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Biological Anthropology Weeks 1-2

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Biological Anthropology Weeks 1-2 35918

Marketplace > Moorpark College > anthropology, evolution, sphr > 35918 > Biological Anthropology Weeks 1 2
Xen Foes
Moorpark College
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These notes cover all topics discussed in class and in the slides, as well as questions asked and answered between the students and professors relevant to the material.
Physical Anthropology
Messinger, Rachael
Class Notes
Biology, Anthropology, biological anthropology, physical anthropology, charles darwin




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Xen Foes on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 35918 at Moorpark College taught by Messinger, Rachael in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Moorpark College.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
Biological Anthropology 01/20/16 The Scientific Method what is it? Procedure scientists use to acquire knowledge hypothesis – educated guess what are the steps? ● Observing something they do not  understand about the natural world (why?) ● forming a hypothesis ● testing the hypothesis ● analyzing the results ● form a conclusion, accept/reject  hypothesis Affects your life in more ways than one! Scientific method can be emotional. Mammograms are not an effective screening tools,  according to tests conducted outside of the u.s., and the cancers it usually detects do not  spread outside of the breast What's the goal of science? Understanding, organizing. Creationism Creationism was predominant understanding of the world during Darwin's time ● all forms of life were created by God, ● species did  not change (known as fixity of species) nothing died, nothing new  came into it ● believed in ''young earth''  ● this was not prevailing idea for much of time ● bible was not taken so literally Darwin known for natural selection theory. Darwin's Influences ● Geology ● Paleontology, ● Taxonomy &  Systematics – naming things ● Demography – characteristics of population ● Biology Geology James Hutton Scottish scientist who studied natural forces like wind/rain. Started realizing that  landscape changes slowly and overtime. Looks at the deposition of sedimentary rocks to  understand geological changes. There are seashells on the top of mount Everest. The highest  point on earth had once been underwater. Plate tectonics are believed to be the cause of this,  when India slammed into Asia. Arizona was a tropical rainstorm, tree trunks became petrified  because of the water, tree trunk quartz can be seen due to changes in color & composition.  James Hutton believed the Earth must be very old! Charles Lyell Unitarianism – geological processes observed in the present are the same as those that  occurred in the past. Popularized this idea in Principles of Geology. Estimated the age of the  Earth at a million years. Was very encouraging to Darwin and befriended him later in life. Paleontology Georges Cuvier Reconstructed fossils. Made mistakes, like many in the past. Put the thumb of a dinosaur on it's  nose, called it the ''iguanodon''. Worked on fossils of elephants from France, when there were  currently no elephants in France. Coined the term, ''extinction''. Catastrophism is the idea that  regional disaster destroyed local plant and animal life. Repopulated by new forms that migrated  from neighboring regions. The Gulf of Mexico has huge crater from the meteor that caused the  extinction of the dinosaurs. The strike happened at the same time the dinosaurs disappeared,  even though they were fine before. Mammals were really small, rat­like creatures. Taxonomy and Systematics Linnaeus wanted a classification system of plants and animals (binomial nomenclature) Genus  Species. Made it in Latin, common academic language. Homo sapien = wise man/thinking man Biological Anthropology 01/25/16 Demography Thomas Malthus Said that food is necessary to the existence of man & the passion between the sexes is  necessary and will remain in it's present state. Predicted that there would not be enough food to support the population (this was during 1800. the global population was about 1 billion. Getting  to 1 billion took 200000 years). The advancement of agriculture allowed for a sharp increase,  global population doubles and in 100 years gets to 2 billion, then in 40 years 3 billion, then a  billion every decade. Did not have many solutions to the problems he posed, such as  abstinence, putting poor people into work houses. Darwin, before writing survival of the fittest (which were not his words) said ''struggle for  existence''. Malthus' writings helped him draw this conclusion, which profoundly impacted his  existence. Evolutionary Biology (was not yet a separate science) Jean Baptiste de Lamarck Believed organisms can change anatomically for self-improvement, and developed the theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics. The process is as environment changes → animal activity patterns change → increased or decreased use of certain body parts → body parts become altered → new traits passed onto offspring *trait acquired by animal in it's lifeline be passed onto its offspring. Lamarck had the mechanism wrong, but he coined the terms biology and evolution. He was also the first to hypothesize how species change, which was a big contribution. A good example of  interactions between organisms and their environment is height. The biggest factor is genes.  But if you are malnourished, you will be shorter than your genetic height would otherwise  determine—which would be an organism responding to it's environments. Darwin & Natural Selection Charles Darwin Was raised by his sisters after his mother died, had money. Went to university to  become a doctor, but decided against it because he wasn't feeling the surgery without  anesthesia. Wasn't the best or worst student, but got a degree in ''natural sciences''. Through  his university connections, he got to voyage on the HSM Beagle as the captain's companion. He kept Darwin there to keep him company, because the first captain killed himself and he did not  wish to meet the same fate. He did not hang out with the crew due to the class separation, and  was noted by Darwin to treat his crew very poorly. Later, Darwin became the ship's naturalist.  