Week 4 notes
Popular in History of Women in the U.S. part 2
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Popular in History
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taryn manciu on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist309 at University of Oregon taught by Professor Bufalino in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of Women in the U.S. part 2 in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Week 4 Monday Women and Progressive Reform Lecture Themes -‐Progressives, reformers who sought gov’t regulation to protect citizens from industrial abuses, 1880-‐1920 -‐Social feminists worked primarily with other women for social/political change; employed rhetoric of women’s moral superiority to advocate for reform -‐The settlement movement, Hull House in particular, served as a nexus for the leading women reformers of the era Progressives -‐Blame social ills on unchecked abuses of capitalism -‐Seek greater social equality though regulation and legislation -‐Contrast with: radicals-‐ who blames social ills on capitalism AND SEEK TO OVERTHROW IT, PLACING WOKRING MAJORITY IN CONTROL -‐Conservative – who seek to maintain traditional power structures and blame social ills on individual (moral) failings -‐People who want to maintain status quo, people who benefit from the current structure -‐All these social ills are caused by human failing Impact of Triangle Fire -‐Blanck and Harris acquitted of criminal charges -‐Civil suits win $75/lost life (not significantly large sum) -‐Increase in state inspections of factories -‐25 new labor laws -‐First female of secretory of labor for the state, went after labor laws -‐The courts trial to find out if company itself is responsible for deaths from fire or not -‐This leads to agitation by number of groups that lead to new labor laws -‐A few years after the incent various factory inspectors found that they were in fact at fault, which resulted in Blanck and Harris to be called into court again…then judge apologizes for calling in and were fined lowest amount possible Women and “Radicalism” -‐Identified urban problems as systematic called for revolutionary change -‐Influence of Marxism -‐Critique of harsh conditions of industrial capitalism -‐Stressed workers identities over gender identity -‐More open to including women workers than craft unions were, radicals seeking to unionize working class felt that by isolating or eliminating groups, were not productive and they needed all kinds of people to make it work -‐Familiarity w/ social in native countries -‐Anarcho-‐syndicalism -‐Free-‐love/quality -‐Free speech -‐Birth control -‐Women advocated for equal rights for women -‐Time where talking about birth control or sending information about it is illegal, women who can not afford to have children are bringing more children into the world because they are not educated or allowed to regulate Industrial Unionism -‐International Workers of the World (IWW) -‐Founded in 1905 nicknamed “Wobblies” -‐“One big union” industrial unionism vs. trade unionism -‐IWW philosophy, direct actions, syndicalism (gender and race) -‐Strikes -‐1912, “bread and roses” Lawrence, MA – 25K workers -‐People who represent 26 different language groups, recent immigrants, IWW was responsible for coordinating and orchestrating all the people -‐1913, Paterson (NJ) silk strike 25k workers -‐Labor organization composed of members employed in a particular field such as textiles, or mining but who perform different individual jobs within their general type of work, including low skill workers. -‐IWW wanted to control everything, wanted everyone to go on strike that they could get. Attempting to gather all members and exert as much power as possible -‐Believed in direct action (strikes), not interested in government or industry and negotiation (women didn’t not feel comfortable in union halls because they were not very welcoming to women) -‐Interested in organizing women in the streets as they were striking -‐Women were aggressive, (strikes during this period were violent) -‐Because this work and the changes in theory status was going to affect women’s ability to survive and support families this threatened the women and they were willing to fight as hard as they could in order to protect that The Feminism of Emma Goldman -‐Emancipation of Women -‐Viewed marriage as inherently corrupting institution -‐Critiqued of marriage rooted in Marxists analysis -‐Believed that advert of freely loving relationship depended on emancipation of women economically politically and social -‐Advocated Birth Control -‐Mentored Margaret Sanger, advocated challenging Comstock laws -‐Saw “birth control” (Margaret Sangers term) as part of broader agenda to emancipate women -‐If women were free within their relationships they could be as