PHYS 1010 - Week 3 Notes
PHYS 1010 - Week 3 Notes PHYS 1010-01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 1010-01 at Tulane University taught by Timothy Schuler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Great Ideas in Science & Tech in Physics 2 at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
PHYS 1010 Notes Week 3 Jan 2529 Motion Equations V F= V 0 at X F = 0v t 0 (1/2) at 2 (x, y): position v: velocity a: acceleration (gravity is constant and downward) t: time F: final; 0: initial V Xwill remain constant V will lessen to the peak and then greaten because of gravity Y Force: a push or pull, which causes an object to accelerate Newtonian mechanics: foundations of physics that works well for "everyday" physical events Vectors (have a magnitude and direction) Use vector addition techniques Require an agent: something that acts to move the objects Agent and object are both necessary for a force Operate via direct contact or at a distance Ex. mechanical, gravity, magnetism Multiple forces operating on an object > Linear Superposition of Forces (force addition to solve for net force) Force diagrams allow for easier visualization of forces Application of force causes motion Forces and acceleration are directly related (as force increases, acceleration increases) Proportionality constant: c (a = cF) Inertia: the ability of an object to resist acceleration For linear motion, inertia and mass are basically the same Mass: the proportionality constant between force and acceleration Newton's First Law: if no force acts on a body, then the body's velocity cannot change (bodies at rest stay at rest, bodies in motion stay in motion [unless acted upon by a force]) No force = no change in velocity Refers to the net force acting on an object An object at rest is in static equilibrium An object with constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium Reference frames: shows comparison of motion without immediate presence of acceleration Inertial reference frame: things that aren't accelerating Newton's Second Law: force = (mass)(acceleration) Mass is scalar, Acceleration is a vector Forces acting on an object that is not accelerating are in equilibrium Newton's Third Law: When two bodies interact, the force on the bodies from each other are always equal and opposite Force, Weight, Apparent Weight Weight: the measure of the force of gravity on a specific mass (Weight = F = g mg) Apparent weight: a sensation evident when we are in an accelerating reference frame (ex. we feel heavier in ascending elevators and lighter in descending elevators) Specific types of forces Gravitational force: FGravity mg Weight is a magnitude of gravitational force Weight is a force while mass is an inertia Weakest of all of the universal forces The force we know the least about Newton's Law of Gravity: the force of gravity between two objects is proportional to the product of the two masses divided by the distance between those two objects squared Universal gravitational constant: constant of proportionality (G) Gravity near the earth's surface Distance between us, and the center of the earth, stays relatively constant > standard measure of gravity (9.8 m/s ) 2 Ignore several factors: earth's rotation, earth is not a perfect sphere, and the earth is not uniform in density The Normal Force: forces that balance gravitational force so that objects aren't always moving Always perpendicular to the surface, even if the surface is not horizontal Frictional force: force that opposes attempted motion Due to the connecting and breaking of microscopic contact points, when to objects slide against one another Static friction occurs when two objects are not moving relative to each other, and opposes the initial motion Kinetic friction occurs when two objects are in motion relative to each other, and opposes the continuing motion The force of friction is directly related to the normal force through the coefficient of friction Different materials have different coefficients of friction Drag force and Terminal Velocity Drag force: an opposing force that depends on the velocity of the object Occurs when an object moves through a fluid (either gas or liquid) and opposes the direction of motion Together with gravity, drag force affects objects falling through the air the faster you go, the stronger the drag force gets When drag force equals gravity, the acceleration reaches zero and the object falls at a constant velocity (called a Terminal Velocity) Acts in the same manner as frictional force, the fluid in which the object is moving provides the force (air resistance) Depends on the crosssectional area of the object: increased area means a larger drag Tensional force: the (indirect) force transmitted to an object by a string or rope that is attached to an object The force on the object is directed through the rope. If you pull on the rope, the force is distributed throughout the length of the rope, and then applied to the object, accelerating it If a rope is placed over a pulley, the direction of the tensional forces changes, but their magnitude remains the same Thrust force: occurs when an object propels itself without necessarily contacting something externally When an object expels particles away from itself, the object experiences an equal and opposite reaction (Newton's 3rd Law of Motion) Electromagnetic forces: actionatadistance forces that arise from the presence and motion of electrons (do not require direct contact) Nuclear forces: hold nuclei together and hold subsubatomic particles together Torque: a linear force that causes an object to rotate Torque is a vector Torques are only created if the force is perpendicular to the position vector Changing the direction of force creates a different torque Uniform circular motion: when the speed of an object of an object moving in a circular path is constant At any point along the object's path, the velocity vector will be tangent to the circular path with a magnitude equal to the object's speed
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