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The Official LSAT Sample PrepTest October 1996 Form 7LSS33 Taking the Sample Test Under Simulated LSAT Conditions One important way to prepare for the LSAT is to simulate the day of the test by taking a practice test under actual time constraints Taking a practice test under timed conditions helps you to estimate the amount of time you can afford to spend on each question in a section and to determine the question types on which you may need additional practice Since the LSAT is a timed test it is important to use your allotted time wisely During the test you may work only on the section designated by the test supervisor You cannot devote extra time to a difficult section and make up that time on a section you find easier In pacing yourself and checking your answers you should think of each section of the test as a separate minitest Be sure that you answer every question on the test When you do not know the correct answer to a question first eliminate the responses that you know are incorrect then make your best guess among the remaining choices Do not be afraid to guess as there is no penalty for incorrect answers When you take the sample test that follows abide by all the requirements specified in the directions and keep strictly within the specified time limits Work without a rest period When you take an actual test you will have How This Sample Test Differs From an Actual LSAT This sample test is made up of the scored sections and writing sample from the actual disclosed LSAT administered in October 1996 However it does not contain the extra variable section that is used to pretest new test items of one of the three question types The three LSAT question types 87 only a short break usually 1015 minutes after SECTION III When taken under conditions as much like actual testing conditions as possible the sample test provides very useful preparation for taking the LSAT Official directions for the four multiplechoice sections and the writing sample are included in this sample test so that you can approximate actual testing conditions as you practice To take the test I Set a timer for 35 minutes Answer all the questions in SECTION I Stop working on that section when the 35 minutes have elapsed I Repeat allowing yourself 35 minutes each for sections 11 III and IV I Set the timer for 30 minutes then prepare your response to the writing sample at the end of this test I Refer to Computing Your Score on page 120 in this book for instruction on evaluating your performance An answer key is provided for this purpose may be in a different order in an actual LSAT than in this sample test This is because the order of the question types is intentionally varied for each administration of the test The actual test contains section headers at the top of each page that are not included in this sample test The Writing Exercise Test takers are given 30 minutes to complete the brief writ ing exercise which is not scored but is used by law school admission personnel to assess writing skill Read the topic carefully You will probably find it best to spend a few minutes considering the topic and organizing your thoughts before you begin writing Do not write on a topic other than the one specified Writing on a topic of your own choice is not acceptable There is no right or wrong position on the writing sample topic Law schools are interested in how skillfully you support the position you take and how clearly you express that position How well you write is much more important than how much you write No special knowledge is required or expected Law schools are interested in organization vocabulary and writing mechanics They understand the short time available to you and the pressure under which you are writing Confine your writing to the lined area following the writing sample topic You will find that you have enough space if you plan your writing carefully write on every line avoid wide margins and keep your handwriting a reasonable size Be sure that your handwriting is legible Scratch paper is provided for use during the writing sample portion of the test only Scratch paper cannot be used in other sections of the LSAT The writing sample is photocopied and sent to law schools to which you direct your LSAT score Some writing sample prompts or variations of them may be given at more than one LSAT administration A collection of 50 representative writing sample prompts is included in LSAT The O icial TriplePrep Plus published by LSAC 88 SECTION I Time 35 minutes 25 Questions Directions The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages For some questions more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question However you are to choose the lit answer that is the response that most accurately and completely answers the question You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible super uous or incompatible with the passage After you have chosen the best answer blacllten the corresponding space on your answer sheet 1 French divers recently found a large cave along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea The cave is accessible only through an underwater tunnel The interior of the cave is completely filled with seawater and contains numerous large stalagmites which are stony pillars that form when drops of water fall repeatedly on a single spot on a cave floor leaving behind mineral deposits that accumulate over time The information above most strongly supports which one of the following A The Mediterranean Sea was at a higher level in the past than it is now B The water level within the cave is higher now than it once was C The French divers were the first people who knew that the tunnel leading to the cave existed D There was once an entrance to the cave besides the underwater tunnel E Seawater in the Mediterranean has a lower mineral content now than it had when the stalagmites were being formed A director of the Rexx Pharmaceutical Company argued that the development costs for new vaccines that the health department has requested should be subsidized by the government since the marketing of vaccines promised to be less profitable than the marketing of any other pharmaceutical product In support of this claim the director argued that sales of vaccines are likely to be lower since each vaccine is administered to a patient only once whereas medicines that combat diseases and chronic illnesses are administered many times to each patient Which one of the following if true most weakens the support offered by the company director for the claim concerning the marketing of vaccines A Vaccines are administered to many more people than are most other pharmaceutical products B Many of the diseases that vaccines are designed to prevent can be successfully treated by medicines C Pharmaceutical companies occasionally market products that are neither medicines nor vaccines D Pharmaceutical companies other than the Rexx Pharmaceutical Company produce vaccines E The cost of administering a vaccine is rarely borne by the pharmaceutical company that manufactures that vaccine Manager Our new computer network the purpose of which is to increase productivity can be installed during the day which would disrupt our employees work or else at night which would entail much higher installation charges Since saving money is important we should have the network installed during the day The manager39s argument assumes which one of the following A The monetary value of the network equipment would not exceed the cost of having the equipment installed at night B The monetary value of any productivity lost during a daytime installation would be less than the difference between daytime and nighttime installation costs C A daytime installation would be completed by no larger a crew and would take the crew no more time than would a nighttime installation D Once the network has been installed most of the company39s employees will be able to use it immediately to increase their productivity E Most of the company39s employees would be able to work productively while a daytime installation is in progress GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE An ingredient in marijuana known as THC has been found to inactivate herpesviruses in experiments In previous experiments researchers found that inactivated herpesviruses can convert healthy cells into cancer cells It can be concluded that the use of marijuana can cause cancer Which one of the following if true most seriously weakens the argument A Several teams of scientists performed the various experiments and all of the teams had similar results B The carcinogenic effect of THC could be neutralized by the other ingredients found in marijuana C When THC lltills herpesviruses it weakens the immune system and it might thus diminish the body39s ability to fight other viruses including viruses linked to cancers D If chemists modify the structure of THC THC can be safely incorporated into medications to prevent herpes E To lessen the undesirable side effects of chemotherapy the use of marijuana has been recommended for cancer patients who are free of the herpesvirus Archaeologist A large corporation has recently offered to provide funding to restore an archaeological site and to construct facilities to make the site readily accessible to the general public The restoration will conform to the best current theories about how the site appeared at the height of the ancient civilization that occupied it This offer should be rejected however because many parts of the site contain unexamined evidence Which one of the following principles if valid justifies the archaeologist s argument A The ownership of archaeological sites should not be under the control of business interests B Any restoration of an archaeological site should represent only the most ancient period of that site39s history C No one should make judgments about what constitutes the height of another civilization D Only those with a true concern for an archaeological site39s history should be involved in the restoration of that site E The risk of losing evidence relevant to possible future theories should outweigh any advantages of displaying the results of theories already developed 6 89 Besides laying eggs in her own nest any female wood ducllt will lay an egg in the nest of another female wood ducllt if she sees the other ducllt leaving her nest Under natural nesting conditions this parasitic behavior is relatively rare because the ducks nests are well hidden However when people put up nesting boxes to help the ducks breed they actually undercut the ducks reproductive efforts These nesting boxes become so crowded with extra eggs that few if any of the eggs in those boxes hatch The statements above if true most strongly support which one of the following A Female wood ducllts will establish nests in nest boxes only when natural nesting sites are not available B Nesting female wood ducllts who often see other female wood ducks are the most successful in their breeding efforts C The nesting boxes for wood ducllts have less space for eggs than do natural nesting sites D The nesting boxes would be more effective in helping wood ducllts breed if they were less visible to other wood ducllts than they currently are E Nesting boxes are needed to supplement the natural nesting sites of wood ducllts because of the destruction of much of the ducks habitat The crux of creativity resides in the ability to manufacture variations on a theme If we look at the history of science for instance we see that every idea is built upon a thousand related ideas Careful analysis leads us to understand that what we choose to call a new theme or a new discovery is itself always and without exception some sort of variation on a deep level of previous themes If all of the statements in the passage are true each of the following must also be true EXCEPT A A lack of ability to manufacture a variation on a previous theme connotes a lack of creativity B No scientific idea is entirely independent of all other ideas C Careful anal sis of a s ecific variation can reveal 3 1 previous themes of which it is a variation D All great scientific discoverers have been able to manufacture a variation on a theme E Some new scientific discoveries do not re resent P on a deep level a variation on previous themes GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 90 Millions of female bats rear their pups in Bracken Cave Although the mothers all leave the cave