Class Note for PSYC 358 at UA
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 56 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
Reviews for Class Note for PSYC 358 at UA
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
PSYC 358 PSYCHOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS 112907 1 Review Session Tues 2 Final Exam 2pm on Tuesday December 11 HERElllllll CESL 102 REALLY Shamanism is predicated on the idea that all healing is selfhealing ln shamanic practice it39s the healer who takes the medication that undergoes the procedure Healing is wholeness and balance All the different parts ofyou are working Your different organ systems are doing what they39re supposed to eg immune system Shamans create wholeness and balances within themselves and then they nd that the healing they create is contagious Ho39oponopono Hawaiian shamanic practice in which the practitioner seeks to change reality by changing himself or herself quotI love you I39m sorryquot Love and forgiveness shift your own consciousness and therefore the reality your consciousness creates In Western society the mindbody problems has been resolved at least in some minds so that materialism wins out The idea that the material world gives rise to conscious experience predominates and what has been downplayed is the possibility that conscious experience gives rise to the material world The shamanic premise is captured in Gandhi39s words BE THE CHANGE THAT YOU SEEK What does the journey into other dimension accomplish Besides changing the individual who undergoes the journey the journey can result in 1 New insights 2 A quotsoul retrievalquot part of the person39s conscious experience has gotten disconnected from their physical body 3 To act as a quotpsychopompquot Guiding someone else throught the transitions of birth and death The rst creators were shamans The first artists dancers singers musicians drummers ofthe world were using these practices for shamanic purposes Creativity Departure Initiation Return 1 Set intention 2 Drumming 3 Wherever you go bring something back 112707 1 Term paper is due by the beginning of class on Thursday 1129 Electronic versions can be turned in to Dusana dusanaemaiarizonaedu 2 Next Tuesday is our review day 3 The final exam is HERE at 2pm on Tuesday December 11 Please note the time change If you39re more than 15 minutes late or absent you get a zero 4 Both answer keys are posted in the third oor hallway of the Psyc building 5 We have a very special eminent presenter for guest demo followed by TCEs SHAMANISM Shamanism is de ned as a set of practices that involve communication with hidden dimensions of reality generally for the purpose of providing healing and other bene ts to one39s community Harvard Physicist Lisa Randall wrote a book called Warped Passages in which she describes a multidimensional universe that includes hidden dimensions This physical universe described by Randall includes dimensions that cannot be detected by the five senses or any instruments known to science The book Myn39ad Worlds describes the Tibetan Buddhist cosmology that also consists of multiple dimensions or realms many ofwhich are populated The shaman crosses into other dimensions by traversing the quotaxis mundiquot which means the quotcenter ofthe worldquot This is a threshold that opens into hidden dimensions How does one find this threshold Trance The origin is from the Latin quottransirequot which means quotto crossquot or quotto pass over In a trance you quotlose yourselfquot it39s not just a ceasing of mental activity but a complete letting go of everything identity attachments expectations and beliefs Everything we have come to know about ourselves is left behind including the framework by which we know and interact with the world When you lose yourself totally that is when according to shamans you can move uidly into other dimensions How do shamans enter trance The method ofentering trance has two components 1 The micro level the speci c practices that facilitate the transition Drumming Chanting Dancing Meditation Entheogens A psychoactive plant substance used in a sacramental manner ritual and ceremonies The word means quotgenerating inspirationquot or quotproducing the expeirence of spiritquot Egyptians blue lotus Americas peyote psilocybin and salvia divinorum Asia drink called Soma the contents remain unknown y agaric ephedra Europe mead Oceania kava 2 The macro level lnducing trance is part ofan entire way of life for a shaman lnitiation quotBlack Elk Speaksquot Black Elk went through serious illness which served as his initiation The initiation tends to produce a quotCall to lnspirationquotan awareness of one39s calling purpose or life mission lntuition Tune into their inner guidance Devotion Commitment to living by certain ideals One teacher referred to the quotkeys to the templequot compassion humility serenity detachment forgiveness unconditional love and selfless service 112007 1 Happy Thanksgiving 2 Paper due November 29 Happy Term Paper Day You can email your paper to dusanaemailarizonaedu INTENTION quottenderequot to stretch Is it possible to quotstretchquot reality to accommoate new possibilities and new outcomes This question is especially relevant with respect to health Is healing a function of intention Sometimes but when it is Biofeedback training shows that intention can produce changes in autonomic functions heart rate bp muscle tension and in turn those changes can have a beneificial healing effect What about someone else39s intentions Can they affect a change in our health Energy healing eg Johrei or Reiki or prayer Neither involves physical touch or contact between the healer and the person receiving the healing Prayer works overall for about 1520 of individuals This number does NOT include placebo effects