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Week 4 notes

by: Taryn manciu

Week 4 notes Hist309

Taryn manciu
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Notes for the week
History of Women in the U.S. part 2
Professor Bufalino
Class Notes
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Popular in History of Women in the U.S. part 2

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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taryn manciu on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist309 at University of Oregon taught by Professor Bufalino in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of Women in the U.S. part 2 in History at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
Week  4  Monday   Women  and  Progressive  Reform     Lecture  Themes   -­‐Progressives,  reformers  who  sought  gov’t  regulation  to  protect  citizens  from   industrial  abuses,  1880-­‐1920   -­‐Social  feminists  worked  primarily  with  other  women  for  social/political  change;   employed  rhetoric  of  women’s  moral  superiority  to  advocate  for  reform   -­‐The  settlement  movement,  Hull  House  in  particular,  served  as  a  nexus  for  the   leading  women  reformers  of  the  era       Progressives   -­‐Blame  social  ills  on  unchecked  abuses  of  capitalism   -­‐Seek  greater  social  equality  though  regulation  and  legislation   -­‐Contrast  with:  radicals-­‐  who  blames  social  ills  on  capitalism  AND  SEEK  TO   OVERTHROW  IT,  PLACING  WOKRING  MAJORITY  IN  CONTROL   -­‐Conservative  –  who  seek  to  maintain  traditional  power  structures  and  blame  social   ills  on  individual  (moral)  failings     -­‐People  who  want  to  maintain  status  quo,  people  who  benefit  from  the  current     structure     -­‐All  these  social  ills  are  caused  by  human  failing       Impact  of  Triangle  Fire   -­‐Blanck  and  Harris  acquitted  of  criminal  charges   -­‐Civil  suits  win  $75/lost  life  (not  significantly  large  sum)   -­‐Increase  in  state  inspections  of  factories   -­‐25  new  labor  laws       -­‐First  female  of  secretory  of  labor  for  the  state,  went  after  labor  laws     -­‐The  courts  trial  to  find  out  if  company  itself  is  responsible  for  deaths  from  fire     or  not     -­‐This  leads  to  agitation  by  number  of  groups  that  lead  to  new  labor  laws     -­‐A  few  years  after  the  incent  various  factory  inspectors  found  that  they  were     in  fact  at  fault,  which  resulted  in  Blanck  and  Harris  to  be  called  into  court     again…then  judge  apologizes  for  calling  in  and  were  fined  lowest  amount     possible           Women  and  “Radicalism”   -­‐Identified  urban  problems  as  systematic  called  for  revolutionary  change   -­‐Influence  of  Marxism     -­‐Critique  of  harsh  conditions  of  industrial  capitalism     -­‐Stressed  workers  identities  over  gender  identity       -­‐More  open  to  including  women  workers  than  craft  unions  were,           radicals  seeking  to  unionize  working  class  felt  that  by  isolating  or         eliminating  groups,  were  not  productive  and  they  needed  all  kinds  of         people  to  make  it  work     -­‐Familiarity  w/  social  in  native  countries   -­‐Anarcho-­‐syndicalism   -­‐Free-­‐love/quality   -­‐Free  speech   -­‐Birth  control       -­‐Women  advocated  for  equal  rights  for  women       -­‐Time  where  talking  about  birth  control  or  sending  information  about  it  is     illegal,  women  who  can  not  afford  to  have  children  are  bringing  more  children     into  the  world  because  they  are  not  educated  or  allowed  to  regulate       Industrial  Unionism   -­‐International  Workers  of  the  World  (IWW)     -­‐Founded  in  1905  nicknamed  “Wobblies”     -­‐“One  big  union”  industrial  unionism  vs.  trade  unionism     -­‐IWW  philosophy,  direct  actions,  syndicalism  (gender  and  race)     -­‐Strikes       -­‐1912,  “bread  and  roses”  Lawrence,  MA  –  25K  workers         -­‐People  who  represent  26  different  language  groups,  recent           immigrants,  IWW  was  responsible  for  coordinating  and             orchestrating  all  the  people       -­‐1913,    Paterson  (NJ)  silk  strike  25k  workers   -­‐Labor  organization  composed  of  members  employed  in  a  particular  field  such  as   textiles,  or  mining  but  who  perform  different  individual  jobs  within  their  general   type  of  work,  including  low  skill  workers.     -­‐IWW  wanted  to  control  everything,  wanted  everyone  to  go  on  strike  that  they     could  get.  Attempting  to  gather  all  members  and  exert  as  much  power  as     possible     -­‐Believed  in  direct  action  (strikes),  not  interested  in  government  or  industry     and  negotiation  (women  didn’t  not  feel  comfortable  in  union  halls  because  they     were  not  very  welcoming  to  women)       -­‐Interested  in  organizing  women  in  the  streets  as  they  were  striking     -­‐Women  were  aggressive,  (strikes  during  this  period  were  violent)     -­‐Because  this  work  and  the  changes  in  theory  status  was  going  to  affect     women’s  ability  to  survive  and  support  families  this  threatened  the  women  and     they  were  willing  to  fight  as  hard  as  they  could  in  order  to  protect  that       The  Feminism  of  Emma  Goldman   -­‐Emancipation  of  Women     -­‐Viewed  marriage  as  inherently  corrupting  institution     -­‐Critiqued  of  marriage  rooted  in  Marxists  analysis     -­‐Believed  that  advert  of  freely  loving  relationship  depended  on  emancipation     of  women  economically  politically  and  social   -­‐Advocated  Birth  Control       -­‐Mentored  Margaret  Sanger,  advocated  challenging  Comstock  laws     -­‐Saw  “birth  control”  (Margaret  Sangers  term)  as  part  of  broader  agenda  to     emancipate  women     -­‐If  women  were  free  within  their  relationships  they  could  be  as  intelligent  and   powerful  in  a  variety  of  ways  as  men  were.     -­‐Women  trade  their  dominance,  sexuality  and  other  things  in  exchange  to  be   protective  and  taken  care  of  in  the  home  and  financially.   -­‐Believed  that  women  should  be  emancipated,  in  all  ways  that  men  were   -­‐Comstock  laws  should  be  eradicated  (laws  to  talk  about,  distribute  or  have  birth   control)   -­‐Was  willing  to  make  political  sacrifices  in  order  to  pass  this  law.  Embrace  eugenics   ideal  in  order  to  pass  the  law  (too  many  people  that  we  don’t  like  not  enough  that  we   do  like)     -­‐Women  who  are  economically  able  to  have  children  should  have  them  financially   unstable  people  should  not  thus  birth  control.       Settlement  Movement   -­‐Began  in  1880s  in  US  by  1900-­‐100  settlement  house  in  US   -­‐“Residents”  –  educated,  native  born,  middle  and  upper  class  reformers  who  lived/   worked  among     -­‐Provided  social  services  to  working  class.  esp.  women  and  children,  living  in   poverty;  advocated  systematic  reform  (not  revolution)     -­‐Spaces  in  rented  house  in  working  class  neighborhoods  where  people  are     industrial  workers,  people  of  color,  lower  class,  these  houses  are  not  working     class  they  are  “new  women”  (educated  native  born)  most  of  them  have     completely  college,  dedicated  to  some  kind  of  reform,  shared  desire  to  help     working  class  and  poor  people,  settlement  houses  provided  this  space,     communal  living  for  women.  “Boston  marriage”  (mission  of  settlement  house  to     provide  aid  within  community,  but  also  provided  vital  work  space  to  seek     alternative  traditional  roles  women  had.     Hull  House   -­‐Founded  in  Chicago  in  1889  by  Jane  Addams  and  Ellen  Gates  Starr     (Engaged  in  Boston  marriage  together)   -­‐Conducted  research  on  urban  conditions   -­‐Provided  services  to  working  class  people     -­‐Kindergarten/day  care     -­‐Well-­‐baby  clinic     -­‐Employment  bureau     -­‐Art  gallery,  theater,  library  (w/  classes)     -­‐English  and  citizenship  classes     -­‐Meeting  places  for  trade  union  groups     -­‐Public  kitchen  and  baths   -­‐Proper  “true  women”  do  not  occupy  public  spaces;  by  having  their  own  space  they   avoided  being  harassed.     -­‐  Industry  of  industrial  medicine  emerged   -­‐Hull  house  provided  information  on  all  kinds  of  information  about  the  city     Jane  Addams   -­‐Most  prominent  “new”  woman  of  the  progressive  era     -­‐Education       -­‐Graduated  from  school  in  Illinois  (graduated  1892),  member  of           wealthy  family,  represent  shift  in  education  for  women,  awarded  with         bachelors     -­‐Relationships       -­‐She  was  a  person  who  was  dedicated  to  the  idea  of  helping  others,         viewed  herself  of  the  urban  poor,  engaging  in  relationships  with  other         women  allowed  to  have  those  perks  of  being  married             without  being  married  to  a  man.  