms sp Two characteristics distinguish hornworts from liverworts and mosses Cells of hornworts contain a single large platelike chloroplast whereas liverworts and mosses contain numerous small lensshaped chloroplasts Cyanobacteria often populate internal mucilage lled cavities within hornworts These cyanobacteria are able to x atmospheric nitrogen gas into a form that can be used by the hornwort The phylum Bryophyta Hydroid cells are a likely progenitor of the waterconducting cells of the tracheophytes When hydroid cells die they leave a tiny Channel through which water can ow The Tracheophytes The sporophyte generation of a nowextinct organism produced a new cell type called the tracheid Allowed for the radiation of a novel life form The tracheid The tracheophytes have welldeveloped vasculature consisting of Phloem Xylem The evolution of tracheids had two important consequences Tracheids set the stage for invasion of land by plants Tracheophytes also feature a branching independent sporophyte We break tracheophytes down into at least seven different groups see fig 2910 Nontracheophytes 39 39 39 Z 0 common Club mosses W a ancestor g E 9 Horsetalls g b g Tracheids 0 branching Whisk ferns 1 8 H independent K3 7 3 m klt n sporophyte f d r Iquot l m g quotS Multi agellate n E sperm complex 7 lt 8 leaves k a g Comfers E o m 0 m 9 Seeds R 3 H a a m 839 o Gnetophytes Flowers carpels triploid endosperm Angiosperms LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Savant Edition Figure 2WThe Evolulinn o1 Tnday39s Flams 2qu Smauer Assocmes me am w H Freeman 5 Co Introducing the Tracheophytes The rst tracheophytes were in the nowextinct phylum Club mosses appeared in the Silurian period Ferns horsetails and Whisk ferns appeared in the Devonian These groups had Roots The Tracheophytes Sporangia Dichotomous branching The Tracheophytes Aleafisa The microphyll has a single vascular strand that has departed from the stern Without disturbing the stern s vascular structure a Vascular tissue Sp0rangium Sporan gia Mlcrophy The Tracheophytes The megaphyll is larger and more complex found in ferns and seed plants May have arose from attening of stems and development of overtopping one branch differentiates from and extends beyond rest Overtopping Megaphyll Introducing the Tracheophytes Plants that bear a single type of spore are said to be homosporous Introducing the Tracheophytes Plants with two distinct types of spores evolved later and are said to be heterosporous Heterospory evolved independently and repeatedly suggesting that it affords selective advantages n Homospory Archegonium 9 Gamatophytc IL II Antheddium d Spove11 390 E Spatmm ggs H HAPLOID I J DIPLOID 2quot Spore mother cell Zn zygote 2 2 H er s 039 c o P y MegagametophyteQ Sporangium 271 Embryo 2quot S l l poggfye chmgamgffphytew mmiima umanvwmimmuruuvrnuNWym mm WWW w m x m Megaspore n Microspore n sperm 1 Eggs 390 HAPLOID I t DH LOIDZn Spore mother Spare mother ZYEOMQ cell 211 cell 2 Mcgasparangium Wdospomngium Embryo 2n 2quot 211 Sporophyke 2H Urswssarm earlmmansnwmsmbmmwnum my MM m The Surviving Nonseed Tracheophytes The club mosses phylum Lycophyta have microphylls exhibit apical growth and have roots that branch dichotomously Sporangia in many Lycophyta are contained Within conelike structures called strobili clusters of spore bearing leaves There are both homosporous and heterosporous species Lycophyta and the Pteridophyta were the dominant during the Carboniferous period Figure 2915 Club Masses Strobilus Microsporangium a Lycopodium obscm um 7 LIFE THE SCIENCE 0F BIDLDGY Seventh Editian gure 2915 Club Masses 2004 Smauer Assumes m and w H Freeman A Co The Surviving Nonseed Tracheophytes The horsetails Whisk ferns and ferns form a clade the phylum Pteridophyta The leaves are reduced megaphylls and grow in whorls Stern growth is from the base of the stern segments Figure 2916 Horsetails Leaves Sporan gium Sporangiophore Fertile shoot a Equisetum m vense l7 Equisetum pnlustre LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seventh Edition Figure 2916 Horsatails 2004 smauer Assocrmes vm am w H Freeman 5 Ca The Surviving Nonseed Tracheophytes The sporophytes of the ferns typically have true roots stems and leaves The ferns rst appeared during the Devonian Ferns are characterized by fronds large leaves with complex vasculature Sporangia are found on the undersurfaces of the fronds clustered in groups called sori Figure 2919 Fern Sori Are Clusters of Sporangia Dryopteris intermedia LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Ssvenlh Edition Figure 2919 Fem Sori Ave Clusters oi Spornngia pm 2004 Smauer Assocwmeg m and w H Freeman 5 Ca Mature gametophyte A Rhizoids 39 Germinating spore Antheridium HAPLOID n Mature DIPLOID 2n sporophyte Archegonial wall Sporophyte Root Horizontal stem LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Suanlh Edition Figure 2920 The Life Cycle 01 a Fem 2004 5mm Assncmes me and w H Freeman 1 Ca Nontracheophytes 39 39 39 Z 0 common Club mosses W a ancestor g E 9 Horsetalls g b g Tracheids 0 branching Whisk ferns 1 8 H independent K3 7 3 m klt n sporophyte f d r Iquot l m g quotS Multi agellate n E sperm complex 7 lt 8 leaves k a g Comfers E o m 0 m 9 Seeds R 3 H a a m 839 o Gnetophytes Flowers carpels triploid endosperm Angiosperms LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Savant Edition Figure 2WThe Evolulinn o1 Tnday39s Flams 2qu