because it occurs in cases where people do not know they are being prayed for Remote Prayer Cardiologist Randolph Byrd published the results of remote prayer in 1988 that was conducted with about 400 patients at SF General Hospital Patients in a coronary care unite were assigned to one oftwo groups One was prayed for by home prayer groups and other was not This was a randomized doubleblind study in which neither the patients nurses or doctors knew which patients were in which condition The nding was that there were signi cant differences between the two groups The prayedfor patients 1 were ve times less like to need antibiotics 2 were three times less likely to develop pulmonary edema uid builds up in the lungs in the coronary patients it happens because the heart isn39t strong enough to pump uid through the system 3 required no intubation breathing assistance whereas 12 control patients required it This particular study has been replicated Elizabeth Targ did a largescale replication The criticisms of Byrd39s study were that 1 The people who prayed were all Christians 2 No checks were made to insure that the people praying were actually praying 3 No controls were used on the prayer strategy There are lots of types of prayer a Petition asking something for yourself b lntercession asking something for someone else c Confession asking forgiveness and repenting d Lamentation crying over your situation e Adoration giving honor and praise f lnvocation summoning the presence ofa higher power g Thanksgiving gratitude There are other types of prayer that are silent nonverbal some involve the experience of surrender quotthy will be donequot meditation on a mantra such as OM can be considered a prayer 4 No control over the skill level of the quotprayer playersquot39 5 Prayer groups were not blind they knew the name diagnosis and a brief description of the condition ofthe patients for whom they were praying 6 Differences in the physicians of different patients 7 Individual differences among patients 8 No control for outside prayer the patient and hisher family friends may be praying as well 9 Some variables were not affected No difference in the number of days that patients stayed in the hospital or in the amount of medication prescribed or in mortality 7 forthe prayedfor group and 85 for the control group Some prayer studies have used nonhuman targets The quotprayer playersquot used their intention to 1 Slow down the growth of microbes or cancer cells 2 Protect blood in test tubes from undergoing hemolysis 3 Keep plants alive in harsh conditions 4 Heal animals A review of Englishlanguage research done prior to 1990 turned up 76 studies with nonhuman targets that significant findings Larry Dossey Why does prayer work He theorizes that there is a nonlocal component of consciousness There is evidence ofdiagnosis at a distance Caroline Myss has a hit rate of 93 in diagnosing various ailments Her diagnoses are very speci c quotmigraine headachequot quotmyofascial painquot quotchest pain due to postsurgical traumaquot Therapeutic Touch Developed by a nursing researcher named Delores Krieger In the study patients with a surgical wound on their arm inserted the arm into a hole in the wall not knowing what was on the other side but being told that there was a diagnostic instrument there What there really was depended on the condition Treatment Therapeutic Touch practitioner doing healing work on the arm that lasted no more than five minutes Control condition Nothing Two weeks later 13 of the 23 patients receiving Therapeutic Touch had complete healing of their wounds None of the control patients had that 111507 Announcements 1 Guest Presenter Today Jeanne BurrowsJohnson 2 The term paper can and should be doublespaced Placebo Effects A placebo is a pill injection surgical procedure or other medical intervention that does not depend on speci c physiological processes to produce a particular effect A placebo effect is the physiological andor psychological outcome that a placebo produces The term quotplaceboquot is Latin quotI shall pleasequot In 1955 Henry Beecher at Harvard reviewed 15 double blind studies in which over 1000 patients were given placebo for various ailments including postoperative pain cough angina pectoris chest pain seasickness anxiety and the common cold He found that 35 ofthese patients had satisfactory relief oftheir symptoms New treatments that are greeted with enthusiasm by both physicians and patients tend to have initial effectiveness rates that are very high 7090 When the effectiveness of these treatments is challenged by skeptical researchers that set up research studies minimizing placebo effects the effectiveness doesn39t drop to zero It drops to 3040 which is a quotbaselinequot level Sometimes placebo works BETTER than treatment In the 195039s a procedure called internal mammary artery ligation was tried as a treatment for angina In studies using skin incision with and without ligation incision alone was 100 in decreasing chest pain and the need for nitroglycerine whereas the ligation was only 76 effective The effectiveness of placebo in treating warts is 48 compared to 52 for standard drug treatments Weil claims that there is a natural healing system Factors that affect the size of the placebo effect Provider characteristics Competence Confident in the treatment Warmthcompassionate 99quot Setting characteristics Patientprovider communication The setting appears to have quotmedical formalityquot c The appearance ofthe placebo shape size color taste and dosage foultasting placebos work better so do oddlyshaped placebos and very speci c dosages take two every four hours P39P N 3 Patient characteristics a Selfesteem low selfesteem produce greater placebo effects b lnternal vs external locus of control external greater effects