They  didn’t  have  to  divided  her  time         between  being  a  wife  and  a  mother     -­‐Politics       -­‐Tried  to  accuse  her  of  being  communists,  she  didn’t  want  to  say  what         her  affiliation  was  however  she  was  trying  to  get  social  equality  but         with  not  evidence  of  overthrowing  capitalist  to  do  it  (anit-­‐WW1)  strong         commitment  to  pacifism.  (“The  good  we  secure  for  ourselves  is           precarious  and  uncertain  until  it  is  secured  for  all  of  us)  liberal  reform     -­‐Feminism       -­‐Willing  to  speak  before  congress  believed  women  had  strong  roll  to         play,  felt  women  of  middle  class  bare  huge  responsibility  to  extend         caregiving  of  home  into  the  streets.  Her  feminism  was  consistent  with         exercising  their  moral  superiority  in  caregiving.     -­‐Founder     -­‐Hull  House     -­‐Women’s  international  league  for  peace  and  freedom   -­‐Winner  of  Nobel  peace  price  (1931)                                         Week  4  Wednesday     Suffrage     Residents  of  Hull  House   -­‐Most  of  the  leading  female  reformers  resided  here  at  some  point   -­‐Formed  vital  network  of  personal,  social,  political  relationships   -­‐National  and  international  influence     -­‐New  deal     -­‐National  consumers  league       -­‐From  Eleanor  Roosevelt  and  her  contracts  she  gained  access  to  a  lot  of         the  women  who  worked  at  hull  house,  which  granted  the  women  of  hull         house  access  to  government  roles       National  Consumer’s  League   -­‐Founded  1899,  to  unite  consumers  with  labor  in  advocacy  of  fair  labor  practices  (&   later,  quality  products)     -­‐White  label  campaign     -­‐Meat  inspection  act  and  pure  food  and  drug  act     -­‐Protective  legislation  for  women  and  children       -­‐1930s  started  to  get  involved  with  other  quality  control  markets,         primary  focus  use  consumers  (women)  power  of  their  pocket  good  as  a         mechanism  to  improve  women’s  spending.         -­‐The  Jungle  1904/6  early  investigative  journalist  went  undercover  in         slaughter  house,  and  identified  and  described  horrific  process  and         practices  of  the  meat    packing  industry,  which  lead  to  protective           legislation     -­‐Florence  Kelly,  HH  resident     -­‐1  female  factory  inspector  under  1893  Illinois  factory  inspection  act     -­‐Founding  secretary,  NCL     -­‐Role  in  Brandeis  Brief  (Muller  v.  Oregon  1908)       -­‐Major  advocate  for  legislation     Social  Feminist  Leadership  on  Government   -­‐Women’s  Bureau     -­‐Formed  in  1920  (under  labor  dept.)  to  investigate  conditions  of  women  in     industry  and  development  policy  for  improvements     -­‐Led  by  Mary  Anderson  (HH),  trade  unionist,  labor  organizer     -­‐Lobbied  for  Sheppard  Tower  Maternity  and  Infant  Protection  Act.  (1921)   -­‐Children’s  Bureau     -­‐Formed  1912  (labor  dept.)  to  investigate  conditions  of  child  laborers  and     develop  policy  for  improvements     -­‐Led  by  Julia  Lathrop  (HH)  expert  in  living  conditions  in  Chicago  tenements     -­‐Lobbied  for  Keating-­‐Owen  child  labor  act  (1916)     School  of  Civics  and  Philanthropy     -­‐Founded  1908   -­‐Professionalization  and  social  work   -­‐Stressed  social  scientific  research  method  of  data  collection   -­‐Merged  with  University  of  Chicago   -­‐Sophonisba  Breckinridge  (HH)  and  Abbot  sisters     Lecture  Themes   -­‐1890s-­‐1920s  suffrage  movement  gains  support  from  progressive  reformers   -­‐Suffrage  issue  temporarily  unites  women  activists  behind  a  single  cause   -­‐Conflicting  strategies  of  NAWSA  and  NWP  reveal  internal  divisions  among  women   activists     -­‐More  women  are  involved  in  reform  now  (millions)     -­‐Gained  popular  support  from  women  but  also  male  support     -­‐All  major  parties  endorsed  suffrage     -­‐Democrats  pull  back  support  once  they  get  into  office,  progressives  felt  that  in     order  to  court  liberal  voters  they  felt  compelled  to  support  to  gain  votes  but     then  pulled  back.     