PSY 452; Week 1&2 Notes
PSY 452; Week 1&2 Notes PSY 452
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 452 at Colorado State University taught by Delozier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Reading (Ch 1) Terms ● introspection; careful examination of one's own inner thoughts ● serial processing; one process is completed before the next one can start ● parallel processing; two or more processes occurring at once ● dissociation; average performance on one task but impaired performance on a different task ● double dissociation; some individuals have the ability to perform well on one task but poorly on the other, while other individuals exhibit the opposite ● Law of Pragnaz; the simplest organization of visual information is what is perceived ● geons; basic shapes or components that combine into an object ● Anton's Syndrome; condition where blind patients mistake visual imagery as perception Chapter 1 History of Cognitive Psychology ● Introspectionism ○ used to study thinking ○ Major Problems ■ unaware of processes influencing our motivation and behavior ■ selfreport may be distorted ■ delay being having conscious experience and relaying it ■ generally aware of outcome of process, opposed to the processes ● Behaviorism ○ focuses on scientific approach ○ Major Problems ■ exaggerated importance of reward/punishment ■ minimized importance of goals and past experiments ● Cognitive Psychology ○ looked at internal processes and structures and external stimuli and responses ○ Information Processing Approach ■ BottomUp Processing ■ also known as serial processing ■ processing directly effected by stimulus input ■ TopDown Processing ■ processing influences by individual's expectations and knowledge ○ cognition is both bottomup and topdown processing (parallel processing) ● Modern Cognitive Psychology ○ Experimental Cognitive Psychology ■ involves controlled experiments to test the internal processes of cognition ○ Cognitive Neuroscience ■ assessing brain activity with behavioral activity ■ able to see where and when brain activity occurs ○ Cognitive Neuropsychology ■ studies brain damaged individuals performance on cognitive tasks ■ supports separate processes/modules ■ see; double dissociation ○ Computational Cognitive Science ■ "artificial brain" ■ uses computers to model human cognition Lecture (1/221/29) 1/22 What is Cognitive Psychology? ● the scientific study of the human mind ● The Problem ○ the mind is unobservable ■ black box: what's going on in your head ○ we can only observe manifestations (products) ■ behavior and physiology ● Some Solutions ○ Introspectionism: guess work ■ looking inside to see what's going on ■ Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener ■ Titchener: sensation taxonomy ■ Problems: ■ difficult to verify ■ end product, not the process itself ■ didn't produce many interesting results ○ Behaviorism: looking at responses ■ measure stimulus and response ■ Ivan Pavlov started idea ■ used with animals ■ Watson ■ the process of thinking is a behavior to be examined ■ B.F. Skinner ■ reinforcement learning ■ Basic Principles: ■ Psychologists should focus on only what is directly observable ■ Psychologists should explain behavior, not thought or consciousness ■ Theories should be simple ■ End Note ■ How is our behavior determined? 1. whether rewarded or punished (operant conditioning) ■ Became hugely influential in the U.S. 1. many interesting results ■ Rat Study (Tolman, Ritche & Kalish) ■ rats go through maze to get food ■ trained on simple maze, then put in complex maze 1. even in complex maze, rats remember where food originally was and go that direction 2. disproves behaviorism just for reward ■ The Tide Turns ■ 1950's grew dissatisfaction for behaviorism ■ Human Learning ■ B.F. Skinner wrote, Verbal Behavior 1. language is learned because of positive reinforcement 2. work with animals can be applied to humans ■ Noam Chomsky wrote review 1. Skinner's theory cannot explain language ■ Work on memory was difficult for behaviorism to account for 1. Bousfield gave people list to study ■ peopl e would recall lists in categories ■ s uggests they organize information, evidence for cognition ■ Late 1950's, behaviorism not that great ○ Cognitivism: ■ Infer what's going on inside the box ■ Computational View of the Mind ■ Underlying Assumption: the mind is like a computer 1. info goes in, stored, comes out ■ Information Processing Perspective ■ Assumption: mental processes occur in a series of steps 1. speech recognition, comprehension, find answer, decide to answer, decide how to answer, speak ■ Modern Cognitive Psychology ■ Assumptions: 1. Mental processes exist 2. Can be studied scientifically 3. Humans are active processors of information 1/251/29 What is Perception? ● the interpretation of information gathered from the senses ○ Two Uses: ■ Identification ■ Navigation ● Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processes ○ Bottom Up: perception guided by raw sensory information from the environment ■ ex; raw sound w/o expectation ○ Top Down: our general knowledge guides perception ■ ex; primed message ○ Using Conceptual Information ■ Palmer ■ viewed a seen for 2 sec, then random object flashes quickly ■ look at recognition