BA 352 Week 4
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Tucker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BA 352 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Chad in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Managing Individual and Team Performance in Business at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
BA 352 Week 4 Session 1 Stress Definitions Stress o A psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes for the person and that tax or exceed the person’s capacity or resources o The demands are… Stressors o The negative consequences associated with stress are called… Strains Most Stressful jobs 40% of US workers describe their jobs as stressful What is the most stressful job you’ve ever had? Most stressful: taxi drivers, police officer, newspaper reporter, corporate executives, public relations exec, event coordinator, airline pilot, firefighters, military generals, and enlisted military personnel (most stressful). Least stressful: drill operator, dietician, hairstylist, jeweler Working at Google Google is famous for its “stress-free” workplace Are there any downsides to perks like this? How could there be? So many things are provided that it can really stress you out that you have to stay Transactional theory of stress Primary appraisal o Is this stressful? Secondary Appraisal o How can I cope? Word hindrance stressors Hindrance stressors o Perceived as obstacles to one’s progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment—often associated with negative emotions (anxiety, anger) o Recall the definition of a “role”… A position in a social system (e.g., a job in an organization) and the expectations—i.e., the bundle of tasks and responsibilities—associated with that position. Role conflict: o Conflicting expectations that other people have of us at work Either within a single role or between two different roles. o Example: customer service specialist; feeling sympathy for individuals who cannot afford to buy more products, but continuing to encourage them to buy more… Role ambiguity: o Lack of information about what the role consists of as well as how to perform it well. Role overload: o The role (or roles) simply requires too much for one person to complete o More common stressor than conflict or ambiguity Daily hassles: o Paperwork, emails, equipment malfunctions Non-work hindrance stressors Work-family (or work-life) conflict o A type of role conflict—two different roles Can you be a good boyfriend/girlfriend/spouse/friend and a good employee? Is work-life balance the answer? Is it even possible? Negative life events o Death, divorce, etc Work Challenge stressors Challenge stressors: o Perceived as opportunities for growth and learning—often associated with positive emotions (pride, enthusiasm, excitement) Time pressure: o Job demands that you complete a task in less time than you have Work complexity o Job demands more skills that you currently have Work responsibility o Job demands high stakes for someone other than yourself. o Ex: Air traffic controllers Non-work challenge stressors Family time demands o Traveling with family, birthday parties Personal development o Piano lessons, volunteering at a charity, religious participation Positive life events o Marriage, having a baby, etc. Coping strategies—the secondary appraisal Coping o The behaviors and thoughts used to manage stressors and the (negative) emotions they provoke o Behavioral methods v. cognitive methods o Emotion v. Problem Focused Strain: the consequence of stress Stress is serious business Physiological strain o Immune system, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal system Psychological strain o Depression, anxiety, memory loss Behavioral strain o Alcoholism, smoking, compulsive eating What kinds of individuals are likely to be “stressed out”? Type A behavior pattern o What are “Type A” people like? Impatient, aggressive, ambitious, competitive o More likely to be given additional responsibilities, but also to create conflict o Hypersensitive to potential obstacles (e.g., hindrance stressors). More likely to have a strong psychological response to such remands in primary appraisal. o Also leads directly to strain Moderator of stress strain relationship The relationship between stress and strain (i.e., the likelihood that stress will lead to strain) depends on the amount of social support you have o HLow levels of support—stronger relationship between stress and strain o High levels—weaker relationship Social support o Instrumental support—e.g., co-worker helps you with your workload o Emotional support—e.g., co-worker helps you handle negative emotions BA 352 Week 4 Session 2 Session 6 Trust, Justice, Ethics Definitions Who is the most trustworthy person you know? What makes them trustworthy? Who is the most trustworthy person you don’t know? Why? Trust o The willingness to be vulnerable with someone based on positive expectations about that person’s actions and intentions Being trusted is critical For organizations o Employees o Customers Must trust the company before they are willing to purchase o General public Reputation: prominence of brand and perceived quality of goods and services For You in your career o Getting a job, promotions Trust drivers Disposition o Your personality influences the degree to which you trust someone o Trust propensity Personality trait that includes a general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of others can be relied upon Are you a suspicious, skeptical person by nature? Like all relatively-stable traits, trust propensity comes from both nature and nurture Cognitions o Your thoughts—your rational assessments—influence the degree to which you trust someone o Trustworthiness Characteristics or attributes of a trustee the inspire trust Track record of ability Track record of benevolence Track record of integrity o David Tovar, Former PR Chief at Wal-Mart Affect o Your emotions influence the degree to which you trust someone You trust someone because you like them o But where does this emotion—this fondness that makes someone appear trustworthy and allows you to be vulnerable with them—come from? Oxytocin, the “Trust Molecule” Here’s a tip: if you want someone to trust you, trust THEM first! Justice Another way of judging the trustworthiness of an authority Justice o The perceived fairness of an authority’s decision-making (how they “do” things) For dimension of justice o Distributive justice: are the outcome of his/her decision fair? o Procedural justice: Is his/her decision-making fair? When does procedural justice matter most? Distributive justice is a moderator for the perception of procedural justice. o Interactional justice: does he/she treat me fairly? o Informational justice: does he/she communicate about decisions fairly? What else influences perceptions of trustworthiness? The authority figure’s morals and moral behavior Ethics o A shared set of principles (i.e., norms) regarding right vs. wrong behaviors o We evaluate authority figures on the degree to which their behaviors are in accordance with these principles. o How ought people to behave? (Prescriptive) o How do people tend to behave with respect to accepted norms or morality? (Descriptive) Morals o A personal set of principles regarding right vs. wrong behaviors. The four-component model Moral awareness o The recognition/realization that a moral issue exists in a situation Moral intensity Potential for harm Strength of social norms Moral attentiveness: some people are more attentive than others Moral judgment o The process by which one decides whether a behavior is moral or immoral Kohlberg’s theory of CMD Pre-conventional (based off of the fear of punishment; pleasure and pain), conventional (determined by the people around us; parents, society, etc), post-conventional (determined by us as individuals). Moral intent o Degree of commitment to the moral course of action Shaped by extent to which you are a “bad apple” or a “good apple” “good apple” = strong moral identity You see yourself as a moral person Also shared by whether or not you’re in a “bad barrel” Toxic organizational culture o (Hopefully) leads to ethical behavior! Trust moderately correlated with job performance (.3) Trust strongly correlated with organizational commitment (.5)