c To what extent do placebo effects correlate with measures related to hypnotizability absorption imaginative involvement effortless experiencing d Expectation is the primary determinant of placebo Norman Cousins quotThe placebo is an emissary between the will to live and the body But the emissary is expendablequot Morphine loses as much as 25 of its effectiveness in reducing pain when patients DON39T know that they39ve been injected with a painkiller 111307 Term Paper To get the full 20 points you must meet the length and topic requirement The topics are just your impressions feelings and experiences when doing the exercises on the CDs and one optional exercise Pain Management 3050 million chronic pain sufferers back pain arthritis joint pain pain related to cancer 30 billion spent on prescription pain medication in 2006 Physical aspects of pain Three kinds of pain receptors in the peripheral nervous system 1 Mechanical detects tearing or shearing oftissue 2 Thermal detects extremes oftemperature 3 Polymodal detects a combination of several different kinds of pain Two types of pain fibers that carry pain signals to the brain Adelta Small myelinated transmit shar pain and they carry information about the sensory aspect of pain thalamus and somatosensory cortex C bers Large unmyelinated polymodal transmit dull or aching pain and carry information about the motivational and affective aspects of pain thalamus then to the hypothalamus and to various cortical areas Pain vs Suffering Pain is what happens in the body suffering is our interpretation ofthat pain and our response to it Brain regulates the amount of pain that an individual experiences by transmitting signals back to the spinal cord that block the transmission of pain in the peripheral nervous system Endogenous opioids eg endorphins quotendogenous morphinequot Sympatheticinduced analgesia SlA The rst stage of stress response is the alarm reaction During this stage the body generates endorphins and that release produces an analgesic effect What is the difference between quotanalgesiaquot and quotanesthesiaquot Anesthesia is preventing pain that hasn39t happened yet Analgesia is relieving pain that is already there Psychological aspects of pain Pain is in uenced by a number of psychological variables 1 Context While playing sports people have less sensitivity to pain SlA sympathetic arousal temporarily reduces sensitivity to pain 2 Stress can aggravate pain So can anxiety depression and anger 3 Ethnic and cultural differences in pain sensitivity 4 Gender differences Women in general have greater sensitivity to pain Chronic Pain Personality is linked to the experience of chronic pain A relatively high percentage of chronic pain sufferers score highly on the following three subscales of the MMPI 1 Hypochondriasis Excessive preoccupation with illness 2 Hysteria Unmanageable fear or other emotional process that produces physical symptoms without an organic cause 3 Depression The quotneurotic triadquot The Control of Chronic Pain Allopathic model of medicine has typically focused on two courses of treatment 1 Pain medication The body builds a tolerance to drugs 2 Surgery lesion pain bers Consciousnessrelated treatments 1 Biofeedback Has only worked modestly in treating chronic pain because autonomic processes such as heart rate and bp are unpredictably related to pain For some kinds of pain such as tension headaches or TMJ temporomandibular joint disorder One theory about pain is that it is an interruption in the normal ow of neural impulses This is the premise used in chiropractic care 2 Relaxation For certain kinds of pain low levels ofarousal and physical relaxation are useful such as muscle tension But overall the bene ts of PMR are modest 3 Meditation The effects are mixed possibly due to the fact that there are different forms of meditation Concentrative techniques might draw attention away from the pain but mindfulness techniques will actually heighten awareness of everything happening in the body 4 Hypnosis Used in anesthesia surgery childbirth dentistry but also to some degree in analgesia burn patients headaches and chronic pain due to cancer Why does it work Perhaps because it produces a dissociation or split in consciousness 5 Acupuncture In the US we have empirical data that acupuncture works but we don39t understand why and the reason we don39t is that we don39t accept the Chinese explanation having to do with the ow ofquotchiquot which is energy in the body 6 Guided imagery Most interdisciplinary pain management programs teach some version of imagery The patient may use relaxing imagery to draw attention from the pain or use aggressive imagery to visualize their body attacking the source ofthe pain 11807 Stress Management Stress like other human emotions may have started out more as a physical response and become more psychological Disgust is an interesting example It activates the insula taste and the olfactory bulb smell Disgust was probably originally a mechanism for detecting something noxious in our physical environment At some point it got quotcognitivizedquot Stress response to a threat that puts us in physical danger ghtorflight response Today we39ve generalized that response to include things that endanger us psychologically as well as physically affecting our selfimage our status our financial situation At the core of stress is our selfconcept and our minds Basic stress management program 1 Learn to identify the stressors in your life 2 Aquire and practice skills for coping with stress 3 Apply those skills in stressful sitatuions and monitor their effectiveness Step 2 What are these techniques Some are cognitivebehavioral 1 Change our selftalk quotI hate giving presentationsquot quotI39m not good at giving presentationsquot quotI39ll probably forget what I