History of Landscape Architecture, Week Two Notes
History of Landscape Architecture, Week Two Notes LARCH 1160
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Walker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LARCH 1160 at Clemson University taught by Dr.Hala Nassar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see History of Landscape Architcture in Landscape Architecture at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
History of Landscape Architecture Islam in Western Asia Environment -landscapes of the Middle East and North Africa are predominately desert like -subject to extreme temperatures -19F winter, 123F summer -strong sand and dust storms -minimal rainfall- less than 10 inches a year -land is uninhabitable except for near oasis’s and river valleys Social History -the Arab name comes from the Arabian Peninsula -typically was a Shepard who moved with flocks -before Islam, the religion was polytheistic -Islam was revealed to the prophet Mohammed in Mecca -Islam spread east to China and West to Spain -Muslims conquered the Persian Empire in AD 637 -the capital was first in Damascus and later in Bagdad -the Muslims became advanced in medicine, science, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, and alchemy -in 1258, Islamic capital fell to the Mongols -in 1326, the Ottoman Empire was founded with Constantinople as the capital -in 1501, Persia reappeared as an independent Islamic state under the Safavid Dynasty The Round City of Baghdad -Founded by Caliph Al-Mansur next to the Tigris River in AD 762 - Circular form -the Mosque, Al-Mansur’s palace, and market place were at the center -flowers were abundant -the city became a center for the perfume industry -outside of the walls were great gardens ID SLIDES Plan of the City of Baghdad The Great Mosque of Samarra -Samarra is a city in Iraq that was founded in AD 850 -Great Mosque had a unique Spiral Minaret -developing Islamic architecture and landscape architecture was inspired by those of earlier civilizations that they came in contact with -Architectural form of the Spiral minaret derives from the Ziggurat -the tall structure was used for the call for prayers ID SLIDES Great Mosque of Samarra with Spiral Minaret Philosophy -the Koran is the book of Islam, the declaration and the symbol of Muslim faith -word of God revealed to Mohammed to convey to people -Reflection of Islamic philosophy and injunctions on design show influence on Architecture and Landscape Architecture -for Muslims, God is unique, without equal, perfect, and imperishable -ex. Wall patter in Sultan Hassan ibn Qualaoun Mosque reflects the oneness of God Expression: Islamic Garden -Persian culture was absorbed by Islam -Persian (Paradise) Garden evolved into Islamic Garden -design of Islamic Garden is based on description of the heavenly paradise described in the Koran -Islamic Gardens’ function and purpose was 1. Contemplation 2. Meditation } All passive activities 3. Conversation Skyscape -with Islam, new types of Architecture were added to Islamic cityscapes -Mosques with their Minarets and Domes -Medresseh (school) is a place of learning attached to a Mosque ID SLIDES Blue Mosque of Istanbul Decorative Patterns ID SLIDES -Islam forbids the use of imagery and figures that depict humans or Geometric animals for reasons of idolatry -other types of patterns emerged Floral -geometric -floral Caligraphy -Calligraphy The City of Isfahan -built from scratch, not overtaken -Bridge crosses over river and turns into Char Bagh -became known as City of Gardens -intentionally intertwined built urban fabric and green landscapes -urban fabric- highly geometric -green landscapes- Islamic Gardens with quadripartile layout ID SLIDES Plan of Isfahan History of Landscape Architecture Western Expansion of Islam: Spain Environment -Islam expanded west of Arabian Peninsula to North Africa, Morocco, Spain, and Southern France -Southern Spain is known as Andalusia -Mediterranean climate -most of the peninsula is arid land except along coastal belts and river valleys -temperature in Seville reaches 117F in summer -Granada is located in the Sierra Nevada mountain range Social History -having secured Syria, the Arabs continued to advance to Egypt (AD 640) -they conquered North Africa and reached the Atlantic -AD 711 they invaded Spain where their Empire lasted for 7 centuries Andalusia became the seat of the Muslim Caliphate in Spain -the Arab/Muslim (Moors) integrated local and new populations into a single whole -in 1942, their last fortress, Granada, fell to Ferdinand and Isabella Philosophy and Expression -Muslim faith was carried to Spain without any modification -based on modesty and simplicity -Christians in Andalusia lived with their customs and traditions -under Muslims, Cordova became the center of knowledge in Europe -philosophy, science, and learning flourished independently from religion -Muslims introduced -use of water features in landscapes -new irrigation systems -imported plant material that wasn’t native to the area -these elements influenced early Italian Renaissance Gardens The Great Mosque of Cordova -Plan view- interior body, Patio de los Naranjos (Court of the Oranges) - Interior grid uses columns with horse shoe archs - grid continued into courtyard using orange trees instead of columns outside -this unifies the interior and exterior -irrigation system connected all of the trees making the process of watering much simpler and easier -built by Abd ar-Rahman -after the Muslims left, the Spanish put a church in the center of the Mosque ID SLIDES Prayer Hall the Great Mosque of Cordova ID SLIDES the Court of the Myrtles Fortress of Alhambra Courtyard of Oranges Fortress of Alhambra in Granada -Al-hamra means red, red brick was used to build the fortress -Court of the Myrtles -has a very peaceful and serene nature -narrow and elegant reflecting pool -first use of a reflecting pond -Court of the Lions -very dynamic nature, continuous sound from the fountain at the center -Quadrapartile layout Court of the Lions The Generalife -began as a summer resort for a ruler -elongated quadrapartile layout -water steps- 3 flights of stairs and 3 landings -diverted water from Sierra Nevada -used gravity to power fountains and jets ID SLIDES the Generalife Courtyard Water Steps
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