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FSHN 150 2nd week of notes

by: Mikaila Arao

FSHN 150 2nd week of notes FSHN 150

Mikaila Arao

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Survey of Human Nutrition
John Wilson
Class Notes
FSHN 150
25 ?




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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaila Arao on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 150 at Colorado State University taught by John Wilson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Survey of Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 1: Intro to Nutrition 01/25/2016 ▯ ▯ Unrefined foods  Hasn’t been processed  Still contains much of the vitamins and minerals ▯ Refined foods  Processed  Most fiber, minerals, and vitamins have been removed ▯ Anthropological Perspective  Omnivore  Ate many different kinds of foods  Store fat efficiently o Still have this gene  Eat every 4-6 hours  Sweets, fatty, and salty foods are more desirable  Appetite triggered my smell, sight, and taste of foods o Appetite is a learned response, not biological  Activity o Higher calorie and nutrition intake and nutrients are used and absorbed properly ▯ ▯ ▯ Macro:  Carbs (CHO  Fats (lipids)  Protein (amino acids) ▯ Micro  Vitamins  Minerals  Water ▯ Essential Nutrients  3 characteristics are a must o 1 biological function of the nutrient must be identified  binding of molecules stops o omission of the nutrient from the diet must lead to a decline in certain biological functions  bleeding of gums (scurvy) o replacing the omitted nutrient in the diet will restore normal functions  ex. Vitamin C supplement ▯ Sub-Group of Nutrients  Energy yielding nutrients o CHO o Protein o Lipids  Nutrients for growth o Protein o Lipids o Vitamins o Minerals o Water  Regulates Body Processes o Same as above  Essential Vs. Nonessential o 11 essential, body makes + in food o 9 essential that poor countries lack ▯ Carbohydrates (CHO)  Compose of C,H,O  Body’s major fuel Source  Simple CHO  Complex CHO (starches)  Dietary fiber  4 kcal/g ▯ Monosaccharides – simple CHO  Common sugars  Glucose, fructose, galactose (NEED TO KNOW) ▯ Disaccharides- made up of simple CHO, still simple  Sucrose o Glucose + fructose  Lactose o Glucose + galactose  Maltose o Glucose + glucose ▯ Polysaccharides- complex CHO (NEED TO KNOW)  Glycogen o Molecules release and go into blood to be used as energy  Starch (amylopectin and amylose) o Only in plant products o Amylose ( straight chain of starch) o Amylopectin (more complex) o All starch has fiber unless it has been removed from food processing o 4 kcal/g  Fiber o Humans don’t have the ability to break down fiber, goes right through o 0 kcal/g ▯ Lipids  Composed of C, H, and O  Types of Lipids ( fats and oils) o Triglyceride  What helps us store fat  Store through the glycerol molecule  Water loving head and 2 fat loving tails in molecule o Phospholipids o Sterols (cholesterol)  Non of these 3 do not dissolve readily in water that’s why they are classified as lipids  Saturated fatty acids o No double bonds (hence saturated)  Unsaturated fatty acids o Monounsaturated: 1 double bond o Polyunsaturated: more than 1 double bond  Essential fatty acids o Unsaturated fatty acids falls under this as well  Energy yielding (9 kcal/gm)  20 to 35% of calories ▯ Protein  Compose of C, O, H, N  Made up of amino acids (basic unit)  (9) essential amino acids (don’t need to know names just how many)  (11) nonessential amino acids (don’t need to know names just how many)  nitrogen and protein balance are on in the same  children, young adults, and athletes should always be in positive protein balance  if in negative balance you are sick, poor diet, or something is wrong ▯ Alcohol  EtOH- ethanol  No nutritional value  Energy yielding (7 kcal/g) ▯ Vitamins  compose of various chemical elements  vital to life  needed in tiny amounts  fat soluble: A,E,D,K (KNOW) o can be stored for a long time o only 5 foods with vitamin D o daily basis  water soluble (KNOW)  yields no energy ▯ Minerals  Inorganic substances  Needed in tiny amounts  Trace minerals o < 100 mg  Major minerals  Yields no energy ▯ Water  Compose of H,O  Vital to life  Is a solvent, lubricant, medium for transport, and temp regulator  Makes up majority of our body  Yields no energy  Can go days without essential nutrients but only a few days without water ▯ Functions of nutrient classes (chart) (MUST KNOW)  Will ask on first exam if/how they are stored  Energy of each nutrient  Protein (not stored)  Fat (unlimited ability to store, adipose)  CHO (stored for days worth, glycogen in muscle and liver)  Minerals (stored in bone)  Vitamins (store fat soluble ones, A,D, K, B) (water soluble, excreted not stored) ▯ A Calorie  A measurement of heat energy  The amount of heat it takes the raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius  Food is measured in kcals  “Calories” on nutrition label are in kcals ▯ Transformation of Energy  CHO, Protein, and Fat are the only TRUE forms of energy o Energy drinks are not really energy because doesn’t contain any of the 3 above  1,000 calories = 1 kcal ▯ Per serving  ON TEST o Given product and must know how many kcals/ g  CHO: 