have to say as soon as get up therequot Negative selftalk convert that to positive selftalk 2 Timemanagement skills for those who are overburdened Goal setting scheduling prioritizing 3 Contingency contracting rewarding yoursel for meeting goals 4 Stress inoculation practice dealing with stressful situations 5 Relaxation Training a Progressive Muscle Relaxation Developed by Edmund Jacobson in the 192039s The technique involves tensing a muscle and then relaxing it The muscle goes to a more relaxed state than baseline Why Opponentprocess theory The primary process such as fear starts rst a counterbalancing process such as elation kicks in later and lasts longer Instructor39s conspiracy theory Jacobson derived PMR from working with Yogananda who came to the US in 1920 and was teaching a set oftechniques he called quotenergizationquot b Biofeedback training Designed to reduce autonomic arousal slow down heart rate minimize muscle tension 0 Meditation d Hynosis 11607 Announcements 1 Special Guest Presenter Today Rev Henry Ajiki What a great demo that was 2 Midterm 2 scores are now posted online httpvaswebarizonaedu Grade Cutoffs A 2530 B 2024 C 1519 D 1014 STRESS What is stress Is it real A response both physical and psychological to a perceived threat NOTE The threat is perceived it doesn39t have to be real From a physiological standpoint Walter Cannon When an organism perceives threat the body is rapidly aroused and motivated by the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system to carry out a ghtor ight response Hans Selye coined the term quotstressquot and said that all stressors produce the same pattern of response which he called the quotgeneral adaptation syndromequot This sydrome has three stages 1 Alarm reaction Organism gets mobilized to meet the threat 2 Resistance The body repairs any damage caused by the stressor in an attempt to regain homeostasis 3 Exhaustion lfthe stressor continues inde nitely the body39s resources get depleted Symptoms of exhaustion include increased vulnerability to disease immune supression increases in blood pressure Physiologically there are two systems activated by a stress response 1 Sympatheticadrenalmedulla SAM system From the cerebral cortex a signal gets sent to the hypothalamus which activates the sympathetic nervous system by triggering the adrenal glands to secrete catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine The part ofthe adrenal glands that secretes catecholamines is the medulla 2 Hypothalamuspituitaryadrenal HPA Hypothalamus releases corticotrophinreleasingfactor CRF which stimulates the pituitary to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids and most notably cortisol Cortisol is designed to consever energy in the body and to increase blood glucose In the longterm cortisol increase bp impairs sleep affects memory increases fat deposit in the waist area Symptoms of longterm stress response and exhaustion Decrease in cellmediated immunity Inability to shut off cortisol production Lowered heartrate variability High catecholamine levels High waisttohip ratio U39PFDNT 6 Decreased hippocampus volume 7 Memory problems 8 High bp Lazarus et al Showed lms to subjects of a tribal initiation rite that included genital surgery Those subjects who listened to an account ofwhat was happening that focused on the significance ofthe ritual or that deemphasized the pain showed less of a stress response than those who either had no information or whose attention was drawn to the pain Many stressors are neutral a crowd traf c waiting in line It is only the cognitive interpretation of those stimuli that results in a stress response Part of stress is attachment to 1 An outcome we expect things to turn out differently than they do 2 People and things that we value When we feel that we cannot live without something then being deprived of it is stressful Part of stress is not wanting things to change Suffering change lmpermanence all things must change The term quotstressquot includes grief anger frustration depression anxiety 103007 REVIEW SESSION Subliminal perception Originally quotsubliminalquot meant quotbelow the limenquot a hypothetical threshold of our sensory perception Researchers realized that the limen which is an objective threshold is as low as you get Something presented below that threshold never gets processed by our perceptual apparatus Today subliminal has come to mean information presented below the subjective threshold which is the minimum intensity duration etc required for awareness of that sensory information If perceptual information is presented below the subjective threshold but above the objective threshold it may an effect on your experience thought and action eg galvanic skin response even though you are unaware of it The preferred term for perceptual information that affects you even though you are unaware of it is quotimplicit perceptionquot Silverman Psychodynamic researcher who tested the phrase quotMommy and l are onequot He found that when that phrase is presented subliminally it can have some interesting effects on subjects In nonclinical populations cognitive performance can improve One wellknown clinical effect is that the subliminal presentation ofthat phrase helped smokers quit smoking quotThe Hidden Persuadersquot discusses the advertising industry39s use of subliminal messages In masked priming studies a stimulus such as the word DOCTOR is flashed on a computer screen in a manner that prevents the subject from consciously seeing it And yet the subject shows a priming for DOCTOR on subsequent tests eg lexical decision as well as for related words such as NURSE This effect is rarely seen for twoword phrases and has never been found for phrases consisting of more than two words with one notable exception MOMMY AND I ARE ONE Janet