The voyage was supposed to be two years, but turned out to be five years. Darwin became  violently seasick every time they sailed. Close to the end of their journey, Darwin visited the  Galapagos. He was struck by many things on the island, like the diversity of the finches. There  were 13 different species with physical features that were adapted according to their  environment. He concluded that: ● they shared a common ancestor ● had modified in response to their habits and dietary preferences ● adaptive radiation – diversification of many different species from one common  ancestor. ● Called diversified species ''closely allied'' species ● ''why should 'closely allied' species inhabit neighboring patches of island?'' ● ''why should similar habitats on different continents be occupied by species that  are not closely allied?'' The Process of Natural Selection ● Within a species, more individuals are born than can survive (Malthus). ● Variation exists within each species (Travels, finch observations) (called the  ''odd'' species like giant turtles 'aboriginal creations'). ● Members of a population compete for limited resources (Malthus). ● Individuals with advantageous characteristics are more likely to survive and  reproduce. ● Individuals with disadvantageous characteristics are less likely to survive and  reproduce. ● If a trait confers a selective advantage, it will become more and more common in  the population. This idea is often summarized as ''survival of the fittest'', but that tends to be an  oversimplification Natural Selection Summary Genetic change (which Darwin referenced but was not aware of), or changes in the  frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between  individuals. Herbert Spencer coined the term ''survival of the fittest'' in reference to social  Darwinism. Instead of giraffes modifying their longer necks, such as in Lamarck's view, the  giraffes that already have long necks reach the leaves and do not starve and die. They survived  and reproduced and their offspring had long necks that allow them to eat leaves and reproduce. Alfred Russel Wallace Married his first cousin and has several children. Independently suggested evolution in his 1858  paper, but did not publish it because his wife, Emma, was upset at the thought of corrupting  social norms. Spurred Darwin to finally publish his theory. Due to Darwin being the one who  popularized the theory, Wallace was ignored harder than the other members of Destiny's Child.  He also dabbled in interests of the supernatural world. Biological Anthropology 01/27/15 Conditions for Natural Selection 1. The trait must be inherited. (This idea was the difference between Darwin and  Lamarck's understanding of natural selection)  2. Trait must display variation. 3. Trait must result in differential reproductive success. (Reproductive success is  that you are able to make a greater genetic  contribution to the future generation. For  example, one person has two children and the other has five children. The second one  has more reproductive success).  Natural selection does not apply to genetic conditions that affect people past reproductive age,  for example stomach cancer that does not begin to show until age fifty. By this time, the parent  has likely already had children which may or may not have the genes passed down to them. Modern Theory of Evolution Gradualism – slow, takes many generations. Speciation – A splitting that creates a new species. Common Ancestry – Species are joined by their ancestors. We can go back in time and find  decedents joining at their ancestors. ''Inested hierarchy'' What do mammals and reptiles have in common? They both have an amniotic egg, or embryo  with fluid surrounding it. Monotremes, or egg­laying mammals (like the duck billed platypus) have undergone very little  evolutionary changes. Sharks have also evolved very little. Natural Selection Selective advantages, differential reproductive success. Example­ hair growth differences in  humans are comparable to hair growth changes in elephant­like animals. When in a colder  climate, elephants born with more hair are more likely to survive (as they will not die from  hypothermia) and will be able to live long enough to mate with other elephant­like species with  the same gene for more hair growth. Their offspring then will have the genes for more hair  growth, and the population of elephant­like mammals that were hairier increased, allowing for  greater chances of survival in the species. This allowed for the wolly mammoth to become a  species and this is why after the climate underwent change and increased in heat they went  extinct. Non­selective mechanisms of evolutionary change: ● Genetic drift ● gene flow ● mutations We did not just survival of the fittest ourselves into the current situation, as this is not the only  mechanism of evolutionary change. The ''most important'' mechanism of evolutionary change is  not fully agreed upon among scholars and scientists in the field. Darwin couldn't explain... 1. Mechanisms by which parents passed on their traits to their offspring 2. How variation was maintained 3. How new variation arose These were considered unanswered questions about the theory of natural selection. The Cell Basic unit of life in living organisms Prokaryotes are single­celled organisms , which are far older than Eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are multi­celled organisms. They are believed to have come out of cells eating, but  not fully digesting other cells as well as cells beginning to live in colonies. Other Cellular Structures Organelles – structures inside the cell Cytoplasm – semi fluid material on the inside of the cell. Responsible for bringing things in and  out of the cell. Without this, the cell would die. Nucleus – stores DNA. Called ''control center'' because it directs all actions in the cell. Mitochondria – The powerhouse of the cell because it makes energy in the form of ATP.  Mitochondria has mtDNA, which only comes from your mum. Mitochondria is in the sperm's tail,  which breaks off when it fertilizes the zygote. Ribosomes – long structures made of RNA and proteins. In charge of protein synthesis Know  this for the test! Somatic Cells (Body Cells) ● Body tissues ● not involved in reproduction ● Diploid – contains two full sets of chromosomes ● Humans: 23 pairs, or 46 total  chromosomes ● Most of the time, these tissues undergo mitosis. Neurons and livers and such  undergo mitosis, red blood cells (because they do not have a nucleus)  ● The digestive track is always undergoing mitosis. Gametes (Sex Cells) ● Involved in reproduction ● Haploid; contain only one set of chromosomes ● 2 kinds: Ova (egg cells) produced in ovaries of females & sperm cells produced  in testes of males ● undergo meiosis


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