intelligent and powerful in a variety of ways as men were. -‐Women trade their dominance, sexuality and other things in exchange to be protective and taken care of in the home and financially. -‐Believed that women should be emancipated, in all ways that men were -‐Comstock laws should be eradicated (laws to talk about, distribute or have birth control) -‐Was willing to make political sacrifices in order to pass this law. Embrace eugenics ideal in order to pass the law (too many people that we don’t like not enough that we do like) -‐Women who are economically able to have children should have them financially unstable people should not thus birth control. Settlement Movement -‐Began in 1880s in US by 1900-‐100 settlement house in US -‐“Residents” – educated, native born, middle and upper class reformers who lived/ worked among -‐Provided social services to working class. esp. women and children, living in poverty; advocated systematic reform (not revolution) -‐Spaces in rented house in working class neighborhoods where people are industrial workers, people of color, lower class, these houses are not working class they are “new women” (educated native born) most of them have completely college, dedicated to some kind of reform, shared desire to help working class and poor people, settlement houses provided this space, communal living for women. “Boston marriage” (mission of settlement house to provide aid within community, but also provided vital work space to seek alternative traditional roles women had. Hull House -‐Founded in Chicago in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr (Engaged in Boston marriage together) -‐Conducted research on urban conditions -‐Provided services to working class people -‐Kindergarten/day care -‐Well-‐baby clinic -‐Employment bureau -‐Art gallery, theater, library (w/ classes) -‐English and citizenship classes -‐Meeting places for trade union groups -‐Public kitchen and baths -‐Proper “true women” do not occupy public spaces; by having their own space they avoided being harassed. -‐ Industry of industrial medicine emerged -‐Hull house provided information on all kinds of information about the city Jane Addams -‐Most prominent “new” woman of the progressive era -‐Education -‐Graduated from school in Illinois (graduated 1892), member of wealthy family, represent shift in education for women, awarded with bachelors -‐Relationships -‐She was a person who was dedicated to the idea of helping others, viewed herself of the urban poor, engaging in relationships with other women allowed to have those perks of being married without being married to a man. They didn’t have to divided her time between being a wife and a mother -‐Politics -‐Tried to accuse her of being communists, she didn’t want to say what her affiliation was however she was trying to get social equality but with not evidence of overthrowing capitalist to do it (anit-‐WW1) strong commitment to pacifism. (“The good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain until it is secured for all of us) liberal reform -‐Feminism -‐Willing to speak before congress believed women had strong roll to play, felt women of middle class bare huge responsibility to extend caregiving of home into the streets. Her feminism was consistent with exercising their moral superiority in caregiving. -‐Founder -‐Hull House -‐Women’s international league for peace and freedom -‐Winner of Nobel peace price (1931) Week 4 Wednesday Suffrage Residents of Hull House -‐Most of the leading female reformers resided here at some point -‐Formed vital network of personal, social, political relationships -‐National and international influence -‐New deal -‐National consumers league -‐From Eleanor Roosevelt and her contracts she gained access to a lot of the women who worked at hull house, which granted the women of hull house access to government roles National Consumer’s League -‐Founded 1899, to unite consumers with labor in advocacy of fair labor practices (& later, quality products) -‐White label campaign -‐Meat inspection act and pure food and drug act -‐Protective legislation for women and children -‐1930s started to get involved with other quality control markets, primary focus use consumers (women) power of their pocket good as a mechanism to improve women’s spending. -‐The Jungle 1904/6 early investigative journalist went undercover in slaughter house, and identified and described horrific process and practices of the meat packing industry, which lead to protective legislation -‐Florence Kelly, HH resident -‐1 female factory inspector under 1893 Illinois factory inspection act -‐Founding secretary, NCL -‐Role in Brandeis Brief (Muller v. Oregon 1908) -‐Major advocate for legislation Social Feminist Leadership on Government -‐Women’s Bureau -‐Formed in 1920 (under labor dept.) to