nightly on their return each mother is almost always swiftly reunited with her own pup Since the bats calls are their only means of finding one another and a bat pup cannot distinguish the call of its mother from that of any other adult bat it is clear that each mother bat can recognize the call of her pup The argument seeks to do which one of the following A derive a general conclusion about all members of a group from facts known about representative members of that group B establish the validity of one explanation for a phenomenon by excluding alternative explanations C support by describing a suitable mechanism the hypothesis that a certain phenomenon can occur D conclude that members of two groups are likely to share a certain ability because of other characteristics they share E demonstrate that a general rule applies in a particular case Someone who gets sick from eating a meal will often develop a strong distaste for the one food in the meal that had the most distinctive avor whether or not that food caused the sickness This phenomenon explains why children are especially likely to develop strong aversions to some foods Which one of the following if true provides the strongest support for the explanation A Children are more likely than adults to be given meals composed of foods lacllting especially distinctive flavors B Children are less likely than adults to see a connection between their health and the foods they eat C Children tend to have more acute taste and to become sick more often than adults do D Children typically recover more slowly than adults do from siclltness caused by food E Children are more likely than are adults to refuse to eat unfamiliar foods 10 11 Premiums for automobile accident insurance are often higher for red cars than for cars of other colors To justify these higher charges insurance companies claim that overall a greater percentage of red cars are involved in accidents than are cars of any other color If this claim is true then lives could undoubtedly be saved by banning red cars from the roads altogether The reasoning in the argument is flawed because the argument A accepts without question that insurance companies have the right to charge higher premiums for higherrisllt clients B fails to consider whether red cars cost the same to repair as cars of other colors C ignores the possibility that drivers who drive reclltlessly have a preference for red cars D does not specify precisely what percentage of red cars are involved in accidents E makes an unsupported assumption that every automobile accident results in some loss of life A certain creditcard company awards its customers bonus points for using its credit card Customers can use accumulated points in the purchase of brand name merchandise by mail at prices lower than the manufacturers suggested retail prices At any given time therefore customers who purchase merchandise using the bonus points spend less than they would spend if they purchased the same merchandise in retail stores Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends A The merchandise that can be ordered by mail using the bonus points is not offered at lower prices by other creditcard companies that award bonus points B The bonus points cannot be used by the credit card customers in the purchase of brand name merchandise that is not available for purchase in retail stores C The creditcard company does not require its customers to accumulate a large number of bonus points before becoming eligible to order merchandise at prices lower than the manufacturers suggested retail price D The amount creditcard customers pay for shipping the merchandise ordered by mail does not increase the amount customers spend to an amount greater than they would spend if they purchased the same merchandise in retail stores E The merchandise available to the company s creditcard customers using the bonus points is frequently sold in retail stores at prices that are higher than the manufacturers suggested retail prices GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 12 It is probably not true that colic in infants is caused by the inability of those infants to tolerate certain antibodies found in cow39s milk since it is often the case that symptoms of colic are shown by infants that are fed breast milk exclusively Which one of the following if true most seriously weakens the argument A A study involving 500 sets of twins has found that if one infant has colic its twin will probably also have colic B Symptoms of colic generally disappear as infants grow older whether the infants have been fed breast milk exclusively or have been fed infant formula containing cow39s milk C In a study of 5000 infants who were fed only infant formula containing cow39s milk over 4000 of the infants never displayed any symptoms of colic D When mothers of infants that are fed only breast milk eliminate cow39s milk and all products made from cow39s milk from their own diets any colic symptoms that their infants have manifested quickly disappear E Infants that are fed breast milk develop mature digestive systems at an earlier age than do those that are fed infant formulas and infants with mature digestive systems are better able to tolerate certain proteins and antibodies found in cow39s milk Questions 1314 Yolanda Gaining access to computers without Arjun 13 14 authorization and manipulating the data and programs they contain is comparable to joyriding in stolen cars both involve breaking into private property and treating it reclltlessly oyriding however is the more dangerous crime because it physically endangers people whereas only intellectual property is harmed in the case of computer crimes I disagree For example unauthorized use of medical records systems in hospitals could damage data systems on which human lives depend and therefore computer crimes also cause physical harm to people An issue in dispute between Yolanda and Arjun is A whether joyriding physically endangers human lives B whether the unauthorized manipulation of computer data involves damage to private property C whether damage to physical property is more criminal than damage to intellectual property D whether the unauthorized use of computers is as dangerous to people as is joyriding E whether treating private property reclltlessly is ever a dangerous crime The reasoning in Arjun s response is awed because he A fails to maintain a distinction made in Yolanda s argument B denies Yolanda s conclusion without providing evidence against it C relies on the actuality of a phenomenon that he has only shown to be possible D mistalltes something that leads to his conclusion for something that is necessary for his conclusion E uses as evidence a phenomenon that is inconsistent with his own conclusion GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 92 15 A report of a government survey concluded that Center 16 City was among the ten cities in the nation with the highest dropout rate from its schools The survey data were obtained by asking all city residents over the age of 19 whether they were high school graduates and computing the proportion who were not A city school official objected that the result did not seem accurate according to the schools figures The school official can most properly criticize the reasoning by which the survey report reached its result for failure to do which one of the following A take into account instances of respondents dropping out that occurred before the respondents reached high school B asllt residents whether they had completed their high school work in fewer than the usual number of years C distinguish between residents who had attended the city s schools and those who had received their schooling elsewhere D predict the effect of the information contained in the report on future high school dropout rates for the city E consider whether a diploma from the city s high schools signaled the same level of achievement over time Brown dwarfs dim red stars that are too cool to burn hydrogen are very similar in appearance to red dwarf stars which are just hot enough to burn hydrogen Stars when rst formed contain substantial amounts of the element lithium All stars but the coolest of the brown dwarfs are hot enough to destroy lithium completely by converting it to helium Accordingly any star found that contains no lithium is not one of these coolest brown dwarfs The argument depends on assuming which one of the following A None of the coolest brown dwarfs has ever been hot enough to destroy lithium B Most stars that are too cool to burn hydrogen are too cool to destroy lithium completely C Brown dwarfs that are not hot enough to destroy lithium are hot enough to destroy helium D Most stars when first formed contain roughly the same percentage of lithium E No stars are more similar in appearance to red dwarfs than are brown dwarfs 17 Whenever a company loses a major productliability lawsuit the value of the company s stocllts falls signi cantly within hours after the announcement Cotoy has long been involved in a major productliability lawsuit and its stocks fell signi cantly in value today Therefore we can be sure that an unfavorable judgment against Cotoy in that lawsuit was announced earlier today Which one of the following contains awed reasoning that most closely parallels that in the argument above A Whenever a business treats its customers discourteously its customers begin to shop elsewhere Shopwell wants to keep all of its customers therefore its employees will never treat customers discourteously B Whenever the large airlines decrease fares the financial stability of smaller competing airlines is adversely affected Therefore the smaller competing airlines financial stability must be seriously threatened when the large airlines announce a large price decrease C Whenever a country shows a lack of leadership on international issues respect for the country39s policies begins to decline Therefore to gain respect for its policies a country should show leadership on international issues D Whenever an entering student at Cashman College wins the Performance Fellowship he or she receives 10000 Therefore Eula a student who has enrolled at Cashman must have won the Performance Fellowship because she just received 10000 from the college E Whenever a company advertises its products effectively the company s sales increase Oroco s sales have not increased therefore it is likely that the company did not advertise its products effectively GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 18 In recent years the climate has been generally cool in northern Asia But during periods when the average daily temperature and humidity in northern Asia were slightly higher than their normal levels the yields of most crops grown there increased significantly In the next century the increased average daily temperature and humidity attained during those periods are expected to become the norm Yet scientists predict that the yearly yields of most of the region39s crops will decrease during the next century Which one of the following if true most helps to resolve the apparent paradox in the information above A Crop yields in southern Asia are expected to remain constant even after the average daily temperature and humidity there increase from recent levels B Any increases in temperature and humidity would be accompanied by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide which is vital to plant respiration C The climate in northern Asia has generally been too cool and dry in recent years for populations of many crop insect pests to become established D In many parts of Asia the increased annual precipitation that would result from warmer and wetter climates would cause most edible plant species to ourish E The recent climate of northern Asia prevents many crops from being farmed there during the winter 93 19 No one in the French department to which Professor Alban belongs is allowed to teach more than one introductory level class in any one term Moreover the only language classes being taught next term are advanced ones So it is untrue that both of the French classes Professor Alban will be teaching next term will be introductory level classes The pattern of reasoning displayed in the argument above is most closely paralleled by that in which one of the following arguments A The Morrison Building will be fully occupied by May and since if a building is occupied by May the new tax rates apply to it the Morrison Building will be taxed