Bio Anthropology Lectures 3 & 4 Notes
Bio Anthropology Lectures 3 & 4 Notes ANTH1013 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by pcoliver96 on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH1013 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Lucas Delezene in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Anthropology in ANTH at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Bio Anthropology: Lecture 3 Notes (notes going towards exam 1) REVIEW -view of organismal diversity espoused by natural theologians: -essentialism: belief that things have a set of unchanging characteristics that make them what they are – variation among things is unimportant deviation from the “essence” -teleology: making reference to purpose; goal-oriented – organisms are designed from “blueprint” for a specific job; world is perfectly designed -prior to the 1830s, most naturalists professed the following essentialist beliefs: -species are composed of similar individuals sharing the same essence -species are separated from one another by well defined discontinuities -species are constant through time (fixed, immutable) -there are limitations to the possible variation of any one species Charles Darwin: 1809-1882 -naturalist aboard the Beagle (1831-1836) -the voyage of the Beagle (1839) -Origin of Species (1859) -co-presentation of the theory of natural selection with Wallace (1858) -The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) Influences on Darwin -Alexander von Humboldt -traveled in the Americas (1799-1804) -noted for vivid descriptions -wrote extensively about his travels -30 vol description of his travels -published over 3 decades -Charles Lyell -Principles of Geology (1830-1833) University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Voyage of the Beagle -important geological finds: -earthquake in Concepcion, Chile -a theory for coral atoll development -biological: -fossils in South America – similar to species living in South America today -collections of living animals – proved important once Darwin got back to England Darwin’s evolutionary hypotheses -evolution (descent with modification) -common descent: all extant species can trace their ancestry to a single origin -multiplication of species: a species can give rise to daughter species -gradualism: natura non facit saltum (nature doesn’t make jumps) -natural selection: differential survival and reproductive success – “the nonrandom survival of heredity information through many generations” (Richard Dawkins) Thomas Malthus: 1766-1834 th -An Essay on the Principle of Population (6 ed, 1826) -food limits population size -population size can increase exponentially -“the power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistenth for man” – Malthus -Darwin read the 6 ed in September -October 1838: “it at once struck me that under these circumstances favorable variation would tend to be preserved, and unfavorable ones to be destroyed” – Darwin’s autobiography Darwin vs. the essentialists -Malthus’ ideas about population growth were one of the keystones to developing Darwin’s theory of natural selection: -variants can’t simply be errors – are passed from one generation to another -if variation affects the ability of organisms to acquire resources and reproduce, then over time, the successful variants should become more common in a population University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Natural selection -summary: -more offspring are produced than survive ( super fecundity) -organisms vary – variation is heritable -will always be competition over resources -most fit organisms will survive and leave behind more offspring -offspring will resemble the parents – how a population “adapts” to the changing environment Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) -began work first as a professional collector of natural history specimens -South America (1848-1852) -Southeast Asia (1854-1862) -Malay Archipelago -corresponded with Darwin Wallace’s derivation of natural selection -On the Law Which Has Regulated the Introduction of Species (1855) -“Sarawak law”: “every species has come into existence coincident both in space and time with a closely allied species” -On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely From the Original Type (1858) -independent derivation of natural selection What was so compelling about evolution? -similarly among species and anatomical detail suggest common descent -Lyell’s work showed there was lots of time for change to occur -Darwin and Wallace provided the mechanism: natural selection -natural selection makes few assumptions and explains a lot -Darwin’s idea is “dumb obvious” – once it’s started, it seems incredibly obvious Natural and artificial selection -both artificial and natural selection are removing heritable variation from populations -what’s the source of new variation? -why does the statement “nature doesn’t make jumps” have to be true? -the “laws” of heredity were unknown at this time University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene -Darwin’s hereditary hypotheses (acquired characteristics and blending inheritance) were wrong – so were Lamarck’s acquired characteristics Lecture 4 Notes (notes going towards exam 1) Selection and heritable variation -at the heart of Darwin’s hypotheses is the notion that variation among individuals is inherited -common sense tells people that variation is heritable The big picture for evolution -both artificial and natural selection remove heritable variation from populations -if all of the variation is removed, the process will grind to a halt -is there a source of new variation? Early hereditary hypotheses -Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) -microscopist -discovered sperm in 1677 -“what I investigate is only what, without sinfully defiling myself, remains as a residue after conjugal coitus. If your Lordship should consider that these observations may disgust or scandalize, regard them as private and to publish or destroy them as your Lordship thinks fit.” –Leeuwenhoek -homunculus theory: homunculus “little human” performed in sperm or in ovum -heredity is uniparental? -does the homunculus have its own sperm? -reductio ad absurdum (“reduction to the absurd” – logical extreme) -pangenesis: each body part has a different particle (pan gene or gem mule) -pan genes produced by organs traveled to the reproductive organs -particles of man and woman “blend” together University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene -implies that “information” can travel between the reproductive and non reproductive organs -blending inheritance: a form of inheritance in which the features of offspring are the average of those seen in the parents – now known to be mistaken -acquired characteristics use and disuse -“soft” inheritance: heredity matter affected by the environment -inheritance of acquired characteristics: “vital essences” sense need through use – change the form and pass on to offspring -Lamarck’s theory that acquired characteristics can be passed to offspring -example: short-necked giraffes stretched to reach higher into trees for food, and their necks grew longer – acquired trait passed on to offspring born with longer necks Mendelian inheritance -particulate inheritance: -Johan Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) -trained in Botany at the university of Vienna -Augustinian monk -discovered the principles of particulate (hard) inheritance (1856-1863) -work rediscovered in the early 1900s Mendel’s experiments -used garden peas as a model: -self-fertilizing -bred “true” -variants easy to observe Mendel’s law of segregation -particles don’t blend (now know these particles to be genes) -both parents contribute heredity material equally to the offspring – traits must be represented by pairs (one from each parent) -genes come in different forms (now known as alleles) -each copy “segregates” into a different sex cell University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Terms -genotype: alleles that are present (genetics) -phenotype: manifestation of those alleles (physically present) -homozygous: two copies of the same allele -heterozygous: two different alleles Review of a simple cross -each trait is represented by a single gene -alleles: variants of a gene -each individual has two copies of each gene – one from each parent -alleles can be dominant or recessive -recessive traits are masked in the heterozygous state Mendel’s law of independent assortment -what happens when one considers two traits? -each trait assorts independently -alleles of one gene don’t influence what happens with alleles from other genes -example: -dihybrid cross: both parents are Aa, Bb -for each gene, the alleles segregate independently -any A allele can be paired with any B allele -the following pairs of A and B alleles can be formed: -AB, Ab, aB, ab University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 – Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene
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