investigate conditions of women in industry and development policy for improvements -‐Led by Mary Anderson (HH), trade unionist, labor organizer -‐Lobbied for Sheppard Tower Maternity and Infant Protection Act. (1921) -‐Children’s Bureau -‐Formed 1912 (labor dept.) to investigate conditions of child laborers and develop policy for improvements -‐Led by Julia Lathrop (HH) expert in living conditions in Chicago tenements -‐Lobbied for Keating-‐Owen child labor act (1916) School of Civics and Philanthropy -‐Founded 1908 -‐Professionalization and social work -‐Stressed social scientific research method of data collection -‐Merged with University of Chicago -‐Sophonisba Breckinridge (HH) and Abbot sisters Lecture Themes -‐1890s-‐1920s suffrage movement gains support from progressive reformers -‐Suffrage issue temporarily unites women activists behind a single cause -‐Conflicting strategies of NAWSA and NWP reveal internal divisions among women activists -‐More women are involved in reform now (millions) -‐Gained popular support from women but also male support -‐All major parties endorsed suffrage -‐Democrats pull back support once they get into office, progressives felt that in order to court liberal voters they felt compelled to support to gain votes but then pulled back. Brief history of the movement -‐Seneca Falls Convention (1848) -‐First mention of suffrage -‐Post-‐Civil war split in women’s movement -‐American women’s suffrage association (1869) -‐Trying to win each state for suffrage -‐Leaders: Lucy stone, Julia ward Howe -‐State-‐by-‐state effort -‐National women’s suffrage association (1869) -‐Campaigned against 15 amendment (African American men right to vote) -‐Leaders: Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton -‐Says federal amendment is better -‐Campaigned for federal Amendment Reuniting the Movement -‐1890 NWSA and AWSA, merge become national Americans women’s suffrage association (NAWSA -‐Carrie Chapman Catt & Anna Howard Shaw, expert lobbyist Catt’s Winning Plan -‐1914 woman’s suffrage petition w/500k signatures -‐Savvy political lobbyist, used suffrage states as political capital -‐Social feminist, argued for power of native born female vote -‐“Sold” suffrage using modern public relations -‐Altered her argument to her audience (make arguments that appeal to mainstream attitudes towards gender) -‐ Suggested to conservative women politics are corrupt, men are self-‐interested and have made and mess, need women with moral characters to mop up their mess. -‐Arguments against suffrage poor man is left with crying kids, women aren’t going to be good mothers if they have the right to vote: Countered that with dolls saying “give my mommy the vote”, pro suffrage statements incorporating children. NAWSA Congressional Union (CU) -‐DC office pursued federal amendment (headed by Alice Paul) -‐Suffrage Parade (Washington DC, march 3, 1913 modeled off WPU parade in NY) -‐300 injured in mob violence -‐First thing Alice does is plans suffrage parade (march 13 ) 1 day before th presidential ingeneration (Windrow Wilson comes into town) set out to steal presidential thunder which characterizes Alice and Catt’s, relationship. -‐Suffrage parade, has women representing every state and every occupation, women from all kinds of religious organizations, men supporters, parade set up to cut off presidential path form train to where he was staying, that made problems. (100 went to hospital, 300 injured as result of the parade) -‐Aggressive nature, in a means of meant to cut off president elect, but also statements that women were making in their posters, were found offensive -‐Wanted to raise public discourse, and the fact that there was an incent meant that instead of just getting local attention I got statewide and national attention. Alice Paul -‐Quaker origins -‐Believed in equality of male and female soul -‐Wasn’t until adult that she realized that not everyone thought that and it was a religious perspective. -‐Education -‐Degree in biology, PHD in constitutional law -‐Comes from affluent family, never marries -‐Travels to England and participates in suffrage movements there -‐Gets arrested and engages in hunger strike -‐Influence of Pankhurst’s (UK) -‐Women deserve the vote because they are human beings, share basic needs and desires, as men and deserve the same rights -‐Ideology and Strategy -‐Argues that if current power doesn’t award the vote to women they are the enemy (Catt: you are my friend here is why the women’s vote will help you. Paul: you wont give me my vote you are the enemy) different ideologies. National Woman’s Party -‐Congressional Union split from NAWSA 1916 (merged w/ Blatch’s WPU) -‐Formed NWP 1917 from among enfranchised women -‐Viewed suffrage as human right, downplayed gender
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