Anth 100 Week 2
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000 at University of Connecticut taught by Eric Williamson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Anthropology 1000 All cultures are dynamic – anthropologist argue they change at different speeds Contemporary Culture- changes rapidly in Traditional Culture- the contemporary culture would have to understand the culture, from a contemporary point of view, it may seem like the traditional is not changing The Great Paradox of Culture- culture limits our choices while at the same time allow us to become fully human, without culture none of us could achieve Limits us by: -what foods are eaten -clothes to wear for weather -Gender clothes 4 Contributions made by culture 1. Foundation of our identity – true depending on age, gender, religion, occupation, in contemporary culture you have room for individuality (change) or multiple identities. In a traditional culture it is more restricted 2. Explanation of Reality – why things are the way they are? Contemporary Culture relies on science while traditional cultures rely on religion, part of the enculturation process 3. Appropriate Goals to Pursue – goals to pursue if you want to be happy in contemporary culture you have more options depending on the culture certain things will be found important 4. Seek to answer the question the really have no answer – questions about life and death, lots of different cultures will give you a answer depending on the nature of the culture Enculturation – (Socialization) – Cultural transmission process for appropriate beliefs, values, behavior (taught) Main Purpose – for a culture to reproduce itself (if it changes to much it wouldn’t be the same) 3 Forms of Enculturation 1. Ethics – the rules of life, thins you were taught when you were young, change from family, to family, the rules apply to anybody in any part of life, should be there before you go to school, by following it allows us to fit in and be a part of these networks 2. Laws and Customs- laws are the kinds of rules based on our values tell what we cannot do, based on what is important to us. Customs – they aren’t written but people know the guidelines in certain cultures 3. Symbolic Languages – we constantly told/taught what is important a way to show that it is invisible Sanctions – punishments for violation of inappropriate behavior or beliefs 2 Main Forms of Sanction External Sanctions – seeks to take something away from you. Comes from the outside, they are there so people would act appropriately, we don’t want to lose something Ex. Taking away money (losing wealth), being put in jail (losing freedom), being executed (losing life) Internal Sanctions – punishments from within, meant to make you feel a certain way lose their place in their social network, we don’t want to feel disconnected Ex. Shame, Guilt, and Humiliation Truth = Values all investigation seek some type of truth, in anthropology the search for the values that them apart of culture Truth – historical and cultural not universal and eternal, based on constant change Reflexivity – understanding why you believe what you believe by asking that you find cultural truths Cultural Relativism – In order to understand who are different from you, you have to understand them Ethnocentrism – judge other from what you experienced, by judging others they treat them differently Dominant Discourse – shorthand language (one word stands for many things) create and reinforce ideas about ourselves and others Ex. Problem, terrorist – kind of image comes to mind and then mistakes get made Symbolic Communication – the abstract representation of the world in order to explain or control (still important part in today’s society, but they are invisibleto use, but we still accept them) 1. Language- symbolically and abstractly connected to the group we are a part of, keeps other people out 2. Gesture – using our bodies to convey communication invisible to use, we don’t often think about it ( Facial Muscles) (Allows us to fit in our social networks) Abstract Thinking and Human Survival 1. Remember the past 2. Create the present (decide who we are going to be) 3. Plan to the future 4. Recognize patterns in nature Ethnocentrism added – they judge other people who are different from them, we should recognize it as a part of being human. The enculturation process is so powerful that it shapes us. The problem is how we deal with it 2 Kinds of Symbols Explicit – symbols that have more than one meaning very little controversy Implicit – can have more than one meaning, can be controversial and cause emotion - Swastika – oldest version in the Middle East meaning progress, good fortune, and positive energy (Buddha) - Swastika – Was in the United States Boys Scotts’ medal - Swastika – 45 division United States Army – telling who they belonged to - Swastika – 1930s adopted by the Nazi’s now the symbol takes on a different meaning death camps, hate, and murder – Now it brings an emotion of fear and hatred. In Germany it is still banned Raelians – thought that it was time to make the Swastika back and make it positive, even though they believed that we are descendants of aliens Stars and Bars – early 1860s – Confederate Flag they had a Christian X and the same color as the American Flag to show that they are Americans and Christian they just didn’t believe in the traditional Americans values from the North – symbol of rebellion, symbol in the South -Southern Culture – nothing to do with racism or slavery represents our values – Different kind of accent -Outlaw Culture – beliefs held by a particular kind of biker, they are above the law and they are free - Terrorist Culture – represents hate and fear. Used by the KKK and other groups Ethnography – the written results of anthropologist fieldwork 4 Themes of Cultural Analysis 1. Adaptation and change – how do people use culture to adapt to the world? How do they use culture to change the world around them and survive? 2. Similarities and differences – how do we in different parts of the world do things in a similar way 3. Specificity and Holism – Collect as much detail as we can all the specifics are meaningless until we put it together 4. Connecting the local with the regional global – how the region influences connection? Because everything has an influence