Metcalfe Used a metacognitive measure called quotfeeling of warmthquot FOW in which the subject indicates whether or not she is getting closer to the answer to a speci c problem Years earlier Herb Simon had shown that FOW was a predictor of progress on algebra and other mathematical problems Metcalfe showed that subjects39 FOWjudgments are not predictive of how close they are to a solution to an quotinsight problemquot lnsight problems are problems devised by the Gestalt psychologists that require a different way of looking at things to solve The creative spirit is the source from which creativity arises in your consciousness It is not the mind it is inherently mysterious because it exists outside of language concepts and all forms ofthought The ultimate of new forms must exist beyond form because if form always arises from form eg ifthoughts always arise from other thoughts then at some point you reach a serious logical dilemma which has to do with the question Where did the rst form eg thought come from 4P39s of creativity Person What makes the creative personality unique What are the traits associated with creativity Correlations of creativity with absorption hypnotizability imaginative involvement and effortlessness 62 Measurement of creativity of the individual The mostly commonly used creativity test is the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking TTCT Process How does the process of creativity work How can we facilitate creativity What is happening to consciousness during this process Product How do we construct new and innovative products Press Situational variables that give rise to creativity Posthypnotic suggestion is a suggestion given during hypnosis that is going to affect behavior after the hypnosis session is completed For example in a laboratory situation a subject might be given the suggestion for posthypnotic amnesia in which she is unable to recall information learned during the session until the hypnotist reverses the suggestion quotNow you can remember everythingquot Clairvoyance One of the ways that clairvoyance has been tested is using Zener cards in which the subject has to guess information that she cannot detect through normal sensory perception 102507 Announcements 1 Review this coming Tuesday 2 Midterm 2 a week from today Radical Creativity Characteristics 1 Fundamental It is driven by a basic inherent need to create It requires us to strip our identity down to its core where creativity originates quotThe Creative Spiritquot 2 Farreaching It39s more than just coming up wtih a new idea or even a way of expressing oneself This is a way of life a path of devotion 3 Revolutionary It produces breakthroughs that have a lasting impact on the world which can include the reinvention of ideas institutions beliefs attitudes technology currency even the self 4 Heroic The creator acts in the face of doubt and resistance to pursue an ideal quotThe Hero with a Thousand Facesquot by Joseph Campbell There are three phases of the hero39s adventure 1 Departure a The Call to Inspiration There is a knock on your door quotMany are called but few are chosenquot This line could read quotMany are called but few choose to answerquot b The Wise Figure This is the force and the guidance of our intuition c The Threshold This is the jumpingoff point 2 Initiation When the focal point ofour consciousnes turns from the domain of what39s acceptable in our society to what is right for us a Trials The resistance and doubt that you are likely to encounter is going to come most strongly from within B Meeting with quotthe motherquot The feminine aspect of consciousness which in many cultures is CREATIVE ENERGY C Atonement with quotthe fatherquot The masculine aspect of creative consciousness which is the CREATIVE SPIRIT A possible limitless and mysterious source from which all our mental activity originates 3 Return a The Boon The reward for your efforts may be an idea a new way ofliving an experience or insight b Crossing the Return Threshold Translate your experience into something that others are going to understand What qualities are needed to experience radical creativity 1 Understand quotgiftednessquot quotThe Giftquot by Lewis Hyde Creativity is a gift It comes from an unknown source and is not yours to keep In fact it39s your obligation to share it 2 Intention Radical creativity comes from a place that is driven by certain values like service and forgiveness quotgive awayquot 3 Passion The Core Gift An ideal that inspires you uniquely 4 Intuition The basic guidance system for all individuals not just creative ones 5 Imagination Imagination is more than mental imagery It is the ability to conceive of something that doesn39t exist YET to really get a sense ofwhat that alternative reality would be like Imagining something is an important step to realizing it because if you can imagine it you start to act as if it is real More effective than imagining the end result by itself is to imagine the process by which you get there 102307 Announcements 1 Darrell Hicks brochures sound demo 2 Today39s demo Heidi V lson Tai Chi 3 Review Session Next Tues 4 Midterm 2 Next Thurs 5 Very special guest demo116 CREATIVITY What is creativity Two factors Originality Doing something that hasn39t been done before Appropriateness Is it adaptive useful valuable ofquality JP Guilford gave the 1950 Presidential address to APA urging psychologists to study creativity At that time out of 121 000 titles listed in Psychological Abstracts only 186 even mentioned creativity Rhodes 1961 Four components of creativity The 4 P39s Person Product Process Press situational conditions that give rise to creativity including motivational in uences Theories of Creativity Psychoanalytic Theory According to Freud creativity is a form of regression from secondaryprocess