HIST 2003 American History to 1877 Week 1 Notes
HIST 2003 American History to 1877 Week 1 Notes HIST 2003
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wade Carter on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2003 at University of Arkansas taught by David Schieffler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see HIST 2003: History of the American People to 1877 in History at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
all Preegolumbian Indians European Emitng 8 Congetgand Snaniih French Early En lish Colonization Di and quote39 h w a 39 quota A r K r e his law J lo 5 vs 5 8ng Gammon Era V5 36 laticenturyr lg 39 A Q Will it century 2000s C UMMQH Eh J Northern and Southern Hemispheres separated by the equator o Western and Eastern Hemisphere Jr The Westquot usually includes countries with a significant number of people of grammars descent i o 7 Mostly First World developed countries as opposed to 771 7 World poor air M ifquot quot19 I First Second and Third World designations originated during the War Current world population w v i39d il h Most populous countries in the world today C v N i hadoneachild policy L3 hillsquot H 2 a Ma liker will surpass China soon I 2 5quot tttlrm re t 39 9739 3 Wig4 E 3i million 4 In g iia more Muslims than any other country DC 0 Americas 3 North ce nt rah and South America is Didnit have humans originally 3r We think the ancestors of modem humans rst appeared in eastern 7 7 rice 4 million years ago o talc V W 7 one of the earliest hominids found with opposable thumbs lived 55 million years ago 0 Homo sapiens l Mi39ak39r man came about around 200000 years ago We aren t certain about when the rst humans came to the Americas 7 Probably 067 years ago he Probably migrated here from what is today Silzlertiaa Russia he During the last ice 7 Age o Period when worldwide temperatures are on averae a little colder o Portions of the earth s oceans froze and sea levels dropped by as much as m feet o Exposed a land bridge across the garfag it w Strait which separates Alaska from Russia 3 miles wide at its narrowest J I llumans who crossed were probably hunters chasing big animals like mammoths and wooly nos o Had no idea they were entering a new continent lee Age ended I till 0 DO 77 years ago o temperatures warmed ice melted sea levels rose and the land bridge was cxwered with water o No more overland movement between Asia and the Americas 1 But humans continued moving throughout the Americas By 9UUU years ago humans had spread to the southern tip of South America 3 By this time the population of North America was m 0 0 0 00 people 7 39339 Over the next 6000 years that population grew to a l 00 The rst great American civilizations arose in modernday L be Between w300 and 900 All cities ofpyrarnids palaces and temples surrounded by peasant villages were built there To feed their large populations these natives usually grew Wcor n mtg ll EA j a a d 5r 7r included the Vang i who used astronomy and math to develop a calendar more accurate than the one Europeans were using in 1492 Also the prefect o By the early 16thh century there were 5 million Aztecs and some estimate as many as 20 million o Built cities and farmed vast elds o Living on the outskirts of the empire were subject peoples whom the Aztecs forced to work and pay tribute including human sacri ce Largest Aztec city and capital was Tenochtitlan I City built on islands in a large lake I Fresh water brought into the city via stone aqueducts I With a population of m 7 600 W it was by far the largest city in the Americas at the time I 392 Largest city In Spain was Seville which only had 7C 7 7 people o 15 l 9 Spanish invaded I l Spanish soldier These great towns and pyramids land buildings arising from the water all made of stone seemed like an enchanted vision from the tale of Amadis indeed some of our soldiers asked whether it was not all a dream quotlaylor p 53 O Other early native groups Jr The in 6a built an empire stretching 4000 miles across the Andes Mountains 39r The M555 5395 Wine 77 7 7 people were organized in numerous chiet doms in what is today the southeast U s quot R Their largest political and ceremonial center was akin located along the Mississippi River east of modernday St Louis I Developed between 900 and H00 AD I Covered about 6 square miles I Population ofat least m can 7 A people perhaps 40000 l 00 earthen burial and temple mounds 9 Largest was Monkis Mound which was 1l0 tall and wi acres at its base I Probably a wooden temple on top that housed the chiet and his family and servants I Included hundreds of houses for commoners I City surrounded by a stockade with watchtowers I Outside the stockade was a circle of posts what archaeologists call u r W It Largest native settlement north of Mexico yet it was abandoned by the middle of the 13 h century awhy 90 Overhunting 5 a calendar to determine equinoxes and solsticesl o a Deforestation 6 Disease o Other MississlPPian Peoples were later devastated by S l l zmi