Abnormal Psych Chapter 2 Notes
Abnormal Psych Chapter 2 Notes Psyc 330
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Castro on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 330 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Matthew William Seitz (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 2 Cognition precedes emotion and behavior Personality is genetic, meaning that it can be inherited by parents or passed from ancestors Models of abnormality Model – Set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations o Often used to describe a phenomena that one cannot directly observe Weak Model: One Dimensional Model – Not very strong Etiology – Cause of a particular disorder Biological Assumptions Genetics play a major role in shaping behavior Human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are associated with the structure and activity in the brain Change in thought, emotion, or behavior associated with change in activity or structure of the brain Mental disorders highly correlated with some form of brain dysfunction or other organ dysfunction Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord Cerebrum: Largest and most highly developed area of the human brain Cerebral Cortex: Largest component of cerebrum: Contains 4 Lobes Parietal Lobe, Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, and the Occipital Corpus Collosum: Translates to “Largest Body” Connects the two hemispheres of the brain. Split brain patients may have the corpus collosum cut in order to stop impulses of patients who are experiencing seizures. Limbic System – Group of structures in the brain connected to emotions and drives Basal Ganglia – Group pf structures in the brain associated with both planning and producing movement Neuron – Nerve cells specifically designed to communicate with each other 160 trillion connections Neurotransmitters – Released into the synapse to reach the receptors With disorders: May not connect to receptors after the neurotransmitters have been released, or may sit in the synapse for too long causing impairments to response times and reactivity Hormones – Abnormal behavior also due to abnormal chemical activity in the endocrine system Endocrine glands release hormones which propel organs into action. Cortisol’s role = Increases in stress Depression – Abnormal levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin; dysfunction in limbic system Schizophrenia Problems with dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate Dysfunction in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex Autism – Primarily linked to problems with GABA; dysfunction in frontal lobe Disorders vary on degree of genetic influence Biological Treatment Primarily used: Biological practioners will target the physiological causes of dysfunction Drug Therapy: Antianxiety Antidepressant Antibipolar – A.K.A Mood Stabilizers Antipsychotic Assessing the Biological Approach Strengths: Enjoys considerable respect in the field Constantly produces valuable new information Treatments bring great relief Weakness: Can limit, rather than enhance, our understanding Too simplistic Treatments produce significant undesirable (negative) effects Sociocultural Assumptions Healthy relationships are important for human development and functioning When relationships are dysfunctional, individuals may be more prone to mental disturbances Additionally, an individual’s role in culture influences behavior Marginalized and oppressed groups may experience higher levels of mental distress and exhibit higher rates of mental illness Overall, intervention must occur at the relational and societal levels We only really know 150~ people Social rejection can mimic being physically hurt in the brain Two Major Perspectives Social Labels and Roles Social Networks Family Structure and Communication o Family Systems Theory Change in the emotional functioning of one member of the family structure is compensated for by other members of the family o Identified patient – the person who has been unconsciously selected to act out the family’s inner conflict as a diversion o Not really the identified patient’s fault. Parents blame the child addict, and they don’t take the blame on themselves o Treatment is not targeted at the identified patient o Examine the family structure (Enmeshed, disengaged, etc) The FamilySocial Perspective has helped with the growth of various treatment modalities: Group Therapy o Equally or more effective than individual therapy o 812 People in groups Family Therapy Couples Therapy Community Treatment o Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention Multicultural Perspective Emphasizes the following factors in explaining mental disorders o Race o Ethnicity Gender o Sexual Orientation o Religious Preference o Socioeconomic Status o Physical Disabilities Family Roles – Assess whether you are in a dominant position or not Open up and say that you are not aware of this background be taught, open up about the race or differences Enmeshed – Closeknit overinvolved No boundaries, no secrets, negative Disengaged – Permissive parents, emotionally cold Multicultural Perspective Replaced the inferiority and deficit models Recognizes differences in cultural and that each culture has its own strength and limitations Assumes all theories of human development arise from a particular cultural context Suggests that sociocultural stressors reside within the social system not within the person Teach selfhelp skills and strategies to individual but also intervene at the societal level AfricanAmerican Communities and Mental Health Adult blacks are 20% more likely to report serious psychological distress than adult whites 63% of African Americans believe that depression is a personal weakness Only 8.7% of black adults received treatment for mental health concerns in 2007 2008 Strengths: o Increased awareness of family, cultural, social, and societal roles o Clinically successful when other treatments have failed o