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BSC 116 Multicellular Eukaryotes

by: Paola Araque

BSC 116 Multicellular Eukaryotes BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Art > BSC 116 > BSC 116 Multicellular Eukaryotes
Paola Araque
GPA 3.29

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About this Document

These notes are from Lecture 4 in BSC 116 discussing Multicellular Eukaryotes and focusing on fungi plants
Principles Biology II
Dr. Cherry
Class Notes
Principles of Biology II
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paola Araque on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Cherry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
Multicellular Eukaryotes: Fungi Plants (Part I)    ● Multicellularity has arisen more than once.  ○ multicellula: organisms occur in several clades  ■ not the same as colonial groups!  ● Fungi  ○ heterotrophs with diverse ecological roles  ○ heterotrophs; absorb nutrients without ingestion (parasitic)  ○ secrete enzymes that break down many organic compounds (mutualists)  ■ good decomposers  ■ can be parasitic and pathogenic  ■ can be mutualistic  ● Fungi Body Structure  ○ unicellular yeast  ○ hyphae: multicellular filaments  ■ mycelium: network of hyphae for the fungus. Makes it efficient to absorb  the organic compounds they need.  ○ chitin: some divided by septa  ■ a) Septate hypha  ■ b) Coenocytic hypha  ● Fungi have important associations with plants.  ○ Mycorrhizal fungi→plant mutualism  ○ Fungi→P to plants; Plant→C to fungi  ○ Ectomycorrhizae­ form sheath around and grow into extracellular spaces.   ○ Arbuscular mycorrhizae­ use haustoria; forms arbuscules  ● Fungi reproduce using spores produced both asexually and sexually  ● Generalized life cycle: asexual reproduction  ● Filamentous fungi produce spores (n) by mitosis (molds)  ● Single­celled yeasts that divide by mitosis or by budding.  ● When the two mycelium come together from two different fungi, it gives sexual  ​ reproduction.   ○ The pheremones attract mycelia to one another.  ● Plasmogamy​ : cytoplasm of 2 mycelia fuseheterokaryon​ with 2 parental nuclei in 1  cytoplasm  ● Karyogomy:​  2 nuclei fuse→diploid (2n) zygote.  ● Meiosis produce haploid (n) spores. Germination of new mycelium.  ● Fungi evolved from single­celled, flagellated protists:  ○ DNA evidence suggests animals and fungi evolved independently from different  protist ancestors.   ○ Multicellularity arose independently in fungi and animals  ○ Oldest fungi fossils: 460 million years  ● 5 Clades of Fungi:   ○ Chytrids, Zygomycetes, Glomeromycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes  ○ Chyatrids:  ■ earliest branch; flagellzoospores  ■ decomposers, parasites, and some mutualists  ○ Zygomycetes:  ■ can form zygosporangium ​in which karyogamy and meiosis occur.  ■ decomposers (e.g black bread mold)  ■ also parasites/commensals on animals  ○ Glomeromycetes:  ■ similar to zygomycetes, but most have arbuscular mycorrhizal  associations with plants (>80% of plant species)  ○ Ascomycetes ​sac fungi)   ■ sexual spores formed iasci, wi ascocarps​ (fruiting bodies)  ○ Basidiomycetes (club fungi)  ■ sexual spores formed ibasidia, witbasidiocarps (fruiting bodies)  ● Ascomycetes:  ○ includes yeasts and multicellular fungi  ○ some are mycorrhizae  ○ 40% associate with green algae or cyanobacteria, folichens  ○ Complex Life Cycles (Asexual)  ■ asexual spores (conidia) produced on hyphae tips (conidiophores)  ○ Plasmogamy:​ fusion of different mating types→dikaasci c ​ ○ Karyogamy: occurs within each ascus→diploid zygote (2n)  ○ Each zygote divides by meiosis→4 haploid nuclei (n)  ○ Each haploid nucleus (n) divides by mitosascospores​→dispersal.   ● Basidiomycetes:  ○ includes mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi  ○ some are mycorrhizae  ○ some plant parasites  ○ important decomposers of wood.  ○ Sexual Reproduction:  ■ Plasmogamy→Dominant dikaryotic mycellium  ■ Environmental cues→formation ofbasidiocarp  ■ Basidiocarp gills lines with dikarbasida  ■ Karyogamy: ​each basidium produces diploid nuclei (2n)  ■ Each diploid nuclei divides by meiosis→basidium with 4 haploid nuclei  (n)→basidiospore    ■ Dispersal  ● Harmful Fungi:  ○ ⅓ of fungi parasites/pathogens   ○ Plant parasites  ■ Cryphonectria parasitica causes chestnut blight.      ■ Parasites on crops  ● decrease yields (10­50% fruit lost per year)  ● sometimes toxic to humans   ○ Claviceps purpurea on rye, causinergotism if ingested.   ○ Animal Parasites  ■ skin (externamycosis: athlete’s foot, yeast infection, ringworm, etc.  ■ systemic (internamycosis:  can be caused by inhaled spores.  ■ chytrids implicated in recent declines/extinctions of amphibians  ● Helpful Fungi:  ○ Mycorrhizae & lichens  ■ mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs  ○ Ascomycete ​endophytes​  between leaf cells.  ■ release compounds that protect plant from insects  ○ food: mushrooms, truffles, cheeses, bread, beer  ○ medicine: antibiotics and other drugs  ○ bioengineering: fungi can make eukaryotic products that bacteria cannot.  ● What is a Plant?  ○ photosynthetic autotrophs   ○ cell walls of cellulose  ○ chloroplasts with chlorophylls a and b  ● evolved from aquatic green algae (charophytes): shared derived traits  ○ rings of cellulose­synthesizing proteins, flagellated sperm morphology, details of  cell division  ○ sporopollenin: tough outer coating of charophyte zygotes and plant spores  ● Kingdom Plantae= Embryophytes  ● Unique derived traits of land plants:  ○ alternation of generations: multicellular sporophytes (2n) and gametophytes (n)  ○ multicellular, dependent embryos  ○ spororpollenin​­ walled spores produced in sporangia  ■ charophytes lack multi­celled sporangia and no sporopollenin in their  spores (only in zygotes)  ○ multicellular gametangia  ■ female= archegonia; male=antheridia  ○ apical meristems​: areas of growth on shoot and root tips.   ○ other unique traits: waxy cuticle, stomata, mycorrhizal associations, secondary  compounds.   ● Use living (and fossil) plants to infer evolution:  ○ traits of living plants and phylogenetic methods→order in which key traits  appeared.  ○ fossils (and molecular clocks) help us date clades  ○ fossil spores from early land plants resemble spore­bearing tissue in living plants      ● vast diversity of living plants  ● grouped into one of the 10 phyla  ○ non­vascular (byrophytes)  ○ vascular plants (seedless and seed plants)  ● Major events in plant evolution:  ○ multicellularity  ○ invasion of land (about 475 million years ago)  ○ origin of vascular tissue (about 420 million years ago)  ○ appearance of (extant) seed plants (about 305 million years ago)  ○ evolution of flowers (about 140 million million years ago)  ● Earliest land plants lacked vascular tissue:  ○ bryophytes: non vascular plants  ■ three phyla:  ● Hepatophyta​ (liverworts)  ● Anthocerophyta (hornworts)  ● Bryophyta​(mosses)  ○ Bryophyte Life Cycle:  ■ haploid spores (n) develop protonemata  ■ protonemata ​produce “buds” that undergo mitos​ametophores  ■ sperm from male antheridi swims through moisture to reach the egg in  the female gameophyte  ■ fertilizatioccurs in female  ■ archegonia​➛zygote (2n)  ■ gametophytes have male or female gametangia:  ● antheridia➛male; produce flagellated sperm  ● archegonia=female; produce eggs  ■ zygote becomes sporophyte embryo  ■ sporophyte grows long seta that emerges from archegonium; remains  attached to gametophyte by foot  ■ haploid spores (n) produced in capsule by meiosis➛dispersal of spores  ● Five evolutionary innovations of vascular plants  ○ vascular tissue: xyleto transport water; phloem to transport organic molecules  ■ reinforced wilignin; allowed plants to get taller.   ○ roots:organs to absorb water and nutrients from soul; not merely anchors.  ■ allowed plants to get taller  ○ leaves: increases surface area for photosynthesis  ■ microphyll​ small, spine shaped (lycophytes)  ■ megaphylls​ larger with highly branched vascular system  ○ sporophylls:modified leaves bearing sporangia  ■ many sporangia per plant  ○ sporophytes dominate life cycles, with reductiongametophyte      ● Seedless vascular plants:  ○ Phylum Lycophyta, 1200 spp.  ■ club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts  ■ more ancient of the two phyla  ○ Phylum, Pterophyta, 12,000 spp.  ■ fern, horsetails, whisk ferns, etc.   ■ more closely related to vascular plants; share derived characters related to  leaf and root growth.  ○ life cycles dominated by sporophyte stage  ○ gametophyte is much smaller than sporophyte  ○ sporophyte is not dependent on gametophyte.  


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