Smauer Assocmes me am w H Freeman 5 Co Chlorophytes Ancestral alga Charophytes Liverworts Protected Hornworts embryos First true vascular Club mosses tissue Ferns and allies v v sal qdoaqaenuoN peasuoN v squad squdoaqamJ P998 a w W First seed 0 Gymno plants sperms Flowering plants squdoatpml aeluuld 1210198qu LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Sammy Edition gure 294 Fran Green Algae to Phil 9 2004 Smauy Assma es mo and w H Freeman E Co The Seed Plants Microspores and megaspores Y sumadsouwAf Conifers common ancestor Gnetophytes 0 Flowers g Angiosperms Seed plants are the most derived tracheophytes Gymnosperms such as pines and cycads four phyla Angiosperms owering plants one phyla 0 Big evolutionary innovations Evolution of a seed Reduction in gametophyte generation 0 The haploid gametophyte is attached to and nutritionally dependent on the diploid sporophyte j Sporophyte 2n g Sp0mphyle 2n Camctophyke n Camemphyle n Female Male gametophyte n gametophytes n mezscvmctnrmowax wmminimum mmhvhw nSMWMammnWmE An ther Ovary 39754 1 Sporophyte 2n useMEme anrmonv mm mm nwmm munm mm SwampMIInu Gmunp il gt1 cmsmw mm m M The Seed Plants The seed plants are Megaspores produce a single haploid multicellular female gametophyte in megasporangia Microspores meiotically divide to produce pollen grains in microsporangia The Seed Plants A seed may contain tissues from three generations The possession of seeds is a major reason for the enormous evolutionary success of seed plants The Gymnosperms Naked Seeds The gymnosperms The Gymnosperrns Naked Seeds Fir cedar spruce and pine all belong to Pinophyta 7 Megaspores are produced in cones modified stem bearing a tight cluster of scales specialized for reproduction 7 Microspores are produced in pollen strobili a conelike cluster of scales that are modified leaves in Firms porrdi msn l nllrn slrcvluili About 12 of conifers have fruitlike tissues surrounding seeds that are eaten by animals resulting in dispersal in their feces but they are not true fruits Seed cone Scalle Megasporangium irer 9 Pollen chamber Seed coat I 5 Female gametophyw Embryo Female gametophyte Developing I embryos LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seventh Edition Flguve me The L e Cycle al a Pine Tree 1 2004 S nauev Asswmes w and w H Freeman 5 CD The Gymnosperms Naked Seeds Gymnosperrns exhibit secondary growth Recall types of types of growth animals versus plants Determinate body ceases to grow once adulthood is reached Indeterminate body growth is potentially continuous Meristematic regions are localized regions of cell division They produce new cells inde nitely When meristem cells divide one daughter cell develops into another meristem cell the other develops specialization Two meristem types Apical meristems give rise to the primary plant body Lateral meristems give rise to the secondary plant body Lateral meristems give rise to tissues responsible for stems and roots thickening to form wood Leaf primordial Lateral bud primordia Cork cambium Vascular cambium Root apical meristem Root hairs Root apical meristern Root cap 50 um LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLDLWv Seventh Edi an Figure 311 Apical Ind Lalaul Mariuema lt9 200a Smauer Assucrmes w and w H Freeman 3 Cu Root hairs Zone of cell maturation Primary meristems Protoderm Zone of cell elongation Ground meristem Zone of cell division cHsLiTT Root cap Quiescent center LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY 55mm Ediliori Figuia 3515 Tissues Ind Region a ma Ram Tip 2004 Smauar Assncrznes me am w H Freeman E Co Forming the Plant Body Secondary tissues derive from two lateral meristems vascular and cork cambium Vascular cambium a cylindrical tissue that form the secondary xylem and the secondary phloem Cork cambium produces the outermost layers of stems protecting tissues from H20 loss amp microorganisms Growth in the diameter of the stems and roots produced by these meristematic regions is called secondary growth Wood is secondary xylem Bark is everything produced external to the vascular cambium including secondary phloem Terminal bud Thjs Bud scale yearS Vascular growth ll i Gamblum Primary growth Prlmary xylem Cork I Perlderm Secondary Prlmary Cork cambium xylem Cortex Primary Last year s Phloem growth J r r 1 Secondary IIlquotquot39Hl4 phloem Secondary growth Vascular Scars left by bud Cambium Growth scales from from two previous year Years ago Lateral bud Leaf scar LIFE THE SCIENCE DFBoLoBY Seventh Edition Figure 3514 A Waody Twig a 2mm Smauer Asswaias inc and w H Freeman amp Co Outer margin New secondary of primary phloem cell xylem Next new secondary secondary Next new xylem cell secondary xylem cell LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seventh Edilian gure 3515 Vuculur Camhhnn Thickaus Siam Ind Raul Pm 2 a 2004 Smauat Assocwama mo and w H Freeman 5 Co Gymnosperms Naked Seeds 0 Gymnosperms except Gnetophyta have only tracheids and simple phloem Tracheids are simple xylem that conduct water throughout the plant body Tracheids undergo apoptosis and operate as empty cells cell walls remain Phloem are alive and transport carbohydrates and other materials throughout the plant Tracheids Sieve cell LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Sevenlh Edition Figure 3510 Eu Pores of sieve plate Sieve plate Sieve tube element Tracheids
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