Emphasized treating the whole person Weaknesses o Research is difficult to interpret. Correlation Not Equal to Causation o Unable to predict abnormality in specific individuals o Often unintentionally ignore the biological factors Psychodynamic Approach Adult disorders arise from childhood traumas or anxieties Childhood based anxieties operate unconsciously and are repressed through defense mechanisms because they are too threatening to face Id, ego, superego Id – Instinctive impulse, drive, pleasure Superego – Moralistic, rigid, perfectionistic, part of the subconscious – control’s id’s impulses Ego – operates according to the reality principle, devises realistic strategy to meet the need Defense mechanism egodeveloped strategies to control unacceptable impulses and to avoid or reduce anxiety o Repression – Burying a painful thought from awareness o Denial – Not accepting reality because it is too painful o Regression – Returning to an earlier stage o Projection – Tell someone your own thoughts or feelings someone or something else o Reaction Formation – Feelings adopting beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors from what you really believe. Marginalized identity – Admit that there are things you can’t control, but take responsibility for your own role to be able to deal with it Psychodynamic Approach Based on Freud’s ideas Psychological problems caused by unconscious conflicts and by unexpressed sexual and aggressive urges 3 Primary goals of psychoanalysis: o Uncover repressed material o Helps clients achieve insight into desires and motivations o Resolve childhood conflicts that affect current relationships. Psychodynamic Approach Free Association Challenge Client Resistance Dream Analysis Identify Transference – Client transfers thoughts and feelings onto the therapist Catharsis Working Through Strengths: Saw abnormal functioning as rooted in same processes as normal functioning First to apply theory and techniques systematically to treatment Instituted Psychotherapy Weaknesses: Unsupported ideas, difficulty to research Unobservable; Cannot access human subjects unconscious Insight not critical to relieve distress Behavioral Approach Actions and behaviors determined by environment and experience in life Concerned with role of learning in abnormal behavior The behavioral approach has produced 3 models of learning o Operant Conditioning o Observational Learning/Modeling o Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Behaviors are shaped by consequences of the behavior Punishment of an action decreases the frequency of that action Reinforcement of an action increases the frequency of that action o Ex. Aggression, addiction, anxiety Modeling Individuals learn responses by observing and repeating behavior Exposure to distributed models is likely to produce disturbed behaviors o Ex. Aggression, phobias, depression, etc. Classical conditioning Pavlov’s Dog Learning by temporal association Helps explain acquisition of phobias, unusual sexual attractions, and other extreme emotional reactions Ex. Aquino phobia – Fear of horses Behavioral Treatment Aim to identify, behaviors that are causing problems and replace them with more appropriate ones Role Playing Systematic Desensitization Token economies aversion therapy Strengths: Can be tested in the laboratory Often brings about changes quickly Has significant research support for its efficacy Weaknesses: Behavior therapy is limited to specific disorders It is overly simplistic It ignores inner determinants of behavior Systematic Desensitization – A hierarchy from least afraid of two most afraid of develop the hierarchy and teach breathing and calming techniques to deal with it Cognitive Approach To change your behaviors or emotions, you must first change your thinking Goal is to challenge and alter maladaptive thought patterns Individuals with mental disorders engage in cognitive distortions o Overgeneralization o Selective Perception o Personalizing o Catastrophizing o Mind Reading Cognitive Treatment: Help clients recognize and restructure their thinking Thought confrontation Thought log Alternative hypothesis A combination of behavioral and cognitive theories, known as cognitive – behavior therapy (CBT), is currently the most widely held theoretical orientation Strength: Very broad appeal Clinically useful and effective with strong research support Effective in treating wide range of disorders Focuses on uniquely human process Weaknesses: Precise role of cognition in abnormality has yet to be determined Therapies do not help anyone May take longer time to change thought patterns than alter behavioral patterns HumanisticExistential Approach Humanist view – Emphasis on people as friendly, cooperative, and constructive; focus on drive to self – selfactualize through honest recognition of strengths and weaknesses Existential view: Emphasis on selfdetermination, choice, and individual responsibility; focus on authenticity Rogers’ Humanistic Theory Individuals have a fundamental need for unconditional positive regard Subscribed to Maslow’s selfactualizing tendency theory o Left unencumbered by social restrictions, we would become fully functioning people However, we acquire conditions of worth o Messages we believe about what we have to do to be valued Therapists must display 3 things for clients to feel accepted and understood Unconditional Positive Regard Authenticity/Genuineness Empathic Understanding Perl’s Gestalt Theory Also Leading a client to selfacceptance and selfrecognition Doing it, however, by challenging and frustrating their clients Pushes clients to experience the “here and now” Also uses skillful frustration, role playing, and “I” language Strengths: Incorporates a person’s soul and spirit Emphasizes the individual Inherently optimistic Emphasizes health and wellness Weaknesses: Sometimes called vague and fuzzy Difficult to research Very subjective and little empirical support
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