thinking logical realitybound to primaryprocess prelogical drive dominated Secondaryprocess thiniing is associated with the ego and primary process with the id Kris quotRegression in the service ofthe egoquot that is initiated by the ego not out of defense but for its own bene t Adaptive regression creativity hypnosis Creative Personality Absorption total attention and there is an element of fantasy and imagination Tellegen Absorption Scale quotI can sometimes recollect certain past experiences in my life with such clarity and vividness that it39s like living them again or almost soquot quotI am sometimes able to forget about my present self and get absorbed in a fantasy that lam someone elsequot Absorption correlation with hypnotizability r 25 and also with creativity r 39 Measurement of creativity is the big problem in this eld There are over 200 creativity tests in use The quotbestquot measure is called the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking TTCT A battery of gural and verbal subtests that are scored on four dimensions uency exibility originality and elaboration Imaginative involvementfantasy proneness Correlates significantly with both creativity and hypnotizability How well do creativity and hypnotizability correlate to each other r55 The Creative Process PG Bowers developed a scale of effortless experiencing The reason is that involuntariness or effortlessness is a very important part of hypnosis the classic suggestion effect is when it feels like your responses to suggestions are occurring involuntarily The experience of effortlessness is also very characteristic of creativity ldeas quotjust came to mequot Bowers had subjects perform a variety of imagery fantasy and problemsolving tasks and then asked them to rate the effortlessness with which they performed those tasks on a vepoint scale 1 High ease ldeasjust popped into mind no effort needed to develop it 5 High dif culty constantly made an effort to get and keep an image Effortlessness and hypnotizability r 61 Effortlessness and creativity r 62 Published fiction writers and asked them to work on story ideas while hypnotized The authors reported that the ideas they generated under hypnosis came effortlessly but they rated the quality of those ideas as average Bowers conclued that the style ofthe individual is what is most likely to be related to hypnotizability Those artistic people who work in a logical methodical way may not show correlations among creativity hypnotizability and effortlessness A shift from the active mode to the passive mode The active mode is goaloriented has expectations and strategies and uses language the passive mode is imagebased and has a wider associative network 101807 lntuition Wallas 1926 There are four phases of problemsolving 1 Preparation This phase involves conscious work on the problem including data collection 2 lncubation At this point conscious activity is suspended 3 lllumination This is the moment of insight 4 Veri cation Once the solver is aware ofthe solution she has to test it to see if it works Wallas indicated that the Illumination phase is preceded by something he called an intimation which is an indication that the solution is forthcoming Today we referto this as an intuition For a long time psychologists did not study intuition because it considered irrational fuzzy and even a sign of mental laziness Some researchers such as Nisbett amp V lson have argued that intuition is sloppy In a paper called On Telling More than We Can Know they showed that people are not able to introspect very well on the causes of their own actions at least in certain situations In one of their studies Nisbett amp V lson asked subjects to select from among several pairs of black socks There were no differences among the socks except for their arrangement on a table Once a choice had been made the researchers asked the subjects to explain why they had chosen one pair of socks over the rest Although the subjects gave various explanations for their choices the only variable that seemed to be predictive of their sock preference was the position of the socks on the table From this the researchers concluded that people s selfknowledge and their intuition in particular tends to be unreliable But does having a sense about why you chose one pair of socks over the others have anything at all to do with intuition Other researchers have focused on intuition as a form of metacognition which literally means cognition about cognition A metacognition is an awareness of one s own mental processes Here are a few examples 1 People who memorize information but cannot recall it are accurate in predicting whether or not they will recognize the information when they see it on a subsequent recognition test Researchers use a measure called Feeling of Knowing FOK which is a rating of how likely the person feels that she will know a piece of information 2 Feeling of Warmth Herb Simon and his colleagues at Carnegie Mellon demonstrated that problemsolvers can tell when they are approaching a solution to a problem using a measure called Feeling of Warmth FOW This measure is based on the children s game in which one person seeks out an object and the other has to indicate ifthe rst one is getting warmer ie closer or colder ie farther away As we have already discussed Metcalfe was able to show that FOW ratings are not the same for insight problems as they are for non insight problems such as those that involve mathematical reasoning 3 Tip ofthe Tongue Suppose you are given a description ofan object but you cannot think of the word that describes it such as BAN DANNA Then you are asked to rate whether or not the object name is on the tip ofyour tongue TOT These ratings correlate with priming effects for the word in this case BANDANNA as well as with FOK