according to the new rates B The revised tax code does not apply at all to buildings built before 1900 and only the first section of the revised code applies to buildings built between 1900 and 1920 so the revised code does not apply to the Norton Building since it was built in 1873 C All property on Overton Road will be reassessed for tax purposes by the end of the year and the Elnor Company headquarters is on Overton Road so Elnor s property taxes will be higher next year D New buildings that include public space are exempt from city taxes for two years and all new buildings in the city39s Alton district are exempt for five years so the building with the large public space that was recently completed in Alton will not be subject to city taxes next year E Since according to recent statute a building that is exempt from property taxes is charged for city water at a special rate and hospitals are exempt from property taxes Founder39s Hospital will be charged for city water at the special rate GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 94 Questions 2021 22 Some people have been promoting a new herbal mixture as a remedy for the common cold The mixture contains among other things extracts of the plants purple cone ower and goldenseal A cold sufferer skeptical of the claim that the mixture is an effective cold remedy argued Suppose that the mixture were an effective cold remedy Since most people with colds wish to recover quickly it follows that almost everybody with a cold would be using it Therefore since there are many people who have colds but do not use the mixture it is obviously not effective 20 Each of the following is an assumption required by the sllteptical cold sufferer s argument EXCEPT A Enough of the mixture is produced to provide the required doses to almost everybody with a cold B The mixture does not have side effects severe enough to make many people who have colds avoid using it C The mixture is powerful enough to prevent almost everybody who uses it from contracting any further colds D The mixture is widely enough known that almost everybody with a cold is aware of it E There are no effective cold remedies available that many people who have colds prefer to the mixture 21 Which one of the following most accurately describes the method of reasoning the cold sufferer uses to reach the conclusion of the argument A finding a claim to be false on the grounds that it would if true have consequences that are false B accepting a claim on the basis of public opinion of the claim C showing that conditions necessary to establish the truth of a claim are met D basin a eneralization on a re resentative 8 8f t P group o ins ances E showing that a measure claimed to be effective in achieving a certain effect would actually make achieving the effect more difficult To hold criminals responsible for their crimes involves a failure to recognize that criminal actions like all actions are ultimately products of the environment that forged the agent39s character It is not criminals but people in the lawabiding majority who by their actions do most to create and maintain this environment Therefore it is lawabiding people whose actions and nothing else make them alone truly responsible for crime The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that A it exploits an ambiguity in the term environment by treating two different meanings of the word as though they were equivalent it fails to distinguish between actions that are socially acceptable and actions that are socially unacceptable the way it distinguishes criminals from crimes implicitly denies that someone becomes a criminal solely in virtue of having committed a crime 13 C D its conclusion is a generalization of statistical evidence drawn from only a small minority of the population E its conclusion contradicts an implicit principle on which an earlier part of the argument is based GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 23 24 Chronic back pain is usually caused by a herniated or 25 degenerated spinal disk In most cases the disk will have been damaged years before chronic pain develops and in fact an estimated one in five people over the age of 30 has a herniated or degenerated disk that shows no chronic symptoms If chronic pain later develops in such a case it is generally brought about by a deterioration of the abdominal and spinal muscles caused by insufficient exercise The statements above if true most strongly support which one of the following A Four out of five people over the age of 30 can be sure they will never develop chronic back pain B People who exercise their abdominal and spinal muscles regularly are sure to be free from chronic back pain C Patients rarely suffer even mild and eeting back pain at the time that a spinal disk first becomes herniated or degenerated D Doctors can accurately predict which people who do not have chronic back pain will develop it in the future There is a strategy that can be effective in delaying or preventing the onset of pain from a currently asymptomatic herniated or degenerated spinal disk B Each December 31 in Country Q a tally is made of the country39s total available coal supplies that is the total amount of coal that has been mined throughout the country but not consumed In 1991 that amount was considerably lower than it had been in 1990 Furthermore Country Q has not imported or exported coal since 1970 If the statements above are true which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them A In Country Q more coal was mined in 1990 than was mined in 1991 B In Country Q the amount of coal consumed in 1991 was greater than the amount of coal mined in 1991 C In Country Q the amount of coal consumed in 1990 was greater than the amount of coal consumed in 1991 D In Country Q the amount of coal consumed in 1991 was greater than the amount of coal consumed in 1990 In Country Q more coal was consumed during the first half of 1991 than was consumed during the first half of 1990 E STOP 95 Tom Employers complain that people graduating from high school too often lack the vocational skills required for fulltime employment Therefore since these skills are best acquired on the job we should require high school students to work at parttime jobs so that they acquire the skills needed for today39s job market Mary There are already too few parttime jobs for students who want to work and simply requiring students to work will not create jobs for them Which one of the following most accurately describes how Mary39s response is related to Tom39s argument A B C It analyzes an undesirable result of undertaking the course of action that Tom recommends It argues that Tom has mistaken an unavoidable trend for an avoidable one It provides information that is inconsistent with an explicitly stated premise in Tom39s argument It presents a consideration that undercuts an assumption on which Tom39s argument depends It defends an alternative solution to the problem that Tom describes D E IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST 96 SECTION II Time 35 minutes 26 Questions Directions Each passage in this section is followed by a group of questions to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage For some of the questions more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question However you are to choose the best answer that is the response that most accurately and completely answers the question and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet The career of trumpeter Miles Davis was one of the most astonishingly productive that jazz music has ever seen Yet his genius has never received its due The impatience and artistic restlessness that characterized 5 his work spawned one stylistic turn after another and made Davis anathema to many critics who deplored his abandonment first of bebop and then of cool acoustic jazz for ever more innovative sounds Having begun his career studying bebop Davis 10 pulled the first of many stylistic surprises when in 1948 he became a member of an impromptu musical think tank that gathered in a New York City apartment The work of this group not only slowed down tempos and featured ensemble playing as much as or even 15 more than solos in direct reaction to bebop it also became the seedbed for the West Coast cool jazz style In what would become a characteristic zigzag Davis didn39t follow up on these innovations himself 20 Instead in the late 1950s he formed a new band that broke free from jazz s restrictive pattern of chord changes Soloists could determine the shapes of their melodies without referring back to the same unvarying repetition of chords In this period Davis attempted to 25 oin jazz phrasings harmonies and tonal qualities with a unified and integrated sound similar to that of a classical orchestral piece in his recordings the rhythms no matter how jazzlike are always understated and the instrumental voicings seem muted 30 Davis39s recordings from the late 1960s signal that once again his direction was changing On Filles de Kilimanjaro Davis39s request that keyboardist Herbie Hancock play electric rather than acoustic piano caused constemation among jazz purists of the time Other 35 albums featured rockstyle beats heavily electronic instrumentation a loose improvisational attack and a growing use of studio editing to create jagged soundscapes By 1969 Davis39s typical studio procedure was to have musicians improvise from a base script of 40 material and then to build finished pieces out of tape like a movie director Rock groups had pioneered the process to jazz lovers raised on the ideal of live improvisation that approach was a violation of the premise that recordings should simply document the 45 musicians thought processes in real time Davis again became the target of fierce polemics by purist jazz critics who have continued to belittle his contributions to jazz What probably underlies the intensity of the 50 reactions against Davis is fear of the broadening of possibilities that he exemplified Ironically he was simply doing what jazz explorers have always done reaching for something new that was his own But because his career endured because he didn39t die 55 young or record only sporadically and because he refused to dwell in whatever niche he had previously carved out critics find it difficult to definitively rank Davis in the aesthetic hierarchy to which they cling Which one of the following best states the main point of the passage A Because the career of Miles Davis was characterized by frequent shifts in styles he never fulfilled his musical potential B Because the career of Miles Davis does not fit neatly into their preconceptions about the life and music of jazz musicians jazz critics have not accorded him the appreciation he deserves C Because the career of Miles Davis was unusually long and productive he never received the popular acclaim generally reserved for artists with more tragic life histories D The long and productive career of Miles Davis spawned most of the major stylistic changes affecting twentiethcentury azz E Miles Davis39s versatility and openness have inspired the admiration of most jazz critics According to the passage which one of the following is true of the West Coast cool jazz style A It was popularized by Miles Davis B It was characterized by a unified and integrated sound C It was played primarily by large ensembles D It introduced a wide variety of chord change patterns E It grew out of innovations developed in New York City GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 3 The passage suggests which one of the following about the kind of jazz played by Miles Davis prior to 1948 A It was characterized by rapid tempos and an emphasis on solo playing B It equally balanced ensemble and solo playing C It was a reaction against more restrictive jazz styles D It is regarded by purist jazz critics as the only authentic jazz style E It was played primarily in New York City jazz clubs Which one of the following best describes the author39s attitude toward Miles Davis39s music A uneasy ambivalence B cautious neutrality C grudging respect D moderate commendation E appreciative advocacy Which one of the following creative processes is most similar to Miles Davis39s typical studio procedure of the late 1960s as described in the fourth paragraph of the passage A The producer of a television comedy show suggests a setting and general topic for a comedy sketch and then lets the comedians write their own script B An actor digresses