Brief  history  of  the  movement   -­‐Seneca  Falls  Convention  (1848)       -­‐First  mention  of  suffrage   -­‐Post-­‐Civil  war  split  in  women’s  movement       -­‐American  women’s  suffrage  association  (1869)       -­‐Trying  to  win  each  state  for  suffrage     -­‐Leaders:  Lucy  stone,  Julia  ward  Howe     -­‐State-­‐by-­‐state  effort   -­‐National  women’s  suffrage  association  (1869)     -­‐Campaigned  against  15  amendment  (African  American  men  right  to  vote)   -­‐Leaders:  Susan  B  Anthony  and  Elizabeth  Cady  Stanton     -­‐Says  federal  amendment  is  better   -­‐Campaigned  for  federal  Amendment       Reuniting  the  Movement   -­‐1890  NWSA  and  AWSA,  merge  become  national  Americans  women’s  suffrage   association  (NAWSA   -­‐Carrie  Chapman  Catt  &  Anna  Howard  Shaw,  expert  lobbyist       Catt’s  Winning  Plan   -­‐1914  woman’s  suffrage  petition  w/500k  signatures   -­‐Savvy  political  lobbyist,  used  suffrage  states  as  political  capital   -­‐Social  feminist,  argued  for  power  of  native  born  female  vote   -­‐“Sold”  suffrage  using  modern  public  relations     -­‐Altered  her  argument  to  her  audience  (make  arguments  that  appeal  to     mainstream  attitudes  towards  gender)     -­‐  Suggested  to  conservative  women  politics  are  corrupt,  men  are  self-­‐interested     and  have  made  and  mess,  need  women  with  moral  characters  to    mop  up  their     mess.       -­‐Arguments  against  suffrage  poor  man  is  left  with  crying  kids,  women  aren’t     going  to  be  good  mothers  if  they  have  the  right  to  vote:  Countered  that  with     dolls  saying  “give  my  mommy  the  vote”,  pro  suffrage  statements  incorporating     children.     NAWSA  Congressional  Union  (CU)   -­‐DC  office  pursued  federal  amendment  (headed  by  Alice  Paul)   -­‐Suffrage  Parade  (Washington  DC,  march  3,  1913  modeled  off  WPU  parade  in  NY)   -­‐300  injured  in  mob  violence     -­‐First  thing  Alice  does  is  plans  suffrage  parade  (march  13 )    1  day  before   th   presidential  ingeneration  (Windrow  Wilson  comes  into  town)  set  out  to  steal     presidential  thunder  which  characterizes  Alice  and  Catt’s,  relationship.     -­‐Suffrage  parade,  has  women  representing  every  state  and  every  occupation,     women  from  all  kinds  of  religious  organizations,  men  supporters,  parade  set  up     to  cut  off  presidential  path  form  train  to  where  he  was  staying,  that  made     problems.  (100  went  to  hospital,  300  injured  as  result  of  the  parade)       -­‐Aggressive  nature,  in  a  means  of  meant  to  cut  off  president  elect,  but  also     statements  that  women  were  making  in  their  posters,  were  found  offensive     -­‐Wanted  to  raise  public  discourse,  and  the  fact  that  there  was  an  incent  meant       that  instead  of  just  getting  local  attention  I  got  statewide  and  national     attention.       Alice  Paul   -­‐Quaker  origins     -­‐Believed  in  equality  of  male  and  female  soul     -­‐Wasn’t  until  adult  that  she  realized  that  not  everyone  thought  that  and  it  was     a  religious  perspective.   -­‐Education     -­‐Degree  in  biology,  PHD  in  constitutional  law     -­‐Comes  from  affluent  family,  never  marries     -­‐Travels  to  England  and  participates  in  suffrage  movements  there     -­‐Gets  arrested  and  engages  in  hunger  strike   -­‐Influence  of  Pankhurst’s  (UK)     -­‐Women  deserve  the  vote  because  they  are  human  beings,  share  basic  needs     and  desires,  as  men  and  deserve  the  same  rights   -­‐Ideology  and  Strategy       -­‐Argues  that  if  current  power  doesn’t  award  the  vote  to  women  they  are  the     enemy  (Catt:  you  are  my  friend  here  is  why  the  women’s  vote  will  help  you.         Paul:  you  wont  give  me  my  vote  you  are  the  enemy)  different  ideologies.     National  Woman’s  Party   -­‐Congressional  Union  split  from  NAWSA  1916  (merged  w/  Blatch’s  WPU)   -­‐Formed  NWP  1917  from  among  enfranchised  women   -­‐Viewed  suffrage  as  human  right,  downplayed  gender        


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