accuracy ■ Results: ■ when context appropriate, more accurate at identifying (80%) ■ when context inappropriate, less accurate (40%) ■ Explanation: ■ bottom up and top down work together for context appropriate ■ top down processing in context inappropriate makes identification more difficult ■ Potchen ■ viewed xray slides, asked to classify as normal/abnormal ■ 3 Conditions ■ No cue ■ Xray from routine physical ■ Xray from survey for cancer ■ Results: ■ control, 40% correct detection ■ routine physical, 42 correct detection ■ cancer survey, 83 correct detection ■ Explanation: ■ able to use top down to access the information given ● Object Recognition ○ Theories ■ Template Matching: older theory ■ compare stimuli with templates from our memory ■ machines use this ■ Problems: ■ can't account for the flexibility of human perception ■ can't account for the perception of obstructed objects ■ can't see full image, doesn't match the template ■ too many templates ■ unclear how it could account for more complex objects ■ Feature Analysis ■ recognize objects by identifying its components ( distinctive features) ■ features compared to stored lists of features in memory for identification ■ Evidence in Favor: ■ quicker to discriminate among letters that don't share features ■ Gibson ■ subjec ts had to decide whether 2 letters are the same or different ■ G vs. W, faster ■ P vs R, slower ■ Neuroscience ■ neuro ns are sensitive to certain orientations of lines ■ Advantages: ■ a small number of features can be used to recognize many objects ■ simulations with the models are similar to human data ■ Problems: ■ doesn't explain how you can recognize letters/number in different orientations ■ difficulty explaining recognition of complex objects ■ RecognitionbyComponents ■ explains recognition of complex objects ■ Biederman ■ "object alphabet" consisting of 36 geons can be combined to identify any object ■ 1.4 billion possible combinations from just 3 geons ■ ObjectCentered; we can recognize objects from different views ■ Focus On: ■ areas where deep concave angles form ■ line intersections ■ Modern ■ mixture of object centered for general distinctions and memory of objects for finer distinctions ● Face Recognition ○ Thatcher Effect ■ eyes/mouth inverted ■ barely notice the distortion upside down ■ evidence that we process faces as a whole, not by features ■ topdown: "normal face" ■ bottomup: helps us fix it ○ Is it special? ■ face recognition involves system different than object recognition ■ face memory can be disrupted, but depends on the familiarity of the stimuli ■ one idea is that we are specialized to recognize single objects and groups of features ■ Prosopagnosia; inability to recognize faces (damage to fusiform) ■ Cases ■ Macrae & Trolle ■ could not recognize anyone, only simple objects ■ couldn 't recognize self ■ Sacks ■ The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat ○ Own Race Bias; tendency to be poorer at identifying individuals of another race ■ the way we categorize people effects ability to recognize them ■ ingroup vs. outgroup categorization ■ Hehman et al. ■ white students studied faces grouped by race or university then tested ■ Results; ■ worse at identifying other race faces when they are not in your "group" Visual Systems ● What/Ventral System; identifies objects; conscious ○ subject to topdown influences ● Where/How/Dorsal System; identifies object location; unconscious ○ Studies ■ Ungerleider and Mishkin ■ gave monkeys tests emphasizing either ■ monkeys with temporal lesions could do the where test ■ couldn't do the what test ■ moneys with parietal lesions could do the what test ■ couldn't do the where test ■ Haffenden and Goodal ■ used poker chips and asked subjects to show size of chip ■ Results; ■ judged chip different sizes depending on surroundings ■ illusion didn't hold when they got to pick it up ■ Profitt et al. ■ overestimated steepness of hills ■ with use of board, made better judgment ○ Size Estimates ■ our experience with objects can influence our size estimates ■ Bruner & Goodman ■ children made estimates of size of cardboard coins ■ Wesp et al. ■ drop darts onto target, counted attempts before hitting target ■ estimated size of target ■ Results; ■ the fewer attempts needed to hit the target, the larger the estimate of the size ■ Proffitt ■ estimated hills backpack vs. no backpack ■ estimate further distances with backpack Change Detection ● change detection can be affected by our prior knowledge and biases ● also effected by instructions signaling what should be noticed ● Change Blindness; the inability to detect changes in an object or scene ○ Simons and Levin ■ one person stops stranger to ask for directions ■ two men cut though with a door ■ a new person is now receiving directions ■ only 1/2 of people notice ● Biases ○ Yaxley & Zwaan ■ showed smokers and nonsmokers object that changed ■ sometimes smoking object changed, sometimes nonsmoking object ■ Results; ■ nonsmokers same at nonsmoking and smoking ■ smokers detected change in smoking quicker ■ prior experience, drawn to smoking object ■ told nonsmokers experiment is about smoking ■ Results; ■ better at detecting change for smoking object
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