from the written script and improvises during a monologue in order to introduce a feeling of spontaneity to the performance C A conductor rehearses each section of the orchestra separately before assembling them to rehearse the entire piece together D An artist has several photographers take pictures pertaining to a certain assigned theme and then assembles them into a pictorial collage E A teacher has each student in a writing class write an essay on an assigned topic and then submits the best essays to be considered for publication in a ournal 6 97 Which one of the following if true would most undermine the author39s explanation for the way Miles Davis is regarded by jazz critics A Many jazz musicians who specialize in improvisational playing are greatly admired by jazz critics B Many jazz musicians whose careers have been characterized by several radical changes in style are greatly admired by jazz critics C Several jazz musicians who perform exclusively on electronic instruments are very highly regarded by jazz critics D The jazz innovators who are held in the highest regard by jazz critics had brief yet brilliant careers E Jazz critics are known to have a higher regard for musicality than for mere technical virtuosity GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 98 By the midfourteenth century professional associations of canon lawyers legal advocates in Christian ecclesiastical courts which dealt with cases involving marriage inheritance and other issues had 5 appeared in most of Western Europe and a body of professional standards had been defined for them One might expect that the professional associations would play a prominent role in enforcing these standards of conduct as other guilds often did and as modern 10 professional associations do but that seems not to have happened Advocates professional organizations showed little fervor for disciplining their erring members Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement The Florentine guild of lawyers for 15 example forbade its members to play any role in disciplinary proceedings against other guild members In the few recorded episodes of disciplinary enforcement the initiative for disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client not from 20 fellow lawyers At first glance there seem to be two possible explanations for the rarity of disciplinary proceedings Medieval canon lawyers may have generally observed the standards of professional conduct scrupulously 25 Alternatively it is possible that deviations from the established standards of behavior were not uncommon but that canonical disciplinary mechanisms were so inefficient that most delinquents escaped detection and punishment 30 Two considerations make it clear that the second of these explanations is more plausible First the English civil law courts whose ethical standards were similar to those of ecclesiastical courts show many more examples of disciplinary actions against legal 35 practitioners than do the records of church courts This discrepancy could well indicate that the disciplinary mechanisms of the civil courts functioned more efficiently than those of the church courts The alternative inference namely that ecclesiastical 40 advocates were less prone to ethical lapses than their counterparts in the civil courts seems inherently weallt especially since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the ecclesiastical bar Second church authorities themselves complained 45 about the failure of advocates to measure up to ethical standards and deplored the shortcomings of the disciplinary system Thus the Council of Basel declared that canon lawyers failed to adhere to the ethical prescriptions laid down in numerous papal 50 constitutions and directed Cardinal Cesarini to address the problem In England where medieval church records are extraordinarily rich similar complaints about the failure of the disciplinary system to reform unethical practices were very common 55 Such criticisms seem to have had a paradoxical result for they apparently reinforced the professional solidarity of lawyers at the expense of the enforcement of ethical standards Thus the profession s critics may actually have induced advocates to organize 60 professional associations for selfdefense The critics attacllts may also have persuaded lawyers to assign a higher priority to defending themselves against attacks by nonprofessionals than to disciplining wayward members within their own ranllts Which one of the following best states the main conclusion of the passage A B C D 13 Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers probably only enforced ethical standards among their own members when provollted to do so by outside criticisms Professional organizations of medieval civil lawyers seem to have maintained stricter ethical standards for their own members than did professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers apparently served to defend their members against critics attacllts rather than to enforce ethical standards The ethical standards maintained by professional associations of medieval canon lawyers were chie y laid down in papal constitutions Ethical standards for medieval canon lawyers were not laid down until professional organizations for these lawyers had been formed According to the passage which one of the following statements about law courts in medieval England is true A B C D 13 Some English lawyers who practiced in civil courts also practiced in church courts but others served exclusively in one court or the other English canon lawyers were more likely to initiate disciplinary proceedings against their colleagues than were English civil lawyers English civil lawyers maintained more stringent ethical standards than did civil lawyers in the rest of Europe English ecclesiastical courts had originally been modeled upon English civil courts English ecclesiastical courts lltept richer and more thorough records than did English civil courts GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 9 10 11 The author refers to the Florentine guild of lawyers in 12 the first paragraph most probably in order to A introduce a theory about to be promoted B illustrate the type of action referred to in the previous sentence C underline the universality of a method discussed throughout the paragraph D point out a flaw in an argument presented earlier in the paragraph E rebut an anticipated objection to a thesis just proposed The author refers to the Council of Basel line 47 primarily in order to A provide an example of the type of action needed to establish professional standards for canon lawyers B contrast the reactions of English church authorities with the reactions of other bodies to violations of professional standards by canon lawyers C bolster the argument that violations of 13 professional standards by canon lawyers did take 39 place D explain how rules of conduct for canon lawyers were established E describe the development of a disciplinary system to enforce professional standards among canon lawyers According to the information in the passage for which one of the following ethical violations would documentation of disciplinary action against a canon lawyer be most likely to exist A betraying a client39s secrets to the opposing party B bribing the judge to rule in favor of a client 14 C misrepresenting credentials in order to gain 39 admission to the lawyers guild D spreading rumors in order to discredit an opposing lawyer E lltnowingly helping a client to misrepresent the truth 99 Which one of the following is most analogous to the professional solidarity referred to in lines 5657 A Members of a teachers union go on strike when they believe one of their colleagues to be falsely accused of using an inappropriate textboollt In order to protect the reputation of the press in the face of a largely hostile public a journalist conceals distortions in a colleague39s news article Several dozen recording artists agree to participate in a concert to benefit an endangered environmental habitat In order to expedite governmental approval of a drug a government official is persuaded to look the other way when a pharmaceutical manufacturer conceals evidence that the drug may have minor side effects A popular politician agrees to campaign for another less popular politician belonging to the same political party 13 C D E The passage suggests that which one of the following is most likely to have been true of medieval guilds A B C Few guilds of any importance existed before the midfourteenth century Many medieval guilds exercised in uence over the actions of their members Most medieval guilds maintained more exacting ethical standards than did the associations of canon lawyers Medieval guilds found it difficult to enforce discipline among their members The ethical standards of medieval guilds varied from one city to another D E The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following regarding the hypothesis that medieval canon lawyers observed standards of professional conduct scrupulously A It is untrue because it is contradicted by documents obtained from the ecclesiastical courts It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in the same situation in modern society It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in a similar area of medieval society It is impossible to assess intelligently because of the dearth of civil and ecclesiastical documents It is directly supported by documents obtained from civil and ecclesiastical courts 13 C D E GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 100 Many birds that form ocks compete through aggressive interaction for priority of access to resources such as food and shelter The result of repeated interactions between ock members is that 5 each bird gains a particular social status related to its fighting ability with priority of access to resources increasing with higher status As the number and intensity of interactions between birds increase however so increase the costs to each bird in terms of 10 energy expenditure time and risk of injury Thus birds possessing attributes that reduce the number of costly interactions in which they must be involved without leading to a reduction in status are at an advantage An extemal signal such as a plumage type 15 announcing fighting ability and thereby obviating the actual need to fight could be one such attribute The zoologist Rohwer asserted that plumage variations in Harris sparrows support the status signaling hypothesis SSH He reported that almost 20 without exception birds with darker throats win con icts with individuals having lighter plumage He claimed that even among birds of the same age and sex the amount of dark plumage predicts relative dominance status 25 However Rohwer s data do not support his assertions in one of his studies darllter birds won only 57 out of 75 con icts within another focusing on con icts between birds of the same age group or sex darllter birds won 63 and lost 62 There are indications 30 that plumage probably does signal broad agerelated differences in status among Harris sparrows adults usually darllt throated have higher status than juveniles who are usually light throated moreover juveniles dyed to resemble adults are dominant over undyed 35 juveniles However the Harris sparrows agerelated plumage differences do not signal the status of individual birds within an age class and thus cannot properly be included under the term status signaling The best evidence for status signaling is from the 40 greater titmouse Experiments show a strong correlation between the width of the black breast plumage stripe and status as measured by success in aggressive interactions An analysis of factors likely to be associated with breaststripe width sex age wing 45 length body weight has demonstrated social status to be the only variable that correlates with stripe width when the other variables are held constant An ingenious experiment provided further evidence for status signaling in the greater titmouse One of 50 three stuffed titmouse dummies was mounted on a feeding tray VVhen a live bird approached the dummy was turned by radio control to face the bird and present its breast stripe in display When presented with a dummy having a narrower breast stripe than their own 55 birds approached closely and behaved aggressively However when presented with a dummy having a broader breast stripe than their own live birds acted submissive and did not approach 15 According to