RUSS 280 notes for weeks 1 and 2
RUSS 280 notes for weeks 1 and 2 Russ 280
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Varangians invited Riurik (862) to rule Riurik Dynasty Son named Igor married Olga Had a child named Sviatoslav at Riurik's death Relative, Oleg, governs for Igor until he is old enough Sviatoslav has a son named Vladimir Vladimir christianizes all of Russia in 988 In 882, Oleg captures Kiev for Igor under Sviatoslav's empire which then spreads Kiev becoes the dominant city -> Kievan Rus' o Kiev Church: Cathedral of St. Sophia, built by Yaroslav the Wise in the 11th century Russia --> Christian o 1054 Schism: Western, Catholic Church, and Eastern Orthodox Church split o Russian Christianity comes from the Eastern Orthodox Church o Greek monks, Cyril and Methodius, bring religion and the alphabet (cyrillic) to Russians o Language called Church Slavonic merges with old Russian --> Russian Kiev-Caves Monastery (Kiev monks lived here) o society took over and returned it to the Church o founded in the 11th century Kievan-Rus' 900s-1200s o Trade with Europe o Prince Yaroslav the Wise's daughter, Anna, married the King Mongol/Tatar Invasion and Yoke o 1237 invasion, 2 centuries of domination o Invasion ceased at Russia (Moscow) o Russia saved Europe o European culture had been stopped, then restarted again Primary Chronicle o Written by Monk Nestor o Begun c. 1040 and lasted until 1118 o Literature (history): Saint's Lives Tale of Olga's Revenge (945) Igor Tale o Prince Ivor of Novgorod (different Igor) tries unsuccessfully to fight Polovtsians/Kumans in 1185 o Author unknown o Called a forgery by some --> huge debates/arguments over this o Style may remind you of Homer's epic poem, "The Iliad" The Russian Orthodox Church --> Church Schism of 1054 Christian Orthodox = "right-believing" Russian Orthodox Church was the official church of Russian empire until 1917 After Soviet Union fell, there was no religion, but apparently it hadn't died Accepted all Christian creeds before 1054 Saints are important Create art for the glory of god Church services, you stand toe entire time Music is mainly human voice and occasionally hand bells Used Latin for all services in their own vernacular Russian Church follows Julian calendar (13 days after Gregorian) Icon = Image Goal of icon is human's communication with God Icons First icons in Russia came from Byzantium, Eastern Roman Empire, seat of Eastern Orthodox Church Several periods (famous) of Russian icon-painting Early Kievan Period, Icon Painting Strong Byzantine influence Very few remain Our Lady of Vladimir, c. 1120 Painted in Constantinople, taken to Russia, taken to Kremlin Angel of the Golden Hair, Novgorod, 12th century Novgorod Art 14th-16th century Byzantine and folk influences Theophanes the Greek -> most important artists, came to Russia from Constantinople Known for his frescos (14th century) 1378 Christ St. George and the Dragon Brighten colors, more complex drawing than in earlier Kievan styles Moscow School of Icon Painting Moscow becomes leading city in 15th century Greatest icon painting in 16th century Adrei Rublev Old Testament Trinity (15th century) Most famous icon Dionysius, late 15th century Icons and frescos The Last Judgement "Life of Alexis, Man of God" Many versions throughout Russia's medieval period Originally 5th century Syriac, then translated to Greek, then Latin, and then French Translated and adapted throughout many countries Self-sacrifice, renunciation of self, wealth, importance 19th century novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky's character Play done of "Alexis, Man of God" presented to Czar Alexei Mickhailovich of Russia in 1674 2 Rise of Moscow 1100s-1380 Mongols dominate Princes of Moscow defeat them Moscow takes shape in 1100s: small city with big wall Kremlin = fortress Red Square is outside Kremlin, one side backs up to Kremlin wall Early Moscow Moscow first mentioned in Primary Chronicle Prince Yuri Dolgowky lays foundations for its walls Ivan Kalita (Moneybags) Money manager Keeps a lot of money for Russians and doesn't give all to the Mongols Ransom Russian prisoners, settles them in territory Convinces head of Russian Church to abandon Kiev for Moscow o (1326)--> Moscow becomes spiritual center of Russia, the "Third Rome" (1453) 1453 --> Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks Dimitrii Donskoy Wins battle between Russians and Mongols Marks end of Mongol Yoke Beginning of Muscovite state Ivan IV Ivan Grozni (the Terrible) 1533-1584 Crowned czar at age 16 and marries Anastasia Romanova (she dies) He abandons throne and is begged to return His conditions: secret police (oprichnina), tsar's right to punish as he wished 6 wives --> kills sons and heirs Time of Troubles (follows Ivan IV's death) 1598 --> Boris Godunov seizes the throne Ivan's youngest son, Dmitrii, his body was found and many thought Godunoc had killed him (1591) 1601 Grigorii Otrepev poses as Dmitrii 1605 "false Dmitrii" made czar 1606 murdered, chaos ensued Subject of Pushkin's play, "Boris Godunov" Beginning of Romanov Dynasty (1613-1913) Alexander Pushkin, Boris Godunov Pushkin 1799-1837 Greatest Russian poet, "father of Russian literature" Writes Boris Godunov, 1825, published 1831, performed 1866 Mussorgskyk's 1874 opera based on that play
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