rd Hernando die s marauding expedition 15391543 LP The Ir other lived in modernday eastern U S including in upstate NY and Penn sylvania l 0 included at least FirE a Nations o Early 16m century the Nations formed quotThe Great League of Peace and Bauer Not a Europ eawesque nationistate because each village remained autonomous More like a pact of mutual mgr grayish o Iroquois males were formidable warriors JJ 1 See the tradition of mourning wars to replace those who d quotbeen killed in battle o metffm39ldl39laei culture I Women farmed and the men pursued war Native American groups were quite diverse but many had a few things in common I g They believed you could claimiusermown land but they did not believe land was a U commaship 7 7 o Natives belie ived you could use land even if someone else had owned claimed it I So they sometimes granted land claims to multiples groups of Europeans o Historian William Cronon The difference between lndians and Europeans was not that one had property and the other had none rather it was that they loved property differently Changes in the Land quotp 801 it 2 Subscribed to 7 an r39m m with supernatural power 39r M 7 H fronds sometimes over long distances o For example Rocky Mountain obsidian and Great Lakes copper has been found in coastal regions a belief that objects in the natural world are lled Europeans didn t arrive in the Americas until the end of the 15th century By then there were many ditferent groups of people already living there o Estimates By l4925 70 7 million people lived in North and South America I Perhaps million lived north oil the Rio Grande 39 3e Many different peoples and cultures 0 in 1492 there were perhaps 375 different native languages being spoken in North America I Similarly by the same year the Paci c Northwest and northern Caliiomia included a 53910 G H separate native communities speaking some 50 7 languages o 39li hese people did not view themselves as an allinclusive group called Inateens W or Native Americans i Europeans gave them these names Who were the lSit Europeans to discover the Americas Probably Name man aha V ikings o Leif Eraya faint led a voyage to Vinland presentaday Newfoundland around 39I 000 AD 39 V inland may have been a base camp for subsequent trips to the Canadian mainland The Norse weren t in North America very long as natives probably ran them off 0 Norse discovery didn t really matter I Very few people outside of northern Scandinavia ever heard about their trips 9 Historian Daniel Bootstin Was there ever before so long a voyage that made so little difference The Discoverers p 21539 I Additionally Europe wasn t ready for discoveries 00 By 7 Europe would be ready So what happened from 000 14912 that got Europe ready t Causeses 0 Series of wars from l h 1339h centuries o European Christians traveled to the Holy Land to rescue Jerusalem from the Muslims o l0 total Crusades that took place over 200 years 0 Q In the end the Muslims lrept Jerusalem and many people died For our purposes the big effect was that Europeans were esposed to Obtain goodsspices silk porcelain etc I Created a demand for such items in Europe r The Travels ofMarr o E sa o Christopher Columbus had a copy and loved it the 3 The 7 QanmiSS nd 7 o Cultural rebirth that began in modernday ltaly in the 14 century and eventually spread throughout Europe 0 Greater interest in the physical world and in the ideas art customs and culture oiquot ancient Greece and Rome 0 Artists inventors explorers I See Leonardo da Vinci s ying machine and Johann Gutenbergls grintinu 7 Population boom in the 15 quot century I namsas o in the 1340s the Bubonic Plague had killed more than 3 7 of Europe s population I Asa result of the subsequent population hoom there was a need for new a a 7 I J Why else did Europeans explore The 3 Gs o l Gon spread Christianity I Portuguese explorer Bartolomeo Dias said he explored to serve God and His Majesty to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to doquot Taylor p 58 quot2 gor y 77 for the explorers and their homelands 3 getJ 7 riches I European demand for Oriental goods I Those who could afford the goods were willingto pay a lot for them Q G I Problemmlurltish conquests meant 7 5 m 5 controlled the land on the eastern Mediterranean sir Solution Find a we tierquot route to the Orient 7 I 7 7 7 was the early leader in overseas exploration L great location on the ocean 2r government support 0 Prince Hear it 7 the Navigator s navigation school 0 By that time Henry i died in 1460 Portuguese sailors had established trading posts along most of the west coast of Africa To get to Asia the Portuguese wanted to sail around what we call the Cape of Good ame is MES Bartolomeo 7 Dru 5 fleet was the first to round the Cape 14981 asco da 7 Game 7 s fleet rounded the Cape and reached ludia in the l48 0s a Genoese sailor named Christopher 7 Co loathe 5 7 got in on the action His plan was to sail west across the Atlantic to East Asia o Not the rst guy to propose this route