the passage the status signaling 16 hypothesis holds that the ability to display a recognizable external signal would have the effect on an individual bird of A enabling it to attract a mate of high status B allowing it to avoid costly aggressive interactions C decreasing its access to limited resources D making it less attractive to predatory species B increasing its fighting ability The author refers to the fact that adult Harris sparrows are usually darllt throated lines 3132 in order to do which one of the following A support the conclusion that plumage variation among Harris sparrows probably does not signal individual status B argue that plumage variation among Harris sparrows helps to confirm the status signaling hypothesis C indicate that in light of plumage variation patterns among Harris sparrows the status signaling hypothesis should probably be modified D demonstrate that Harris sparrows are the most appropriate subjects for the study of status signaling among birds E suggest that the signaling of agerelated differences in status is widespread among birds that form flocllts GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 17 Which one of the following if true would most 18 19 seriously undermine the validity of the results of the experiment discussed in the last paragraph A The live birds all came from different titmouse flocks B The physical characteristics of the stuffed dummies varied in ways other than just breast stripe width C No live juvenile birds were included in the experiment D The food placed in the feeding tray was not the kind of food normally eaten by titmice in the wild E Even the live birds that acted aggressively did not actually physically attack the stuffed dummies Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage A A hypothesis is introduced and studies relevant to the hypothesis are discussed and evaluated B A natural phenomenon is presented and several explanations for the phenomenon are examined in detail C Behavior is described possible underlying causes for the behavior are reported and the likelihood of each cause is assessed D A scientific conundrum is explained and the history of the issue is recounted E A scientific theory is outlined and opinions for and against its validity as well as experiments supporting each side are compared According to the passage which one of the following is true of Rohwer s relationship to the status signaling hypothesis SSH A Although his research was designed to test the SSH his data proved to be more relevant to other issues B He set out to confirm the SSH but ended up revising it C He set out to disprove the SSH but ended up accepting it D He altered the SSH by expanding it to encompass various types of signals E He advocated the SSH but his research data failed to confirm it 20 21 101 The passage suggests that among birds that form ocks a bird of high status is most likely to have which one of the following A dark throat plumage B greaterthanaverage body weight C offspring of high status D strong fighting ability E frequent injuries VVhich one of the following can be inferred about Harris sparrows from the passage A Among Harris sparrows plumage differences signal individual status only within age groups B Among Harris sparrows adults have priority of access to food over juveniles C Among Harris sparrows juveniles with relatively dark plumage have status equal to that of adults with relatively light plumage D uvenile Harris sparrows engage in aggressive interaction more frequently than do adult Harris sparrows E Harris sparrows engage in aggressive interaction less frequently than do greater titmice GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 102 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 In The Dynamics of Apocalypse John Lowe attempts to solve the mystery of the collapse of the Classic Mayan civilization Lowe bases his study on a detailed examination of the known archaeological record Like previous investigators Lowe relies on dated monuments to construct a stepbystep account of the actual collapse Using the erection of new monuments as a means to determine a site39s occupation span Lowe assumes that once new monuments ceased to be built a site had been abandoned Lowe39s analysis of the evidence suggests that construction of new monuments continued to increase between AD 672 and 751 but that the civilization stopped expanding geographically new construction took place almost exclusively in established settlements The first signs of trouble followed Monument inscriptions indicate that between 751 and 790 longstanding alliances started to break down Evidence also indicates that between 790 and 830 the death rate in Classic Mayan cities outstripped the birthrate After approximately 830 construction stopped throughout the area and within a hundred years the Classic Mayan civilization all but vanished Having established this chronology Lowe sets forth a plausible explanation of the collapse that accommodates the available archaeological evidence He theorizes that Classic Mayan civilization was brought down by the interaction of several factors set in motion by population growth An increase in population particularly within the elite segment of society necessitated ever more intense farming Agricultural intensification exerted stress on the soil and led to a decline in productivity the amount of food produced through each unit of labor invested At the same time the growth of the elite class created increasing demands for ceremonial monuments and luxuries diverting needed labor from the fields The theory holds that these stresses were communicated and amplified throughout the area as Mayan states engaged in warfare to acquire laborers and food and refugees ed impoverished areas The most vulnerable states thus began to break down and each downfall triggered others until the entire civilization collapsed If there is a central aw in Lowe39s explanation it is that the entire edifice rests on the assumption that the available evidence paints a true picture of how the collapse proceeded However it is difficult to know how accurately the archaeological record re ects historic activity especially of a complex civilization such as the Mayans and a hypothesis can be tested only against the best available data It is quite possible that our understanding of the collapse might be radically altered by better data For example Lowe39s assumption about monument construction and the occupation span of a site might well be disproved if further investigations of Classic Mayan sites established that some remained heavily settled long after the custom of carving dynastic monuments had ceased 22 23 Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage A A method used to analyze evidence is described an explanation of the evidence is suggested and then a conclusion is drawn from the evidence B A hypothesis is presented evidence supporting the hypothesis is provided and then the hypothesis is affirmed C An analysis of a study is presented contradictory evidence is examined and then a direction for future studies is suggested The basis of a study is described a theory that explains the available evidence is presented and a possible aw in the study is pointed out E An observation is made evidence supporting the observation is presented and then contradictions in the evidence are discussed D Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage A In The Dynamics of Apocalypse John Lowe successfully proves that the collapse of Classic Mayan civilization was set in motion by increasing population and decreasing productivity B In The Dynamics of Apocalypse John Lowe breaks new ground in solving the mystery of the collapse of Classic Mayan civilization through his use of dated monuments to create a stepby step account of the collapse C In The Dynamics of Apocalypse John Lowe successfully uses existing data to document the reduction and then cessation of new construction throughout Classic Mayan civilization Although John Lowe39s study is based on a careful examination of the historical record it does not accurately re ect the circumstances surrounding the collapse of Classic Mayan civilization E While John Lowe39s theory about the collapse of Classic Mayan civilization appears credible it is based on an assumption that cannot be verified using the archaeological record D GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 24 Which one of the following is most closely analogous to 26 25 the assumption Lowe makes about the relationship between monument construction and Classic Mayan cities A A person assumes that the shortage of fresh produce on the shelves of a grocery store is due to the effects of poor weather conditions during the growing season B A person assumes that a movie theater only shows foreign films because the titles of the films shown there are not familiar to the person A person assumes that a restaurant is under new ownership because the restaurant39s menu has changed drastically since the last time the person ate there D A person assumes that a corporation has been sold because there is a new name for the corporation on the sign outside the building where the company is located E A person assumes a friend has sold her stamp collection because the friend has stopped purchasing new stamps C It can be inferred from the passage that the author would describe the method Lowe used to construct a stepby step chronology of the actual collapse of Classic Mayan civilization as A B C D E daringly innovative but awed generally accepted but questionable very reliable but outdated unscientific but effective unconventional but brilliant STOP 103 The author of the passage would most likely agree with which one of the following statements about the use of the archaeological record to reconstruct historic activity A B C D E With careful analysis archaeological evidence can be used to reconstruct accurately the historic activity of a past civilization Archaeological evidence is more useful for reconstructing the daytoday activities of a culture than its longterm trends The accuracy of the archaeological record for reconstructing historic activity is dependent on the duration of the particular civilization The archaeological record is not an appropriate source of data for reconstructing historic activity Historic activity can be reconstructed from archaeological evidence but it is ultimately impossible to confirm the accuracy of the reconstruction IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST 104 SECTION III Time 35 minutes 24 Questions Directions Each group of questions in this section is based on a set of conditions In answering some of the questions it may be useful to draw a rough diagram Choose the response that most accurately and completely answers each question and blacllten the corresponding space on your answer sheet Questions 15 Each of seven travelers Norris Oribe Paulsen Rosen Semonelli Tan and Underwood will be assigned to exactly one of nine airplane seats The seats are numbered from 1 through 9 and arranged in rows as follows Front row 1 2 3 Middle row 4 5 6 Last row 7 8 9 Only seats in the same row as each other are immediately beside each other Seat assignments must meet the following conditions Oribe s seat is in the last row Paulsen s seat is immediately beside Rosen s seat and also immediately beside an unassigned seat Rosen s seat is in the row immediately behind the row in which Norris seat is located Neither Semonelli nor Underwood is seated immediately beside Norris 1 Which one of the following is a pair of travelers who could be assigned to seats 2 and 8 respectively A Norris Semonelli B Oribe Underwood C Paulsen Oribe D Rosen Semonelli E Underwood Tan 2 If Semonelli and Underwood are not assigned to seats in the same row as each other which one of the following must be false A Norris is assigned to seat 2 B Paulsen is assigned to seat 5 C Rosen is assigned to seat 4 D Tan is assigned to seat 2 E Underwood is assigned to seat 1 If Semonelli is assigned to a seat in the same row as Underwood which one of the following travelers could be assigned to a seat immediately beside one of the unassigned seats A Oribe B Rosen C Semonelli D Tan E Underwood If the seat to which Tan is assigned is immediately beside a seat assigned to another traveler and also immediately beside one of the unassigned seats which one of the following must be true A Tan is assigned to a seat in the front row B Tan is assigned to a seat in the last row C Oribe is