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IST 224 Intro Into Forensic Science notes Friday

by: Jason DeHaven

IST 224 Intro Into Forensic Science notes Friday IST 224

Marketplace > Marshall University > Science > IST 224 > IST 224 Intro Into Forensic Science notes Friday
Jason DeHaven
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About this Document

Covers how to handle evidence on a crime scene.
Intro to Forensic Science
Terry Shank
Class Notes
Science, Forensic Science, Criminal Justice, intro
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jason DeHaven on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IST 224 at Marshall University taught by Terry Shank in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Science in Science at Marshall University.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
How to Handle Evidence: -to do this is one of the most important factors in an investigation so you don’t contaminate the scene - can guarantee the gathering and collection of evidence getting packaged for transport -while gathering the evidence you should maintain security, document collection, establish chain of custody, package to avoid contamination, and avoid excessive handling. - Many documentations, the fewer number of people accessing the evidence makes the evidence more reliable. Indoor Scenes: What is the condition of the scene? -write down the time of arrival, and observe the area from windows and doors, odors like gun powder, drugs, and are the lights off or on. Also write down all of the people on the crime scene However DON’T! - touch the inside doors or frames - do not move anything or anyone unless someone is injured. - Don’t smoke, use landline telephone, toilet, or ash trays. o If you got to go pee go to the 7/11 or neighborhood gas station. - Avoid using evidentiary phones or computers at the scene until the forensic experts properly secure the devices as evidence - Hold your hand behind your back to avoid touching anything. o Just what Holmes would do he is the inspiration of Criminal investigation after all. Outdoor Crime Scenes - You must establish and protect a large perimeter especially at huge open areas. - Start with a focal point and move outward, think like the suspect. What would he have done?, but avoid the route of the suspect. - Think “path of least resistance” and take another. - Think of the suspects approach and escape route. Death Cases: - 4 methods: natural causes, accidental death, suicide, and homicide - The medical examiner will determine which of the four had occurred. - All death scenes will be and are treated as a homicide till medical examiner arrive, and declare something else. - First responders shouldn’t hesitate to ask for help. - Always have documentation because you will have a successful investigation. - Believability of the witnesses is determined on whether or not the witness is jittery, nervous, anxious to possibly leave the scene??? Does there alibi of the incident sound questionable?? - Look at the condition of the scene. - The history of the victim and /or suspect should be found out. - Keep all documents preserved to be later analyzed - Preserve medications and containers to see if they were tampered, if the medication is the right medication in the bottle Documenting the Crime Scene - Investigators are always on the clock at a crime scene that is untouched due to its untouched state. - They go through a process of documentation with photographs, video, notes, and diagram documents the condition of the crime site and to delineate the location of physical evidence - What you definitely need is photos and video - A lead investigator will evaluate the area before collecting evidence. o Need to get the scene boundries first. Crime Scene Search - The crime scene coordinator may choose choose a pttern of search style based upon the size of the crime scene. These searches are the strip and line, circle, grid, zone/quadrant, and spiral - Need to be very orderly and thorough, don’t walk to much but DON’T miss anything. The Search - Physical evidence is anything from microscopic to giant but must be thorough and symmetric. - Evidence is oftem times clearly visible, but other can be only detected through crime scene laboratories. So you must always where your gloves to not contaminate the scene. Beyond the Crime Scene - The medical examiner will determine the time and cause of death. - The following are collected and sent to the forensic laboratories. o Clothing of the victim o Fingernail scrapings o Head and pubic hairs o Blood (DNA typing purpose) o Vaginal, anal, and oral swabs ( in sex related crimes) o Bullets recovered from the body o Hand swabs from shooting victims ( for gunshot residue analysis) Packaged Evidence: - The essential part of the evidence is the seal, and the bag has a document printed on it for identification of the item inside the bag. - Each item or similar items at different locations must be placed in separate containers. - Separately prevents damage through contact and stops cross-examination - The investigators use Forceps and similar tools to pick up small items - Unbreakable plastic pill bottles are great for evidence like hair, glass, and fibers - Manilla envelopes, screw-cap glass vials are also good containers. - Trace evidence can be packaged in a carefully folded paper using a druggist fold. o Put the evidence in the middle in half fold each side over to the middle. Then three corners are blocked off then you fold over to the middle again blocking off the fourth side and able to seal the object in with tape and leaves writing spots on the front to identify. - Bloodstain materials are stored in airtight containers mold won’t grow due to accumulation of mold which can and will destroy the value of blood. o Use wrapping paper, manila envelopes, or paper bags are recommended. Obtaining Reference Samples - Standard/ Reference Sample: physical evidence whose origin is known like blood or hair from a suspect that can be compared to the crime scene. In a crime scene this is the control like in a science experiment. - The examination will usually require the comparison between the Standard Sample. - Some investigator forget the importance of providing the crime lab with a sampling reference material, and these samples should be documented as such. Evidence Rcovery Log - Who found the evidence, how was it found, notations of anyway it could have been found. - Records are critical for prosecution of the crime as well as records of the unbroken chain of evidence because this shows that everything in the examination went legally, and the evidence wasn’t tampered with and this makes the evidence admissible in trial. Evidence must be - Bagged and tagged for identification - Properly packaged - Paper bagged - Needs to be marked with the initial and date of the person seeing it so they can testify the methodology of how they found it, and if they followed the standard operating procedure. - Packaging is marked on the seal usually because it shows it has been sealed. This shows who all has used the evidence in the chain of custody - Be handled in a manner that avoids contamination and changes. o Changes meaning evidence so fragile that it can’t change at all o Ex: An icicle murder you need to freeze the icicle to keep it in its right state for purpose


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