Intro to Anthropology: Human Nature and Evolution
Intro to Anthropology: Human Nature and Evolution ANTH 1213 - 001
Arkansas Tech University
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Drayton Anderson on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1213 - 001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Rebecca L. Wiewel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Anthropology Part 1: Human Nature, Evolution, And Race. Ch. 1: What is Anthropology? o It is the study of human culture and biology over time and across space. Holistic perspective of Anthropology Religion, family and economics are important parts of Anthropology. Comparative perspective, what is different and alike about humans? o We do it because we want a better understanding of diversity among humans. Field based perspective, collect data from people and things of the past. Evolutionary perspective, change over time seen in humans and other species. Anthropology is focused on culture. o Beliefs, traditions, and values you learn as a member of society. Material Culture objects made or modified by humans. o Pottery, weapons, etc. Biology and Culture o Capacity for culture is part of our biological heritage o We all have the same capacity for culture Subfields of Anthropology o Biology o Culture o Linguistics o Archeology o Applied Papa Franz American Anthropology, father of Anthropology Biology o Human biology diversity o Study of human evolution Forensic Anthropology o We use this to solve real world problems such as crimes and cause of death Cultural Anthropology o Study of human of human diversity o What part of change is good and bad? o Study of culture change Linguistic Anthropology o Study of language in its cultural context to examine diversity among society o Who are the people talking? Age? Gender? Archeology Anthropology o Digging things up and studying it o Study of past cultures using remains Applied Anthropology o Represents the intersections the four subfields Anthropology, science, and storytelling o Best truth you have at the moment is why stories are told Evolution Theory o We share common ancestry o Things can change overtime and give rise to new ancestry Charles Darwin Natural selection o All living things are fixed and unchanging Chain of being a hierarchical order of all entities; especially: an uninterrupted hierarchy of all beings arranged according to an order of perfection. Lamark’s evolution species change overtime as individuals transform to make them successful. Biology Basics o Chromosomes o Double stranded DNA strands o 46 arranged in 23 homologous pairs in humans Theory of common origin All similar living species have common origin Laws of life a universal system of various natural principles, any of which tend to best foster life —in other words, any of which best guides behavior that tends toward the reproductive and survival of some particular gene pool. Evolution by natural selection DNA contains the genetic code for making proteins Nucleotides; combo of sugar molecule, phosphate unit and base Adenine & Thymine Guanine & Cytosine Mitosis body cell reproduction o 1 division, makes two identical daughter cells Meiosis sex cell reproduction o 2 cell division, creates four non identical daughter cells o Each with half of the genetic content of original cell Crossing Over Before the first cell division in meiosis is complete, paired homologous chromosomes can take part in crossing over What happens with this? o Increases variation o Random assortment Principles of Inheritance Gene DNA coding for a protein that affects the expression of a trait Alleles Alternate forms of a gene Homozygous two copies of the same allele (TT or tt) Dominant is always expressed Recessive not seen Heterozygous possess different alleles Genotype genetic makeup of a person Phenotype physical parts of a person Punnett Square Autosomal Dominant o From one parent Autosomal Recessive o From both parents Non Medelian Inheritance Polygenic Inheritance: traits affected by multiple genes Graded expression height, eye color, etc. Pleiotropy one gene affects multiple traits Evolution Mechanisms Allele frequencies the genetic makeup of an interbreeding group of individuals known as a population Evolution A change in allele frequency over time Microevolution o Small short term changes over just a few generations Macroevolution o Larger changes over many generations Evolution is a two stage process o Variation is produced and redistributed o Natural selection acts on this variation Mutation molecular alteration in genetic material Gene Flow movement of genes from one population to another and breeding. Mistake in copying causes alteration Genetic Drift Random sampling error o Happens when: Some individuals contribute a disproportionate share of genes to succeeding generations Founder effect is a wellknown small population Very small numbers of individuals contribute genes to the next generation When population size is decreased and diversity is lost it is called a bottle neck. Recombination Is what happens during meiosis Natural Selection More offspring are produced than can survive Organisms compete for resources Organisms vary Traits are inherited Natural Selection leads to adaption o A functional shift in allele frequencies due to environmental factors Natural selection favors a single allele; frequency shifts in one direction.