assigned to a seat immediately beside Semonelli D Oribe is assigned to a seat immediately beside Tan E Semonelli is assigned to a seat immediately beside Underwood If Oribe is assigned to a seat immediately beside one of the unassigned seats which one of the following must be true A Oribe is assigned to seat 8 B Tan is assigned to seat 2 C Underwood is assigned to seat 1 D Seat 4 is unassigned E Seat 9 is unassigned GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 105 Questions 612 9 If both L and S are reduced which one of the following could be a pair of areas of expenditure A university library budget committee must reduce exactly both of which are reduced five of eight areas of expenditure G L M N P R S and A G M W in accordance with the following conditions B G P If both G and S are reduced W is also reduced 39 C N R If N is reduced neither R nor S is reduced D N W If P is reduced L is not reduced E P 5 Of the three areas L M and R exactly two are reduced 6 which one of the following Could be a Complete and 10 If R is not reduced which one of the following must be 7 accurate list of the areas of expenditure reduced by the true committee EA G 15 139eduCzd d B N is not re uce A G L M N W C P is reduced B G L M P VV D S is reduced FX S I1 R39s E W is not reduced W 11 If both M and R are reduced which one of the following 7 7 If W is reduced which one of the following could be a 18 a palr of areas nelther of which Could be reduced complete and accurate list of the four other areas of A G L expenditure to be reduced X Elg C L M P S 39 D M N P S 7 E M P R S 12 Which one of the following areas must be reduced A G 8 If P is reduced which one of the following is a pair of B L areas of expenditure both of which must be reduced C N D P B M R C N D E W I R S GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE W I CD 106 Questions 1318 16 If on a sixbead strand the first and second beads from the clasp are purple and yellow respectively then the fifth and sixth beads CANNOT be A A jeweler makes a single strand of beads by threading onto a string in a single direction from a clasp a series of solid colored beads Each bead is either green orange purple red or yellow The resulting strand satisfies the following specifications If a purple bead is adjacent to a yellow bead any bead that immediately follows and any bead that immediately precedes that pair must be red 17 Any pair of beads adjacent to each other that are the 39 same color as each other must be green No orange bead can be adjacent to any red bead green and orange respectively B orange and green respectively C orange and yellow respectively D purple and orange respectively E yellow and purple respectively If on a ninebead strand the first and fourth beads from the clasp are purple and the second and fifth beads are yellow which one of the following could be true Any portion of the strand containing eight consecutive A The 5eVehth head is 0139ah8e beads must include at least one bead of each color 3 The eighth head is green C The eighth bead is red 13 If the strand has exactly eight beads which one of the D The hihth head is red following is an acceptable order starting from the clasp E The hihth head is Yeh0W for the eight beads 18 If on an eightbead strand the first second third and A green red purple yellow red orange green 13 purple orange yellow red red yellow purple red fourth beads from the clasp are red yellow green and red respectively then the fifth and sixth beads CANNOT be A B C D 13 green purple yellow red green green orange yellow orange red orange red yellow purple green yellow green red yellow purple red green red green green C green and orange respectively green and purple respectively purple and orange respectively purple and yellow respectively yellow and orange respectively D E 14 If an orange bead is the fourth bead from the clasp which one of the following is a pair that could be the second and third beads respectively A B C D E 15 If on an eightbead strand the second third and fourth beads from the clasp are red green and yellow respectively and the sixth and seventh beads are purple and red respectively then which one of the following must be true A B C D E green orange green red purple purple yellow green yellow purple The first bead is purple The fifth bead is green The fifth bead is orange The eighth bead is orange The eighth bead is yellow GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE Questions 1924 22 At an evening concert a total of six songs O P T X Y and Z will be performed by three vocalists George Helen and Leslie The songs will be sung consecutively as solos and each will be performed exactly once The following constraints govern the composition of the concert program Y must be performed earlier than T and earlier than O P must be performed earlier than Z and later than O George can perform only X Y and Z Helen can perform only T P and X Leslie can perform only O P and X The vocalist who performs rst must be different from the vocalist who performs last 23 19 Which one of the following is an acceptable schedule for the performance of the songs in order from the first to last song performed mXIYQRZ m xzmrop mmoRxrz mRoLrx YXQRZT Which one of the following must be true about the program A B C D 13 Which one of the following is a complete and accurate list of the songs any one of which could be the last song performed at the concert A O P Z B O T X C T P Z D T X Z E X P Z 24 20 George performs X Helen performs O Helen performs T Leslie performs P Leslie performs X 21 STOP 107 If X is performed first which one of the following must be true A B C D B Each of the following is an acceptable schedule for the performance of the songs in order from the first to last song performed EXCEPT m xQRrLx mroRxz YXQRZT XYQRZT m xxornz X is performed by George X is performed by Helen P is the fourth song performed Y is the second song performed Y is the third song performed If Y is performed first the songs performed second third and fourth respectively could be A T X and O B T Z and O C X O and P D X P and Z E X T and O IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST 108 SECTION IV Time 35 minutes 26 Questions Directions The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages For some questions more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question However you are to choose the lit answer that is the response that most accurately and completely answers the question You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible super uous or incompatible with the passage After you have chosen the best an swer blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet 1 Critic People today place an especially high value on respect for others yet in their comedy acts many of today39s most popular comedians display blatant disrespect for others But when people fail to live up to the very ideals they hold in highest esteem exaggeration of such failings often forms the basis of successful comedy Thus the current popularity of comedians who display disrespect in their acts is hardly surprising The critic39s argument depends on which one of the following assumptions A People who enjoy comedians who display disrespect in their acts do not place a high value on respect for others B Only comedians who display blatant disrespect in their acts are currently successful C Many people disapprove of the portrayal of blatant disrespect for others in comedy acts D People who value an ideal especially highly do not always succeed in living up to this ideal E People today fail to live up to their own ideals more frequently than was the case in the past The law firm of Sutherlin Perez and Associates is one of the most successful law firms whose primary specialization is in criminal defense cases In fact the firm has a better than 90 percent acquittal rate in such cases Dalton is an attorney whose primary specialization is in divorce cases so Dalton certainly cannot be a member of Sutherlin Perez and Associates The reasoning in the argument is flawed because the argument A offers in support of its conclusion pieces of evidence that are mutually contradictory B overlooks the possibility that a person can practice law without being a member of a law firm C concludes that someone is not a member of a group on the grounds that that person does not have a characteristic that the group as a whole has D takes a high rate of success among the members of a group to indicate that the successes are evenly spread among the members E states a generalization based on a selection that is not representative of the group about which the generalization is supposed to hold true 4 Opponents of allowing tripletrailer trucks to use the national highway system are wrong in claiming that these trucks are more dangerous than other commercial vehicles In the western part of the country in areas where tripletrailers are now permitted on some highways for these vehicles the rate of road accident fatalities per mile of travel is lower than the national rate for other types of commercial vehicles Clearly triple trailers are safer than other commercial vehicles Which one of the following if true most substantially weakens the argument A It takes two smaller semitrailers to haul as much weight as a single tripletrailer can B Highways in the sparsely populated West are much less heavily traveled and consequently are far safer than highways in the national system as a whole C Opponents of the tripletrailers also once opposed the shorter twintrailers which are now common on the nation39s highways D In areas where the tripletrailers are permitted drivers need a special license to operate them E For tripletrailers the rate of road accident fatalities per mile of travel was higher last year than in the two previous years Whittaker There can be no such thing as the number of medical school students who drop out before their second year because if they drop out they never have a second year Hudson By your reasoning I cannot help but become rich because there is similarly no such thing as my dying before my first million dollars is in the bank Hudson responds to Whittaker by A showing that a relevantly analogous argument leads to an untenable conclusion B citing a specific example to counter Whittaker s general claim C pointing out that Whittaker mistakes a necessary situation for a possible situation D claiming that what Whittaker says cannot be true because Whittaker acts as if it were false E showing that Whittaker s argument relies on analyzing an extreme and unrepresentative case GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE A newly developed light bulb is much more cost effective than conventional light bulbs it costs only about 3 times what a conventional light bulb costs but it lasts up to 10 times as long as a conventional light bulb Despite the manufacturer39s intense efforts to publicize the advantages of the new bulb one analyst predicts that these new bulbs will prove to sell very poorly Each of the following if true provides support for the analyst39s prediction EXCEPT A The light generated by the new bulb is in the yellow range of the spectrum a type of artificial light most people find unappealing B Most people who purchase light bulbs prefer to buy inexpensive light bulbs rather than more durable but expensive light bulbs C A manufacturer of one brand of conventional light bulb has advertised claims that the new light bulb uses more electricity than do conventional light bulbs D The new bulb is to be marketed in several different quantities ranging from paclltages containing one bulb to paclltages containing four bulbs E A competing manufacturer is about to introduce a light bulb that lasts 10 times as long as a conventional bulb but costs less than a conventional bulb The Rienzi a passenger ship sanllt as a result of a hole in its hull possibly caused by sabotage Normally when a holed ship sinllts as rapidly as the Rienzi did water does not enter the ship quickly enough for the ship to be fully ooded when it reaches the ocean oor Full flooding can be achieved however by sabotage Any ship that sinllts deep into the ocean when not fully ooded will implode Deepsea photographs taken of the sunken Rienzi where it rests on the ocean oor reveal that the Rienzi did not implode Which one of the following must be true on the basis of the information above A The Rienzi was so constructed as to reduce the risk of sinllting by impact B If the Rienzi became fully ooded it did so only after