15g x 4 kcal/g =60 kcal  PRO: 70 g x 4 kcal/g = 280 kcal  FAT: 60 g x 9 kcal/g = 540 kcal ▯ ???????????????????? for tutor ▯ ▯ Phytochemicals (plants)  Found in fruits and vegetables  Associated with… o Decreased CVD and cancer risk o Decreased infections o Increased immune function  Examples… o Flavonoids, carotenoids, isoflavones, plant sterols  Best to get them not from food (NOT supplements) o Likely to work in combo with each other  Examples… o Soy, tomatoes ▯ Desire to eat  Hunger (internal) o Physical biological drive  Appetite o Psychological drive o What sounds good at the moment o learned ▯ Satiety  The state in which there is no longer a desire to eat o A feeling of satisfaction o Expansion of stomach to feel full  Regulation of satiety o Hypothalamus o Meal size o Hormones ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ What is a healthy diet?  Eating a variety of foods balanced by moderate intake of each other  Variety o Choosing a number of different foods within any given food group (my plate – 5 food groups) o Fruits, grain, vegetables, proteins, and dairy  Balance o Consume a variety of foods is to select foods from the 5 major food groups in My Plate every day o Do not over consume any one food  Moderation o Portion size!  Old days o Portion size for family was about 26 oz.  Not 20 oz. is about single portion size ▯ Nutritional Status of Individuals  Desirable nutritional state o Intake meets body’s needs o Body has small surplus of fat when needed  Malnutrition (doesn’t happen over night) o Undernutrition (Ca and iron) o Occurs when nutrient intake does not meet nutrient needs  Overnutrition (kcals) o Prolonged consumption of more nutrients than the body needs ▯ ABCD of nutritional assessment  Anthropometrics o Height, weight, skin folds, and BMI  Biochemical o Blood concentrations of nutrients such as iron  Clinical  Diet history o A diet history of the previous days, intake ▯ Diet Evaluation and Planning Tools  Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) umbrella o Recommended dietary allowances (RDA) o Adequate intakes (AI) o Upper Levels (UL) o Nutrient density o Dietary guidelines for Americans o USDA Food Guide My Plate o Food Labels ▯ Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)  NOT a requirement = amount of nutrient an individual needs to avoid deficiency, and if enough info, to optimize health  Varies by age, gender, pregnancy, lactation  Ongoing  The original RDA’s focused on prevention of nutrient deficiency  The original RDAs provided a single set of values o DRIs include 3 types of reference values  RDA  AI  UL ▯ Adequate Intakes (AI)  Indicator used to set the AIs o Calcium intakes known to result in maximal calcium retention in the body  Goal to set a RDA o To approximate calcium intakes that lead to the fewest bone fractures due to osteoporosis ▯ Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)  The UL for calcium for adults is 2,500 mg  The UL is primarily of concern for people who take calcium supplements ▯ Nutrient Density  Nutrient content relative to energy content o Good high in nutrient density off MOST nutrients for the LOWEST Kcalories  Low nutrient density o Donuts, Soda, bacon, candy  High Nutrient density o Fruits, vegetables, low-fat milk Dietary Guidelines for Americans (NOT ON TEST) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Food Labels  Two types o Product label o Nutritional facts label  What’s on Food Labels o Ingredients in descending order by weight  Which food requires food labels o Nearly all packaged foods and processed meat products o Health claims o Fresh fruit, vegetables, raw single ingredient meal, poultry, fish are voluntary  Which food doesn’t require food labels o Rood served for immediate consumption o Ready to eat food that is not for immediate consumption but is prepared on site o Foods that contain no significant  What is NOT required in a label o % daily value for protein o protein deficiency is rare o procedure to determine protein quality is expensive  EXCEPT  Foods for infant and <4  Labels carrying a claim about protein o % daily value sugar ▯ Health Claims  Good source of fiber = 2.5 – 4.9 g o Fiber cant be added, has to be there naturally  Vitamins and/or minerals o Fortified: At least 10% of that in the original amount of the product  Adding products that were not originally there o Enriched: replace nutrients lost in processing  Low fat, low sat fat, low cholesterol, low sodium o Product can be claimed as healthy  Organic o In order to have the USDA organic stamp it must…  Food must not use any pesticides, not genetically modified, no chemical fertilizers  Animals must be free range, fed organic food  95% by weight of food is organic  Natural o No food coloring  Healthy claims allowed on food labels o May in crease/ reduce risks of  Osteoporosis  Cancer  Cardiovascular disease  Hypertension  Neural tube defects  Tooth decay  Stroke  Allowed health claims o Controlled by FDA – legally permitted  Low in fat  Supplement facts o Supplements aren’t regulated by any agency o FDA CAN regulate them IF they make a health claim o 1 in 3 multivitamins don’t have nutrients claimed is in it ▯


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