ratings The idea in this line of research is that intuition is a feeling based on unconscious processes involving memory and thought They are based on partial information in other words some processing has happened but not enough for the person to become aware of the right answer Instead the person has a feeling of some kind related to this answer that they have not yet reached But intuition seems like a more farranging and complex phenomenon than this In a broader sense it can be de ned as knowing without knowing how you know One class of intuition that has not been considered very extensively by psychologists is the ability to know something without inferring it or detecting it through the ve senses For instance in the lntuition in Pregnancy study conducted by Shamas amp Dawson here at U of A the researchers asked pregnant women who had not yet had a sonogram to predict the sex of their baby Those women whose predictions were based on an intuition Le a gut feeling or dream were accurate nearly 70 of the time This effect cannot be explained to the best of our knowledge by any kind of rational or perceptual process These women knew the sex of their baby through some other means lntuition can be thought of as a builtin guidance system that every human being possesses The function of this system among other things is survival Anyone who has made it to adulthood has probably had some close calls situations in which the individual barely avoided serious injury or death In those situations we get a sense that someone or something is looking out for us The Romans called this overseer the person s Genius to the Greeks it was known as the daimon Christians may use terms such as guardian angel the Egyptians referred to it as the ka or ba and claimed that it is possible to converse with it and the Eskimos call it the spirit or free soul 101607 lmplicit Learning The effect of learned patterns or rules on our experience thought and action even though we may not be aware ofthat learned material Children from a vocabulary of 0 at birth to a vocabulary of over 5000 words at age ve including an understanding of grammatical rules Noam ChomskyNativism This is the idea that the ability to learn language is innate Chomsky claimed that 1 the language that infants and toddlers hear is too complicated and ambiguous for them to be able to discern the rules and 2 humans have a language acquisition device LAD that allows them to pick up the rules of language relatively easily Behaviorist position is that language is a learned behavior Arthur Reber Artificial grammar learning Grammatical rules The rst letter ofa sequence can be either a P or a T lfthe rst letter is a P then the second letter must be a T or a V 1 2 3 lfthe second letter is a T the T can recur in the 3rd 4th 5th etc positions 4 Afterthe sequence of Ts there must be a V PVPXVPS PTTTVPS Subjects were asked in Phase 1 ofthe experiment to memorize a list of sequences that had been generated using an arti cial grammar Then in Phase 2 they are shown sequences and given a recognition task quotWhich sequences were among those you studiedquot None of the sequences in Phase 2 were familiar but half were generated according to the arti cial grammar ie grammatical and the other half were nongrammatical The subjects picked the grammatical sequences as being more familiar even though they had not seen them Reber At a level that subjects were not aware of they had internalized the grammatical rules lnfants quotbaby geniusquot 1 During the last six weeks of pregnancy mothers are asked to read a passage aloud to their babies Shortly after birth the infants show that they can discriminate the familiar passages from new ones Sucking rates The infants were conditioned to change their sucking rate in order to hear the familiar passage 2 Infants that are less than 1 week old can recognize their mother based on sound and smell 3 Friedman Habituated 13 dayolds to one visual pattern and then immediately after habiuation showed the babies a novel pattern The infants showed longer response times to the new stimuli 4 1montholds can be taught to differentiate between quotBAquot and quotPAquot 5 456month olds showed a preference for natural vs unnatural spacing in listening to Mozart minuets 6 65montholds could differentiate between intune and outoftune musical sequences in both a Western and a Javanese scales 7 Karen Wynn 1992 5montholds could do simple math lnfants were shown two scenarios 1 1 2 and 1 1 1 and they stared longer at the second scenario 101107 Extraordinary sensory perception Touch Hypnotized individuals could tell just by touch whether or not a metal bar was magnetized Helen Keller could distinguish sounds of instruments by touch the phonograph record Some blind individuals can recognize the color of a fabric by touch Smell quotHyperosmiaquot is heightened sense of smell People who claim to detect rainstorms by smell Dogs One drop of blood in ve quarts ofwater Some dogs have been trained to detect drugs bombs and even cancer There are dogs that can detect melanoma with 99 accuracy Extrasensory Perception Clairvoyance The ability to experience the occurrence of something without actually perceiving it PrecognitionThe ability to predict a future event Telepathy The ability to read someone39s thoughts Ganzfeld paradigm quotcomplete fieldquot The quotsenderquot is shown a picture and told to visualize the picture and to quottransmitquot it psychically to the quotreceiverquot The receive just keeps hisher mind open to whatever impression come The receiver is asked to choose from among four images the one that most closely resembled whatever may have to come to mind during the transmission process Daryl Bem amp Charles Honorton Did a series of experiments using an automated version of the Ganzfeld Chance is 25 1 