BMS 260 Week 2 Notes
BMS 260 Week 2 Notes BMS 260
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Popular in Biomedical Sciences
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 260 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Russell Anthony in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Biomedical Sciences in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Transport Passive Diffusion Movement from high concentration to low concentration Facilitated diffusion Movement from high to low concentration with the assistance of a protein for example Osmosis – movement of a solvent (typically water) across a plasma membrane Active transport Solutes move from low to high concentration, requires energy and requires something to make the movement possible Diffusion equilibrium – over time solutes will evenly disperse themselves throughout a solution; movement of a solute to reach equilibrium Net flux – addition of solute movement in both directions of movement to gain knowledge about where the majority of motion ends up (ex: 2 moving right and one moving left = net flux of 1 moving to the right) Rate of Diffusion 4 factors kinetic energy (temperature) membrane permeability concentration gradient difference of electrical charge (membranes have polarity; negative on the inside and positive on the extracellular surface) Facilitated Diffusion Solute acts as a ligand that binds to the transporter protein and then changes conformation to the protein to be released on the other side Depends on 2 factors: Concentration gradient of the element to be transported Number of carrier proteins available EX: aquaporins, GLUT’s (side notes: GLUT 4 is insulin dependent) Active Transport Movement against a concentration gradient that requires energy in the form of ATP Typically a membrane protein serves as a pump Sets up the polarity of the plasma membrane Na+/K+ ATPase Pump Mechanism: 1). 3 Na+ molecules bind to the ATPase pump 2) ATP binds the pump and phosphorylates the pump to stimulate the movement of Na+ outside of the cell and the release of ADP from the pump. 3). 2K+ binds to the new opening outside of the cell and is brought back inside the cell 4). Inorganic phosphate is released from the pump and then is bound to ADP to create ATP which can rebind with the pump and stimulate the movement of 3Na+ molecules back across. Secondary Active Transport o Glucose in epithelial cells o Coupling of an ion moving against concentration gradients with something that is moving down one o Glucose or amino acids moving up the gradient o Ex: SGLT 1+2 -. Glucose is transported out of gut lumen to the blood Endocytosis (Phagocytosis) o Movement of large particle across the PM o Phagocytosis is primarily bacteria, debris, and microorganisms o White blood cells Macrophage – white blood cell that cleans debris out Kuppfer cells – modified macrophages anchored in the liver to clean out debris taken from the blood in the gut Pinocytosis (aka cell drinking) o Non specific uptake o Small endocytosed materials Receptor – mediated endocytosis o Receptor on PM and material to be ingested creates invagination of the cell wall to allow things in o Provides for small, regulated, very specific amounts of endocytosis Exocytosis o Spitting stuff back out o Constitutive – secretion is continuous and unregulated Mucus, steroid hormones o Regulated – secretion directed by hormone or neural signals Neurotransmitters, insulin, proteinaceous hormones Dependent on a specific stimulus o Transported through the Golgi (cis, medial, and then trans) out of the cell in carrier vesicles Cellular Organelles Nucleus – site of DNA replication, RNA transcription, and RNA processing Nuclues – light blue Nucleolus – dark blue Chromatin - line Nuclear pores -> DNA Base – (glycoside bond) – deoxyribose sugar – phosphate group [___________________________________] ^ ^ nucleotide typically three until broken up to build helixes Nucleotides Purines – adenine and guanine Pyrimidines – cytosine, uracil, thymine (PYRamids CUT ;) ) Binding: A binds T (or U in RNA) G binds C Double Helix There will be a hydrogen bond between the nitrogenous bases in the ladder Adjacent bases in the ladder will exhibit hydrophobic interactions While building DNA triphosphates are broken down to monophosphates and form a 3’ to 5’ phosphodiester bridge that has connections to carbon that bridge the sugars There are 10 base pairs per turn of the helix ****distinctive difference between transcription and replication Transcription of DNA to mRNA 1. RNA = single stranded, ribose sugar 2. DNA template is read 3’ to 5’ and the RNA transcript is built 5’ to 3’ 3. DNA has intervening sequencing points called introns **RNA does NOT need introns in its template for primary RNA has introns but mRNA does not mRNA processing splice out introns 7 methyl guanosine cap is placed on 5’ end that allows for recognition in ribosomes and protection of the RNA material add polyadenylated tail to 3’ end that regulations the half life of the mRNA 5’ end of mRNA aminoterminus start of RNA is the amine group 3’ end of mRNA carboxyterminus end of the sequence is carboxyl group codon – triplet code for amino acid placement in protein Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth steroid synthesis calcium storage glycogen storage Rough protein translation and processing secretory proteins membrane proteins membrane bound organelles (lysosomes) Signal sequence/leader peptide N – linked glycosylation- added sugar resides to a protein add core N – linked oligosaccharide chains only if Asparagine – X – serine or threonine codon not all that have this sequence have a glucose added or can link plasma membrane lipid and proteins to create peripheral associations **side note – integral membrane proteins are 1 pass or 7 pass all of the material taken in… goes to to the Golgi will package into membrane bound vesicles further process proteins generated by the rough ER O linked glycosylation Serine/threonine residues Sugars are added one at a time and provide recognition for receptors Lysosome Has a low pH Known as the garbage disposal Filled with hydrolases – enzymes specific to a low pH N linked glycoproteins Contain manose 6 phosphate residues Link to say something is destined for a lysosome Mitochondria Double membrane structure Generates NRG specifically ATP Contains its own DNA (circular) and RNA Replicates itself based on metabolism of all of cell (ex: more mitochondria = faster metabolism) Research Integrity 1. Ethical Considerations a. Important for everyone in the lab to be aware b. Do coursework c. Appropriate advising d. Help other students e. Represent CSU accurately and fairly 2. Issues to protect a. You b. Environment c. Vulnerable subjects d. Integrity of science e. Research f. Scholarship 3. IACUC – institutional animal care use committee a. Animal well being 4. Notebooks a. Owned by CSU b. STAY IN LAB c. You are entitled to everything that you do d. PI is a notebook steward e. Should not be discarded f. Know the difference between primary and analyzed data g. Lots of reviews at any time h. Back everything up 5. Authorship a. ICMJE i. Design, acquisition, or interpretation of data ii. Helped write the paper iii. Approved final, submitted manuscript 6. Misconduct does not include honest error or differences in interpretation
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