Columbus rst asked the Bardeen 5a 7 crown to fund his expedition o Portuguese turned him down fwhy o N 0T because Columbus believed the world was round and everyone else thought it was 7 73d 7 l I Ancient Greek mathematicians had determined that the earth was round years earlier I All educated men in 1492 knew the earth was round see map o Columbus was rejected because he thought the earth39s circumference was ml 3000 miles and thus that Japan was only 77 5 7 miles west of Europe i Most believed Columbus estimations were too small 02 Ancient Greeks had calculated the earth s circumference to be w24000 miles meaning Asia was 0 a 27 570 7 77 7 miles west of Europe I 042 Thus sailing west to get to Asia was considered too for and risky After the Portuguese rejected hints Columbus asked the French and English for funding an was rejected a gain 7 I o So he asked the 7 Spani 7 77 Queen Isabella and King Pe rdinan39 i said yes reasoning that even it Columbus failed to reach Asia perhaps he would discover some valuable new islands like the Canaries I 1492 Columbus set sail with 90 men and 7 ships 33 days laten he reached the modern day Bahamas and then sailed to the 7 Comfh n islands a lie believed had landed on the islands east of39Asia the East I alas 7 1 So he called the natives he saw lsz indies o Columbus returned to Spain in 1493 and news of his voyage spread rapidly thanks to the pen a For several years many believed Columbus had reached the East lndies l50l Genoese sailor funded by Spanish and Portuguese alternately Amerigo VESpoCii explored the South American coast and declared it a new continent o 507mapmaher drew a map that showed the new lands and named them quot Ame rice 7 in honor of Vespucci o Columbus had died in 736 a so he wasn t around to protest the mapmaher s decision 339 Would he have protested 339 To the day he died he insisted he had landed on the East indies Columbus voyages initiated what scholars have labeled the Colombian ailment Transfer of diseases goods planta crops animals etc bemoan the Eastern and Western Hemispheres What did the Western Herniaphere give to the East r 3 IE o Among many other things 710 a t a M m p0 7L0 7h 5 and bandit 39 I quotquotquot quot quot I Crops that would feed an exploding world population What did the Eastern Hemisphere give to the West 0 Among many other things Ling S mk 7 horses cattle pigs etch whemf diseases mumps measles typhus chickenpox and perhaps most importantly W 41m pg which devastated Native American populations I On Hispaniola whhre Columhus landed the native population in 1492 was a l548 m cat 77 9 Note Native deaths were also due to European exploitation Note Colombian Exchange did not end with Columhus s voyages What did Europeans thinlc about the natives l 3v Religiously they thought they were 7 A randy tanj NW Ch d l o Remember Converting natives to Christianity was a big goal for European explorers 39 Europeans viewed the devastating impact of diseases as God s punishment against those who resisted Christianity Concerning land use I or Europeans viewed land as a C tam11004379 5 Gender issues o 7 5173K 7 male or female 0 7 gangarr the things people associate with a particular sex Example Women should stay at home and take care of the kids while men should go out in the hack yard and chop wowed ebb je 5 I Note Gender roles have changed throughout history and different cultures have different gender roles 0 Native men in eastern and central North America were predominantly hunters and shers I Europeans viewed this as 7 759m and thus deemed the natives lazy 0 Native women predominantly gathered and farmed I I Many European men assumed the native women were avg S 1 Following Columbus s voyages W 59551 controlled much of the Americas for ml 00 years x liar Established New Spain Spanish soldierexplorers V C an a onquot af Hernan H arth s arguabe the most famous V 0 l5 l 9 landed at modernday Veracruz Mexico with m men o After defeating a group of natives subject to the Aztecs Cortes persuaded thousands oiquot them to join his force 0 Matched inland to Tenochtitlan o Aztec leader 7 rt39f aztaMm likely helieved Cortes possessed immense power did he mistake Cortes for a returning god and invited the Spaniards into the city as honored guests I Cortes reportedly told the Aztecs l and my companions suffer from a disease ofquot the heart which can be cured only with gold I Montezuma gave the Spaniards and according to one native source the Spaniards picked up the a old and fingered it like monkeys they seemed to be transported hyjoy as if their hearts were illumined and made new Their bodies swelled with greed and their hunger was ravenous They hungered like pigs for that gold Taylor p 53 o Spanish then forced Montezuma to provide workers to mine more precious metals o lSZD the Aztecs rebelled stoned Montezuma to death and attacked the Spanish who were Forced to retreats o l52li L Cortes got reinforcements from Cuba and counterattacked laying 5 as 7 to Fl enochtitlan rm 85 