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PSY 452; Week 1&2 Notes

by: Brianna

PSY 452; Week 1&2 Notes PSY 452

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Psychlogy > PSY 452 > PSY 452 Week 1 2 Notes
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About this Document

Notes from Chapter 1 and Lecture (1/21-1/29)
Cognitive Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, cognitive psyhology




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 452 at Colorado State University taught by Delozier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
Reading (Ch 1) Terms ● introspection; careful examination of one's own inner thoughts ● serial processing; one process is completed before the next one can start ● parallel processing; two or more processes occurring at once ● dissociation; average performance on one task but impaired performance  on a different task ● double dissociation; some individuals have the ability to perform well on  one task but poorly on the other, while other individuals exhibit the opposite ● Law of Pragnaz; the simplest organization of visual information is what is  perceived ● geons; basic shapes or components that combine into an object ● Anton's Syndrome; condition where blind patients mistake visual imagery  as perception Chapter 1 History of Cognitive Psychology ● Introspectionism ○ used to study thinking ○ Major Problems ■ unaware of processes influencing our  motivation and behavior ■ self­report may be distorted ■ delay being having conscious experience and  relaying it ■ generally aware of outcome of process,  opposed to the processes ● Behaviorism ○ focuses on scientific approach ○ Major Problems ■ exaggerated importance of reward/punishment ■ minimized importance of goals and past  experiments ● Cognitive Psychology ○ looked at internal processes and structures and external  stimuli and responses ○ Information Processing Approach ■ Bottom­Up Processing ■ also known as serial processing ■ processing directly effected by  stimulus input ■ Top­Down Processing ■ processing influences by  individual's expectations and knowledge ○ cognition is both bottom­up and top­down processing  (parallel processing) ● Modern Cognitive Psychology ○ Experimental Cognitive Psychology ■ involves controlled experiments to test the  internal processes of cognition ○ Cognitive Neuroscience ■ assessing brain activity with behavioral activity ■ able to see where and when brain activity  occurs ○ Cognitive Neuropsychology ■ studies brain damaged individuals performance on cognitive tasks ■ supports separate processes/modules ■ see; double dissociation ○ Computational Cognitive Science ■ "artificial brain" ■ uses computers to model human cognition Lecture (1/22­1/29) 1/22 What is Cognitive Psychology? ● the scientific study of the human mind ● The Problem ○ the mind is unobservable ■ black box: what's going on in your head ○ we can only observe manifestations (products) ■ behavior and physiology ● Some Solutions ○ Introspectionism: guess work ■ looking inside to see what's going on ■ Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener ■ Titchener: sensation taxonomy ■ Problems: ■ difficult to verify ■ end product, not the process  itself ■ didn't produce many interesting  results ○ Behaviorism: looking at responses ■ measure stimulus and response ■ Ivan Pavlov started idea ■ used with animals ■ Watson ■ the process of thinking is a  behavior to be examined ■ B.F. Skinner ■ reinforcement learning ■ Basic Principles: ■ Psychologists should focus on  only what is directly observable ■ Psychologists should explain  behavior, not thought or consciousness ■ Theories should be simple ■ End Note ■ How is our behavior determined? 1. whether rewarded  or punished (operant conditioning) ■ Became hugely influential in the  U.S. 1. many interesting  results ■ Rat Study (Tolman, Ritche & Kalish) ■ rats go through maze to get food ■ trained on simple maze, then put  in complex maze 1. even in complex  maze, rats remember where food originally was and  go that direction 2. disproves  behaviorism just for reward ■ The Tide Turns ■ 1950's grew dissatisfaction for  behaviorism ■ Human Learning ■ B.F. Skinner wrote, Verbal  Behavior 1. language is learned because of positive reinforcement 2. work with animals  can be applied to humans ■ Noam Chomsky wrote review 1. Skinner's theory  cannot explain language ■ Work on memory was difficult for  behaviorism to account for 1. Bousfield gave  people list to study ■ peopl e would recall lists in categories ■ s uggests they organize information,  evidence for cognition ■ Late 1950's, behaviorism not that  great ○ Cognitivism: ■ Infer what's going on inside the box ■ Computational View of the Mind ■ Underlying Assumption: the mind  is like a computer 1. info goes in, stored, comes out ■ Information Processing Perspective ■ Assumption: mental processes  occur in a series of steps 1. speech recognition,  comprehension, find answer, decide to answer,  decide how to answer, speak ■ Modern Cognitive Psychology ■ Assumptions: 1. Mental processes  exist 2. Can be studied  scientifically 3. Humans are active  processors of information 1/25­1/29 What is Perception? ● the interpretation of information gathered from the senses ○ Two Uses: ■ Identification ■ Navigation ● Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processes ○ Bottom Up: perception guided by raw sensory information  from the environment ■ ex; raw sound w/o expectation ○ Top Down: our general