it reached the ocean oor C If the Rienzi was not sunllt by sabotage water flooded into it unusually fast D If the Rienzi had sunllt more slowly it would have imploded E The Rienzi was so strongly constructed as to resist imploding under deepsea pressure 109 For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease one will die from it A vaccine exists that is virtually 100 percent effective in preventing this disease Since the risk of death from complications of vaccination is one death per 5000 vaccinations it is therefore safer for a dog to receive the vaccine than not to receive it VVhich one of the following would it be most helpful to know in order to evaluate the argument A the total number of dogs that die each year from all causes taken together B whether the vaccine is effective against the disease in household pets other than dogs C the number of dogs that die each year from diseases other than the disease in question D the likelihood that a dog will contract another disease such as rabies E the likelihood that an unvaccinated dog will contract the disease in question The symptoms of mental disorders are behavioral cognitive or emotional problems Some patients with mental disorders can be effectively treated with psychotherapy But it is now known that in some patients mental disorders result from chemical imbalances affecting the brain Thus these patients can be effectively treated only with medication that will reduce or correct the imbalance The argument depends on assuming which one of the following A Treatment by psychotherapy can produce no effective reduction in or correction of chemical imbalances that cause mental disorders B Treatment with medication always shows faster results for patients with mental disorders than does treatment with psychotherapy C Most mental disorders are not the result of chemical imbalances affecting the brain D Medication is always more effective in treating patients with mental disorders than is psychotherapy E Treatment with psychotherapy has no effect on mental disorders other than a reduction of the symptoms GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 110 Questions 910 Curator Art critic 10 The decision to restore the cloak of the central figure in Veronese s painting from its present red to the green found underneath is fully justified Reliable xray and chemical tests show that the red pigment was applied after the painting had been completed and that the red paint was not mixed in Veronese s worlltshop Hence it appears likely that an artist other than Veronese tampered with Veronese s painting after its completion But in a copy of Veronese s painting made shortly after Veronese died the cloak is red It is highly unlikely that a copyist would have made so major a change so soon after Veronese s death The assertion that a later artist tampered with Veronese s painting serves which one of the following functions in the curator s argument A It is the main point toward which the argument as a whole is directed B It is a subsidiary conclusion that supports the argument s main conclusion C It is a clarification of a key term of the argument D It is a particular instance of the general position to be defended E It is a reiteration of the main point that is made for the sake of emphasis The art critic39s response to the curator would provide the strongest support for which one of the following conclusions A The copy of Veronese s painting that was made soon after the painter s death is indistinguishable from the original B No painting should be restored before the painting is tested with technologically sophisticated equipment C The proposed restoration will fail to restore Veronese s painting to the appearance it had at the end of the artist39s lifetime D The value of an artist39s work is not necessarily compromised when that work is tampered with by later artists E Veronese did not originally intend the central figure s cloallt to be green 11 12 John worllts five days each week except when on vacation or during weeks in which national holidays occur Four days a week he works in an insurance company on Fridays he works as a blacksmith Last week there were no holidays and John was not on vacation Therefore he must have worked in the insurance company on Monday Tuesday Wednesday and Thursday last week Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends A John never takes a vacation of more than one week in length B Every day last week that John worllted he worked for an entire worlltday C John does not take vacations in weeks in which national holidays occur D Last week John worllted neither on Saturday nor on Sunday E There were no days last week on which John both worked in the insurance company and also worked as a blacksmith After several attempts to distract his young parrot from chewing on furniture George reluctantly took an expert39s advice and gently hit the parrot s beallt whenever the bird started to chew furniture The bird stopped chewing furniture but it is now afraid of hands and will sometimes bite Since chewing on the furniture would not have hurt the bird George should not have hit it When Carla39s puppy escaped from her yard it bounded into a busy street Although Carla does not generally approve of physical discipline she hit the puppy sharply with her hand Now the puppy enters the street only when accompanied by Carla so Carla was justified in disciplining the puppy Which one of the following principles if established would justify the judgments about George39s and Carla39s actions A JVhen disciplining an animal physically a trainer should use an object such as a rolled up newspaper to avoid making the animal frightened of hands B When training an animal physical discipline should be used only when such discipline is necessary to correct behavior that could result in serious harm to the animal C Using physical discipline to train an animal is justified only when all alternative strategies for correcting undesirable behavior have failed D Physical discipline should not be used on immature animals E Physical discipline should not be used by an animal trainer except to correct persistent behavior problems GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 13 Mature white pines intercept almost all the sunlight 14 that shines on them They leave a deep litter that dries readily and they grow to prodigious height so that even when there are large gaps in a stand of such trees little light reaches the forest floor For this reason white pines cannot regenerate in their own shade Thus when in a dense forest a stand of trees consists of nothing but mature white pines it is a fair bet that Which one of the following most logically concludes the argument A the ages of the trees in the stand do not differ from each other by much more than the length of time it takes a white pine to grow to maturity B the land on which the stand is now growing had been cleared of all trees at the time when the first of the white pines started growing C competition among the trees in the stand for sunlight will soon result in some trees dying and the stand thus becoming thinner D other species of trees will soon begin to colonize the stand eventually replacing all of the white pines E any differences in the heights of the trees in the stand are attributable solely to differences in the ages of the trees Advertisement A leading economist has determined that among people who used computers at their place of employment last year those who also owned portable laptop computers earned 25 percent more on average than those who did not It is obvious from this that owning a laptop computer led to a higherpaying job Which one of the following identifies a reasoning error in the argument A It attempts to support a sweeping generalization on the basis of information about only a small number of individuals B Its conclusion merely restates a claim made earlier in the argument C It concludes that one thing was caused by another although the evidence given is consistent with the first thing39s having caused the second D It offers information as support for a conclusion when that information actually shows that the conclusion is false E It uncritically projects currently existing trends indefinitely into the future 15 111 Rhonda will see the movie tomorrow afternoon only if Paul goes to the concert in the afternoon Paul will not go to the concert unless Ted agrees to go to the concert However Ted refuses to go to the concert So Rhonda will not see the movie tomorrow afternoon The pattem of reasoning displayed above is most closely paralleled in which one of the following A If anice comes to visit Mary will not pay the bills tomorrow anice will not come to visit unless she locates a babysitter However Janice has located a babysitter so she will visit Mary B Gary will do his laundry tomorrow only if Peter has to go to work Unless Cathy is ill Peter will not have to go to work Since Cathy is not ill Gary will not do his laundry tomorrow C Kelly will barbecue fish tonight if it does not rain and the market has fresh trout Although the forecast does not call for rain the market does not have fresh trout So Kelly will not barbecue fish tonight D Lisa will attend the family reunion next week only if one of her brothers ared or Karl also attends Karl will not attend the reunion but Jared will So Lisa will attend the reunion E George will not go to the museum tomorrow unless Marllt agrees to go Mark will go to the museum only if he can postpone most of his appointments Mark has postponed some of his appointments so he will go to the museum GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 112 16 Private industry is trying to attract slltilled research 17 scientists by offering them high salaries As a result most research scientists employed in private industry now earn 50 percent more than do comparably skilled research scientists employed by the government So unless governmentemployed research scientists are motivated more by a sense of public duty than by their own interests the government is likely to lose its most skilled research scientists to private industry since none of these scientists would have problems nding private sector obs Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends A Government research scientists are less likely to receive acknowledgment for their research contributions than are research scientists in the private sector None of the research scientists currently employed by the government earns more than the highestpaid researchers employed in the private sector The government does not employ as many research scientists who are highly skilled as does any large company in the private sector which employs research scientists The government does not provide its research scientists with unusually good working conditions or fringe benefits that more than compensate for the lower salaries they receive Research scientists employed in the private sector generally work longer hours than do researchers employed by the government 13 C D E Using fossil energy more efficiently is in the interest of the nation and the global environment but major improvements are unlikely unless proposed government standards are implemented to eliminate products or practices that are among the least efficient in their class Objection Decisions on energy use are best left to the operation of the market Which one of the following if true most directly undermines the objection above A It would be unrealistic to expect society to make the changes necessary to achieve maximum energy efficiency all at once There are products such as automobiles that consume energy at a sufficient rate that persons who purchase and use them will become conscious of any unusual energy inefficiency in comparison with other products in the same class VVhenever a new mode of generating energy such as a new fuel is introduced a number of support systems such as a fueldistribution system must be created or adapted When energy prices rise consumers of energy tend to look for new ways to increase energy efficiency such as by adding insulation to their houses Often the purchaser of a product such as a landlord buying an appliance chooses on the basis of purchase price because the purchaser is not the person who will pay for energy used by the product 13 C D 13 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 18 Dobson 19 who built a ring of stones thousands of years ago in Britain were knowledgeable about celestial events The ground for