daysi l Cut off the cityis food and water and allowed 5mm go to ravage the natives l 7 D City was stacked its leaders hanged and its priests fed to 5195 l 53 l li rancisco 7 Przatrrg used equally brutal tactics to conquer the Inca empire with only lB ll men l 54tlsr co nquistadors subdued the tatvan ll ow were the outnumbered Spanish conquistadors able to defeat such populous formidable native ern pi res at l J a on digpowder in guns and cannons o Spanish arquebus was inaccurate but terrifying 739 4i European weapon 39 7 tted 239 W wswords and armor o Compare to the natives stoneedged weapons it is 4 Domesticated an mat5 7 7 o Europeans had horses major psychological advantage and attack dogs I Natives had smaller dogs but didn t use them in warfare 2 r tr 3 What happened to the conquered natives Spaniards sought to controltransients them using a socioeconomic systern called the H C MFdn d a 7 o Military of cers protected groups of natives who were forced to convert to Christianity and provide the Spanish with labor and tribute Disobedient natives were flogged New Spain s settlements also included hundreds of Catholic miss cm 51 7 0 Thousands of Catholic missionaries traveled there to evangelize amongst the natives Sometimes resorted to brutal treatment to force conversions L Note Spanish brutality was often exaggerated by Spain s European rivalsr who propagated a Black La of Spanish cruelty in the New World Center of Spanish conquests was in central and South America but they also settled in the modern day us I y l Sufi established d 7 Florida the oldest enduring Europeaniounded town in the lJS is Also settled in modernday Texas California and lj r Vle o Very remote settlements 7 7 o Mexico never had more than century o At New Mexico s Catholic missions Franciscan friars attempted to force the local Pueblo natives to abandon their traditional habits and beliefs Natives who refused could he whipped and sometimes had 7 11 foamd nd smeared on their bloody backs I 1 ed Spanish colonists during the I 7 1 Le l iOsENew Mexico was plagued by droughts and raids by frontier lndians o Despite the tough timesa the Spaniards continued to exact 7 7 tirf utl39g 7 from the Pueblos and a number of them starved I 1675a The Pueblos led by their jietM h religious leaders attempted to revive their traditional ceremonies in hope of restoring good times 3 This thightened the Spaniards who arrested and whipped shamans iv loBDLEone of the shamans who d been whipped Pang 777 preached to the Pueblos that good times would be restored if they destroyed the Chrisiians and their churches or August l 7000 natives from all over New Mexico revolted destroying missions and farms and executing priests I 7 of 1000 Spanish colonists in New Mexico killed I Spaniards driven to El Paso Exam The Pueblo Re we was the greatest setback that natives lever in icted I on European expansion in North America Taylor p 89 o Continued drought and in ghting amongst the natives ultimately weakened them and by the late l6903 the Spaniards had reasserted their control over the region I Going forward the Spanish were by necessity more tolerant of Pueblo traditions Obviously religion was very important to Europeans of the time Most believed in heaven hell devils witches demons angels astrology etc r Few questioned the collaboration of ehurc 7 and Sign71 7 2 Most were Roman 7 on 77 particularly in Western Europe o Generally speaking if you were a Christian in Western Europe prior to the 16 century you were a Catholic 7 This changed in l5l7 when Martin 7 4o ier a German monk and professor posted his NinetyFive Theses 7 on the door of his church in Wittenberg o Luther criticized some of the practices of the Catholic Church including the sale at indulgencets 7 I Beginning of the Protestant 39 rm high Reformation in England began for political reasons o King Henry Vlll asked the Pope to annul his marriage but was denied I So Henry broke away from Catholic Church and fonned the of England or n Yeahs 7 Church 4 The Anglican Church really found its footing during the reign of Henry s dauhter Queen Elizabeth o Today generally ageaking Christian 2 7 Cashing or P agagg anw I Protestant Baptist Methodist Anglican Presbyterian etc 39 5 Spain was the first dominant European power in the Americas but miller nations got involvedquot is l Portuguese settled in L 2 7 ships plundered Spanish ships lie 3 privateera also plundered Spanish ships and settlements o French also looking for a passage through the Americas to Asia the Northwest I they sailed up the Lawrence River into the interior ofrnodernday Canada and ultimately established 9 lnCliUdEd 7 7 7 7 77 which was founded in l608 only i year after the English founded 7 o Later established 7 o General rule French were more interested in shing and acquiring 7 than in establishing pennanent colonies Northern conditions less suitable for tanning It More importantly 7 77 skins fetched a lot of money in Europe
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