knowledge guides perception ■ ex; primed message ○ Using Conceptual Information ■ Palmer ■ viewed a seen for 2 sec, then  random object flashes quickly ■ look at recognition accuracy ■ Results: ■ when context  appropriate, more accurate at identifying (80%) ■ when context  inappropriate, less accurate (40%) ■ Explanation: ■ bottom up and top  down work together for context appropriate ■ top down  processing in context inappropriate makes  identification more difficult ■ Potchen ■ viewed x­ray slides, asked to  classify as normal/abnormal ■ 3 Conditions ■ No cue ■ X­ray from routine  physical ■ X­ray from survey  for cancer ■ Results: ■ control, 40% correct detection ■ routine physical, 42  correct detection ■ cancer survey, 83  correct detection ■ Explanation: ■ able to use top­ down to access the information given ● Object Recognition ○ Theories ■ Template Matching: older theory ■ compare stimuli with templates  from our memory ■ machines use this ■ Problems: ■ can't account for the flexibility of human perception ■ can't account for the perception of obstructed objects ■ can't  see full image, doesn't match the template ■ too many templates ■ unclear how it could account for more complex objects ■ Feature Analysis ■ recognize objects by identifying  its components ( distinctive features) ■ features compared to stored lists  of features in memory for identification ■ Evidence in Favor: ■ quicker to  discriminate among letters that don't share features ■ Gibson ■ subjec ts had to decide whether 2 letters are the same or different ■ G  vs. W, faster ■ P  vs R, slower ■ Neuroscience ■ neuro ns are sensitive to certain orientations of lines ■ Advantages: ■ a small number of  features can be used to recognize many objects ■ simulations with the models are similar to human data ■ Problems: ■ doesn't explain how you can recognize letters/number in different  orientations ■ difficulty explaining  recognition of complex objects ■ Recognition­by­Components ■ explains recognition of complex  objects ■ Biederman ■ "object alphabet"  consisting of 36 geons can be combined to identify  any object ■ 1.4  billion possible combinations from just 3 geons ■ Object­Centered;  we can recognize objects from different views ■ Focus On: ■ areas where deep  concave angles form ■ line intersections ■ Modern ■ mixture of object centered for  general distinctions and memory of objects for finer  distinctions ● Face Recognition ○ Thatcher Effect ■ eyes/mouth inverted ■ barely notice the distortion upside down ■ evidence that we process faces as a whole, not by features ■ top­down: "normal face" ■ bottom­up: helps us fix it ○ Is it special? ■ face recognition involves system different than  object recognition ■ face memory can be disrupted, but depends on the familiarity of the stimuli ■ one idea is that we are specialized to  recognize single objects and groups of features ■ Prosopagnosia; inability to recognize faces  (damage to fusiform) ■ Cases ■ Macrae & Trolle ■ could  not recognize anyone, only simple objects ■ couldn 't recognize self ■ Sacks ■ The  Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat ○ Own Race Bias; tendency to be poorer at identifying  individuals of another race ■ the way we categorize people effects ability to  recognize them ■ in­group vs. out­group  categorization ■ Hehman et al. ■ white students studied faces  grouped by race or university then tested ■ Results; ■ worse at identifying  other race faces when they are not in your "group" Visual Systems ● What/Ventral System; identifies objects; conscious ○ subject to top­down influences ● Where/How/Dorsal System; identifies object location; unconscious ○ Studies ■ Ungerleider and Mishkin ■ gave monkeys tests emphasizing either ■ monkeys with temporal lesions could do the  where test ■ couldn't do the what test ■ moneys with parietal lesions could do the what  test ■ couldn't do the where test ■ Haffenden and Goodal ■ used poker chips and asked subjects to show  size of chip ■ Results; ■ judged chip different sizes  depending on surroundings ■ illusion didn't hold when they got  to pick it up ■ Profitt et al. ■ overestimated steepness of hills ■ with use of board, made better judgment ○ Size Estimates ■ our experience with objects can influence our size estimates ■ Bruner & Goodman ■ children made estimates of size of cardboard  coins ■ Wesp et al. ■ drop darts onto target, counted attempts before hitting target ■ estimated size of target ■ Results; ■ the fewer attempts needed to hit  the target, the larger the estimate of the size ■ Proffitt ■ estimated hills backpack vs. no backpack ■ estimate further distances with backpack Change Detection ● change detection can be affected by our prior knowledge and biases ● also effected by instructions signaling what should be noticed ● Change Blindness; the inability to detect changes in an object or scene ○ Simons and Levin ■ one person stops stranger to ask for directions ■ two men cut though with a door ■ a new person is now receiving directions ■ only 1/2 of people notice ● Biases ○ Yaxley & Zwaan ■ showed smokers and nonsmokers object that  changed ■ sometimes smoking object changed,  sometimes nonsmoking object ■ Results; ■ nonsmokers same at nonsmoking and smoking ■ smokers detected change in  smoking quicker ■ prior experience,  drawn to smoking object ■ told nonsmokers experiment is about smoking ■ Results; ■ better at detecting  change for smoking object


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