this claim is that two of the stones determine a line pointing directly to the position of the sun at sunrise at the spring equinox There are many stones in the ring however so the chance that one pair will point in a celestially significant direction is large Therefore the people who built the ring were not knowledgeable about celestial events Which one of the following is an error of reasoning in Dobson s argument A The failure of cited evidence to establish a statement is taken as evidence that that statement is false Dobson s conclusion logically contradicts some of the evidence presented in support of it Statements that absolutely establish Dobson s conclusion are treated as if they merely give some support to that conclusion Something that is merely a matter of opinion is treated as if it were subject to verification as a matter of fact Dobson s drawing the conclusion relies on interpreting a key term in two different ways 13 C D E Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its destination within two business days of being sent In fact correctly addressed mail takes longer than this only when it is damaged in transit Overall however most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent If the statements above are true which one of the following must be true A A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit B No incorrectly addressed mail arrives within two business days of being sent C Most mail that arrives within two business days of being sent is correctly addressed A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed More mail arrives within two business days of being sent than arrives between two and three business days after being sent D E Some historians claim that the people 20 113 The report released by the interior ministry states that within the past 5 years the national land reclamation program has resulted in a 19 percent increase in the amount of arable land within the country If these figures are accurate the program has been a resounding success Senator Armand a distinguished mathematician and a woman of indisputable brilliance maintains however that the reclamation program could not possibly have been successful Clearly therefore the figures cited in the report cannot be accurate The argument above exhibits an erroneous pattern of reasoning most similar to that exhibited by which one of the following A Albert39s father claims that Albert does not know where the spare car keys are hidden Yesterday however Albert reported that he had discovered the spare car keys in the garage toolbox so his father39s claim cannot be true Gloria39s drama teacher claims that her policy is to give each student the opportunity to act in at least one play during the year but since Gloria who attended every class reports that she was not given such an opportunity the teacher39s claim cannot be true Amos claims that he can hold his breath under water for a full hour Dr Treviso a cardiopulmonary specialist has stated that humans are physiologically incapable of holding their breath for even half that long so Amos claim cannot be true Evelyn reports that she got home before midnight Robert who always knows the time insists that she did not If Robert is right Evelyn could not possibly have listened to the late news since she admits not having listened to the late news her report cannot be true Moira after observing the finish of the 60lltilometer bicycle race reports that Lee won with Adams a distant third Lomas a bicycle engineering expert insists however that Lee could not have won a race in which Adams competed so Moira s report cannot be true 13 C D E GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 114 Questions 21 22 Wirth Chang 21 The point at issue between Wirth and Chang is whether All efforts to identify a gene responsible for predisposing people to manicdepression have failed In fact nearly all researchers now agree that there is no manicdepression gene Therefore if these researchers are right any claim that some people are genetically predisposed to manicdepression is simply false I do not dispute your evidence but I take issue with your conclusion Many of the researchers you refer to have found evidence that a set of several genes is involved and that complex interactions among these genes produce a predisposition to manicdepression A efforts to identify a gene or set of several genes responsible for predisposing people to manicdepression have all failed B it is likely that researchers will ever be able to find a single gene that predisposes people to manicdepression C nearly all researchers now agree that there is no manicdepression gene D current research supports the claim that no one B 22 Which one of the following most accurately expresses is genetically predisposed to manicdepression the efforts made to find a gene that can produce a predisposition to manicdepression were thorough Chang39s criticism of Wirth s argument A It presupposes only one possibility where more than one exists B It depends on separate pieces of evidence that contradict each other C It relies on the opinion of experts in an area outside the experts field of expertise D It disallows in principle any evidence that would disconfirm its conclusion E It treats something that is merely unlikely as though it were impossible 23 Garbage dumps do not harm wildlife Evidence is furnished by the MasaiMara reserve in Kenya where baboons that use the garbage dumps on the reserve as a food source mature faster and have more offspring than do baboons on the reserve that do not scavenge on garbage Each of the following statements if true casts doubt on the argument EXCEPT A B C D E The baboons that feed on the garbage dump are of a different species from those that do not The life expectancy of baboons that eat garbage is significantly lower than that of baboons that do not eat garbage The cholesterol level of garbageeating baboons is dangerously higher than that of baboons that do not eat garbage The population of hyenas that live near unregulated garbage landfills north of the reserve has doubled in the last two years The rate of birth defects for the baboon population on the reserve has doubled since the first landfills were opened GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE Questions 2425 26 Marianne is a professional chess player who hums audibly while playing her matches thereby distracting her opponents When ordered by chess officials to cease humming or else be disqualified from professional chess Marianne protested the order She argued that since she was unaware of her humming her humming was involuntary and that therefore she should not be held responsible for it 24 Which one of the following principles if valid most helps to support Marianne s argument against the order A Chess players who hum audibly while playing their matches should not protest if their opponents also hum B Of a player39s actions only those that are voluntary should be used as justification for disqualifying that player from professional chess C A person should be held responsible for those involuntary actions that serve that person39s interests D Types of behavior that are not considered voluntary in everyday circumstances should be considered voluntary if they occur in the context of a professional chess match E Chess players should be disqualified from professional chess matches if they regularly attempt to distract their opponents 25 Which one of the following if true most undermines Marianne s argument against the order A The officials of chess have little or no authority to control the behavior of its professional players outside of matches Many of the customs of amateur chess matches are not observed by professional chess players 13 C Not all of a person39s involuntary actions are actions of which that person is unaware D A person who hums involuntarily can easily learn to notice it and can thereby come to control it Not all of Marianne s opponents are distracted by her humming during chess matches E STOP 115 Smoking in bed has long been the main cause of home fires Despite a significant decline in cigarette smoking in the last two decades however there has been no comparable decline in the number of people killed in home fires Each one of the following statements if true over the last two decades helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy above EXCEPT A Compared to other types of home fires home fires caused by smoking in bed usually cause relatively little damage before they are extinguished Home fires caused by smoking in bed often break out after the home39s occupants have fallen asleep 3 C Smollters who smoke in bed tend to be heavy smokers who are less likely to quit smoking than are smokers who do not smoke in bed D An increasing number of people have been killed in home fires that started in the kitchen Population densities have increased with the result that one home fire can cause more deaths than in previous decades E IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST Answer Sheet Answer Sheet 118 The Sample Test Answer Key for the Sample Test SECTION I 1 B 8 B 15 C 22 E 2 A 9 C 16 A 23 E 3 B 10 C 17 D 24 B 4 B 11 D 18 C 25 D 5 E 12 D 19 D 6 D 13 D 20 C 7 E 14 C 21 A SECTION II 1 B 8 A 15 B 22 D 2 E 9 B 16 A 23 E 3 A 10 C 17 B 24 E 4 E 11 A 18 A 25 B 5 D 12 B 19 E 26 E 6 B 13 B 20 D 7 C 14 C 21 B SECTION III 1 A 8 B 15 C 22 D 2 A 9 A 16 E 23 B 3 D 10 A 17 E 24 C 4 A 11 C 18 D 5 B 12 E 19 E 6 A 13 C 20 C 7 E 14 D 21 D SECTION IV 1 D 8 A 15 B 22 A 2 C 9 B 16 D 23 D 3 B 10 C 17 E 24 B 4 A 11 D 18 A 25 D 5 D 12 B 19 D 26 B 6 C 13 A 20 E 7 E 14 C 21 D 119 SIGNATURE I I DATE LSAT Writing Sample Topic Roberto Martinez owner of a small used bookstore has recently purchased an adjacent store and is deciding how best to use it to expand his business Write an argument in support of one plan over the other based on the following criteria o Martinez wants to attract a significant number of new customers o Martinez wants to retain the loyal clientele who look to him for out of print books and first editions One plan is for Martinez to begin carrying bestsellers and popular fiction Because of his downtown location publishers of these works are likely to put his store on their book tours although the large bookstore chains have taken hold in the suburbs none has yet located in the downtown area Under this plan however Martinez would have enough room to keep only the best books from his current inventory To capitalize on this collection he is considering an occasional evening series called quotRediscoveriesquot featuring discussions of authors whose outofprint books he carries particularly several authors who are currently enjoying a resurgence of critical attention An alternative plan is for Martinez to use the new space to open a small coffeehouse with a limited menu He would furnish the area as a sitting room with couches and chairs and a few regular dining tables Although there are several restaurants nearby they offer primarily full meals in more formal settings Retaining much of his inventory of used books he would add novels poetry and nonfiction published by small presses to feature lesserknown writers whose work is difficult to find in this community These small presses include a number of local authors who are eager to read and discuss their work in the coffeehouse 120 The Sample Test Computing Your Score Directions Conversion Chart 1 Use the Answer Key on page 118 to check your an swers For Converting Raw Score to the 120180 LSAT Scaled Score 2 Use the Scoring Worksheet below to compute your Form 7LSS33 139aW SC0139 Reported Raw Score Score Lowest Highest 3 Use the Score Conversion Chart to convert your 180 99 101 raw score into the 120180 scale 179 98 98 178 97 97 177 96 96 176 95 95 175 94 94 174 93 93 173 92 92 Scoring Worksheet 35 3 170 89 89 1 Enter the number of questions you answered 12 2 3 correctly in each section 167 85 85 166 84 84 165 82 83 Number 164 81 81 Correct 163 79 80 162 78 78 161 76 77 I o o o o o o T p h E m SECTION II 159 73 74 SECTION III j PH 3 ZS IV T p 155 66 67 154 64 65 153 63 63 2 Enter the sum here 152 51 52 This is your Raw Score 151 59 50 150 57 58 149 55 56 148 54 54 147 52 53 146 50 51 145 49 49 144 47 48 143 45 46 142 44 44 141 42 43 140 40 41 139 39 39 138 37 38 137 36 36 136 34 35 135 33 33 134 31 32 133 30 30 132 29 29 131 27 28 130 26 26 129 25 25 128 23 24 127 22 22 126 21 21 125 20 20 124 19 19 123 18 18 122 17 17 121 16 16
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