Week 2 Notes
University of Memphis
Popular in Tennessee History
Popular in History
Bryce Balistreri MD
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bradley Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10507 at University of Memphis taught by Sivananda in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Tennessee History in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 1 12616 Europeans Arrive Hernado De Soto Arrived with 600 Spaniards to Chatt. East TN Year 1540 French Jacques Marquette He was a Jesuit Louis Joliet, a fur trader Traveled down the MS River into the Arkansas River and into Memphis James Needham and Gabriel Arthur – Great Valley of East TN They started in the English colony of Virginia Private agents of one of the leading merchants Abraham Woods – a merchant that tagged along o Attempted to expand trade to trans Appalachian country o Experienced long and difficult trek to the Great Valley of East TN o July 1673 made contact with Cherokee in a Cherokee town French and English conquest was more significant that Spanish Had sustained penetration of the TN land This also marked the beginning of the end for TN’s native culture Cherokees Eng and French appeared Not many Indians were in TN when they first appeared Shawnee hunted in Cumberland Creeks in Chatt. Chickasaw in Middle and West TN Cherokee Dominated Population of 30,000 50 towns Mainly in south Apps 4 districts in 4 states o West North and South Carolina o Northern Georgia o East TN Signature Town Tanasi (Tennessee) Cherokee Hunting Grounds East and Mid TN Chickasaws, Shawnees, and Others disputed Indians Supplied: Animal skins Furs Slaves (captured from enemy tribes) Deer Beavers Depletion of game and Intertribal Warfare Europeans Supplied Guns Jewelry Ammunitions Blankets Tools Also used credit with Indians Exchanges: Musket/35 deer skins Hatchet/ 3 deer skins Broadcloth coat/ 30 deer skins Indian Influence Vs European Influence Change in native lifestyle Depended on European weapons Natural Forest was exploited Friction among tribes Intertribal warfare Cherokees Vs Creeks Cherokees Vs Shawnee Cherokees survived Their demise: decline in population and the white man’s rum Cherokee’s principle contribution to the white man Agriculture Domestication of animals English forced Cherokees to establish centralized administration Cherokees French and Indian War French Vs England Indians played France Vs Eng Indian allies Trade Gift giving English had the advantage Virginians to Carolinians French treated Indians with respect French operated along MS and Nashville British shabby treatment of Indians Sir Alexander Cummings and 6 Cherokee men King George II Cherokee men forced to sign treaty o Forced to submit and trade exclusively with Eng o One of the 6 Cherokee men was Attakullakulla (little carpenter) Anglophile Cherokee Indian (English Brainwashed) Francophile Cherokee Indian (French Brainwashed) o Oconostota was a Francophile o Blamed Eng for small pox Christian Priber AntiEngland Campaign One of his goals was to create a paradise Kingdom of Paradise: a place with no whites Arrested and died under English custody James Glen Wished to bind the Cherokees together Authorized the construction of English forts Fort Prince George in South Carolina Series of forts constructed in the Cherokee region Useful instrument to control native population This bolstered England’s presence in upper, Mid, and lower Cherokee regions With Cherokee support: English could win war against French Anglo Cherokee alliance did not last for long Cherokee warriors plundered white settlements in Virginia Virginians killed some Cherokee Cherokee killed settlers in retaliation Similar confrontation took place in Carolina English halted supplies of arms and ammunitions Blow to Cherokee’s hunting and selfdefense Oconostota had conference with Eng and was taken hostage but was later released Oconostota later attacked white settlers Attacked Fort Prince George The fort’s commander was mortally wounded In retaliation 23 Cherokee hostages were killed Siege of Fort Loudon from March to August (1760) British army was dispatched Several expeditions were a failure Friendly group of Cherokees lead by Attakullakulla negotiated a treaty Release all hostages and return to Fort Loudon for the British Strained relations led to allout war Treaty of Paris France left North America Proclamation of 1763 King George III Crest of Appalachians (says to stay in this area) Was ignored by long hunters and violated the proclamation Chapter 2: Frontier Times White Migration Upper East TN Cherokee land Sparked by push and pull factor st 1 white settlers came from upper east TN Regulators (movement against taxes) North Carolina Taxation and unfair representation Internal strife Opportunity Land speculation (also thought the land would be tax free) Many flocked despite the many challenges in new frontier 1 group of settlers led to : Friends and family joining them later Flood of white settlers to upper East TN 4 districts 1) North Holston Founder: Evan Shelby Present day: Bristol, TN 2) Watauga Founders: William Beans and James Roberts Present day: Elizabethton 3) Carter Valley Founder: John Carter Kingsport and Rogersville 4) Nollchucky Founder: Jacob Brown Erwin Lochabe Treaty 1770 o Cherokees and British officials formed it o Prohibits white settlers into Cherokee land o Virginia and North Carolina settlers ignored treaty o British officials authorized survey John Donelson was head of surveying team Alex Cameron and Attakullakulla were his assistant Survey reveals that 3 of 4 districts were illegal Except North Holston White settlers to vacate the land White resistance Representative of the 3 districts Quasi state or Watauga Association (formed by settlers) Sent emissaries to Cherokee chief James Robertson and others convinced the chiefs to lease land for a specified time in exchange for goods Watauga 5 member legislative judicial council Sheriff Clerk Minor offices Frontier leaders Fort Patrick (North Holston) General Rutherford of NC marched to the Cherokees Treaty negotiations with Cherokees Formal concessions of land with new boundaries legalizing all four original white settlement Wilderness Calling II: Cumberland Push to Cumberland River Richard Henderson Enlisted James Robertson and John Donnellson Explore and settle Cumberland area Cumberland Expedition swift move before NC voids Henderson’s monopoly on those lands Sent Robertson in summer 1779 Robertson: Cumberland to Kentucky to Cumberland River to French Lick (Nashville) Robertson return to Watauga with enthusiastic report Richard Henderson, James Robertson and John Donnellson Recruited 300 men, women and children “new pioneers” in 1780s Promised land 2 months trip Everyone survived Different bands arrived Watauga Chores Farming Hunting Trading 3 years of prosperity and expansion 1775 American Rev. Revolutionary Committee of Safety (3 districts except North Holston) Organized themselves as the Washington District (changed name) Special committee headed by John Carter Watauga Association Union with either Virginia or NC Watauga Indian Relations Good relations between Cherokees and early white settlers Cherokee Concessions This has changed Treaty with Indians Richard Henderson and Transylvania Land Company Cherokees Chief met with them Vast tracts of lands form Cherokees Land grabbing treaty Household of goods (ten thousand pounds) Sycamore Shoals meeting Johnson City and Ashville 1200 Cherokees Dragging Canoe opposition to land scale Henderson behind the scene lobbying Sealed the land deal with Attakullakulla, Oconostota, and Savanucah Conflict between Cherokees and white settlers of Upper East TN British help for Cherokees Watauga white settlers help from VA and NC 3 pronged Cherokee attack Dragging Canoe attack on North Holston settlement Whites fought back Chief Savanucah (“ The Raven”) attacked Carter’s Valley Burned and plundered White settlements Old Abram and Chilowee attacked Watauga or Sycamore Shoals Indians retreat after 2 weeks siege of Sycamore Shoals Neighboring white settlements sent troops NC, VA, SC, GA (2000 troops)
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