New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

History of Landscape Architecture, Week Two Notes

by: Tyler Walker

History of Landscape Architecture, Week Two Notes LARCH 1160

Marketplace > Clemson University > Landscape Architecture > LARCH 1160 > History of Landscape Architecture Week Two Notes
Tyler Walker
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for History of Landscape Architcture

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive History of Landscape Architcture notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Islam in Western Asia Western Expansion of Islam: Spain These notes contain all material covered in class and include ID slides with ID slide material that will be on exams and quizes.
History of Landscape Architcture
Dr.Hala Nassar
Class Notes
islam, Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Baghdad, Skyscapes, Cityscapes, Calligraphy, Great Mosque of Samarra, City of Isfahan, Islamic Gardens, Great Mosque of Cordova, Fortress of Alhambra, the Generalife, history




Popular in History of Landscape Architcture

Popular in Landscape Architecture

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Walker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LARCH 1160 at Clemson University taught by Dr.Hala Nassar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see History of Landscape Architcture in Landscape Architecture at Clemson University.

Similar to LARCH 1160 at Clemson


Reviews for History of Landscape Architecture, Week Two Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/29/16
History of Landscape Architecture Islam in Western Asia Environment -landscapes of the Middle East and North Africa are predominately desert like -subject to extreme temperatures -19F winter, 123F summer -strong sand and dust storms -minimal rainfall- less than 10 inches a year -land is uninhabitable except for near oasis’s and river valleys Social History -the Arab name comes from the Arabian Peninsula -typically was a Shepard who moved with flocks -before Islam, the religion was polytheistic -Islam was revealed to the prophet Mohammed in Mecca -Islam spread east to China and West to Spain -Muslims conquered the Persian Empire in AD 637 -the capital was first in Damascus and later in Bagdad -the Muslims became advanced in medicine, science, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, and alchemy -in 1258, Islamic capital fell to the Mongols -in 1326, the Ottoman Empire was founded with Constantinople as the capital -in 1501, Persia reappeared as an independent Islamic state under the Safavid Dynasty The Round City of Baghdad -Founded by Caliph Al-Mansur next to the Tigris River in AD 762 - Circular form -the Mosque, Al-Mansur’s palace, and market place were at the center -flowers were abundant -the city became a center for the perfume industry -outside of the walls were great gardens ID SLIDES Plan of the City of Baghdad The Great Mosque of Samarra -Samarra is a city in Iraq that was founded in AD 850 -Great Mosque had a unique Spiral Minaret -developing Islamic architecture and landscape architecture was inspired by those of earlier civilizations that they came in contact with -Architectural form of the Spiral minaret derives from the Ziggurat -the tall structure was used for the call for prayers ID SLIDES Great Mosque of Samarra with Spiral Minaret Philosophy -the Koran is the book of Islam, the declaration and the symbol of Muslim faith -word of God revealed to Mohammed to convey to people -Reflection of Islamic philosophy and injunctions on design show influence on Architecture and Landscape Architecture -for Muslims, God is unique, without equal, perfect, and imperishable -ex. Wall patter in Sultan Hassan ibn Qualaoun Mosque reflects the oneness of God Expression: Islamic Garden -Persian culture was absorbed by Islam -Persian (Paradise) Garden evolved into Islamic Garden -design of Islamic Garden is based on description of the heavenly paradise described in the Koran -Islamic Gardens’ function and purpose was 1. Contemplation 2. Meditation } All passive activities 3. Conversation Skyscape -with Islam, new types of Architecture were added to Islamic cityscapes -Mosques with their Minarets and Domes -Medresseh (school) is a place of learning attached to a Mosque ID SLIDES Blue Mosque of Istanbul Decorative Patterns ID SLIDES -Islam forbids the use of imagery and figures that depict humans or Geometric animals for reasons of idolatry -other types of patterns emerged Floral -geometric -floral Caligraphy -Calligraphy The City of Isfahan -built from scratch, not overtaken -Bridge crosses over river and turns into Char Bagh -became known as City of Gardens -intentionally intertwined built urban fabric and green landscapes -urban fabric- highly geometric -green landscapes- Islamic Gardens with quadripartile layout ID SLIDES Plan of Isfahan History of Landscape Architecture Western Expansion of Islam: Spain Environment -Islam expanded west of Arabian Peninsula to North Africa, Morocco, Spain, and Southern France -Southern Spain is known as Andalusia -Mediterranean climate -most of the peninsula is arid land except along coastal belts and river valleys -temperature in Seville reaches 117F in summer -Granada is located in the Sierra Nevada mountain range Social History -having secured Syria, the Arabs continued to advance to Egypt (AD 640) -they conquered North Africa and reached the Atlantic -AD 711 they invaded Spain where their Empire lasted for 7 centuries Andalusia became the seat of the Muslim Caliphate in Spain -the Arab/Muslim (Moors) integrated local and new populations into a single whole -in 1942, their last fortress, Granada, fell to Ferdinand and Isabella Philosophy and Expression -Muslim faith was carried to Spain without any modification -based on modesty and simplicity -Christians in Andalusia lived with their customs and traditions -under Muslims, Cordova became the center of knowledge in Europe -philosophy, science, and learning flourished independently from religion -Muslims introduced -use of water features in landscapes -new irrigation systems -imported plant material that wasn’t native to the area -these elements influenced early Italian Renaissance Gardens The Great Mosque of Cordova -Plan view- interior body, Patio de los Naranjos (Court of the Oranges) - Interior grid uses columns with horse shoe archs - grid continued into courtyard using orange trees instead of columns outside -this unifies the interior and exterior -irrigation system connected all of the trees making the process of watering much simpler and easier -built by Abd ar-Rahman -after the Muslims left, the Spanish put a church in the center of the Mosque ID SLIDES Prayer Hall the Great Mosque of Cordova ID SLIDES the Court of the Myrtles Fortress of Alhambra Courtyard of Oranges Fortress of Alhambra in Granada -Al-hamra means red, red brick was used to build the fortress -Court of the Myrtles -has a very peaceful and serene nature -narrow and elegant reflecting pool -first use of a reflecting pond -Court of the Lions -very dynamic nature, continuous sound from the fountain at the center -Quadrapartile layout Court of the Lions The Generalife -began as a summer resort for a ruler -elongated quadrapartile layout -water steps- 3 flights of stairs and 3 landings -diverted water from Sierra Nevada -used gravity to power fountains and jets ID SLIDES the Generalife Courtyard Water Steps


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.