out of4 prob of choosing the right image ifyou39re the receiver On average receivers were able to choose the right image 40 ofthe time Juilliard students overall showed a 50 accuracy rate Juilliard music students showed a 75 hit rate Ray Hyman has spent a great deal of effort questioning and trying to debunk this nding Rupert Sheldrake quotPsychic petquot paradigm THINKING AND LEARNING Just as there is implicit memory and perception there is evidence for implicit thinking and implicit learning Thinking The mathematician Poincare came up with the quotunconscious workquot hypothesis Janet Metcalfe study Tested feeling of warmth FOW in problemsolver solving either a mathematical problem or an quotinsight problemquot She found that FOW increased incrementally forthe math problem but in a nonincremental way forthe insight problem Incubation effects An improvement in problemsolving performance as a result of setting aside the problem for a while quotSleeping on itquot Incubation effects are not necessarily proof ofquotunconscious workquot because they may be simply be the result of letting go of an ineffective strategy Ken Bowers gave subjects sets of word triads taken from the Remote Associates Test RAT developed by Mednick in the 196039s as a test of creativity Some triads were soluble Find the word that these three words have in common PLAYING CREDIT REPORT Answer CARD Some triads were not soluble STILL PAGES MUSIC lf subjects could not generate the solution to the soluble triad they were forced to pick which one ofthe two triads was soluble Bowers found that the subjects could consistently distinguish between the soluble and insoluble triads Shames 1994 found that there is unconscious processing of RAT solutions Subjects were given RAT problems and a total of ve seconds in which to solve them After ve seconds they were asked ifthey knew the solution Then they were given a lexicaldecision task in which the subject sees letter strings and has to decide ifthey are legitimate English words or not WERK The subjects showed a priming effect for words that were the solution to the RAT items they had seen but only if they hadn39t solved the problem yet lfthey had the solved the problem they showed NO priming effect This is evidence of implicit problemsolving which is the effect of a solution to a problem on our experience thought and action even though we are unaware of that solution 10907 PERCEPTION PART 2 quotMommy and l are onequot presented in a masked fashion has a number of effects on both clinical and nonclinical populations including improved test performance and greater success rates in smoking cessation programs Implicit Perception in Clinical Populations Weiskrantz 1986 quotBlindsightquot Patient with damage to the visual cortex who was unable to report seeing anything in his visual eld yet he demonstrated a betterthan chance accuracy in discriminiating visual stimuli The accuracy of performance was at approximately 60 which is signi cantly greater than chance although far from perfect Patients with prosopagnosia inability to recognize faces are able to respond differently to new vs familiar faces They may show a galvanic skin response to familiar faces Patients with functional blindness a conversion disorder also show a differential response to familiar objects and faces ln hypnosis blindness and deafness can be induced through hypnotic suggestion People with hypnotic blindness or deafness show signs of being affected by stimuli that they can cannot perceive consciously For example somebody who has been given a suggestion of hypnotic deafness in one ear alone is given a dichotic listening task They are told to shadow the information presented in their quotgoodquot ear and they show intrusions ie mistakes ofinformation presented to their quotdeaf39 ear Suggestions of hypnotic anesthesia do not affect psychophysiological response to pain stimuli Hypnotized subjects are processing pain information even though they are not aware of it EXTRAORDINARY SENSORY PERCEPTION Vision Hypnosis Improvements in visual acuity that result from hypnotic suggestion There is a case of awoman who was trained during hypnosis to distinguish acquaintanes with the use of binoculars standing three miles away quotIn the Zonequot by Rhea White and Michael Murphy chronicles numerous examples of athletes who report experiencing visual perception during athletic competition Hearing Case studies have been reported in which subjects could detec a hiss at a distance of 230 yards when nonhypnotized individuals could only hear it at 30 yards 10407 Final Exam 60 questions 20 ofwhich are from Units1 and 2 You will not be tested on material that didn39t appear on one of those two exams Only the objectives and key terms that you were tested on already from Units 1 and 2 will reappear on the nal although the form of the questions may be different Midterm 1 is posted in one ofthe glass cases on the third floor hallway of the Psyc Bldg MEMORY PART 2 Do alterations of consciousness ever improve memory Hypnotic hypermnesia One of the most controversial ndings in hypnosis research is the claim that hypnosis can be used to recover forgotten experiences repressed memory debate In the lab hypnosis has been shown to enhance memory for words and pictures But researchers have found that hypnosis tends to lead to the recall of BOTH correct and incorrect information Hypnosis lowers response criteria ie the standards used by an individual for checking the accuracy ofa response Fluency The ow of ideas and responses Hypnotized individuals do better at recalling words that they processed during a quotdeepquot task versus a quotshallowquot task without inaccurate recall Levelsofprocessing theory of memory Information is memory to the extent that it has been processed in a quotdeepquot or meaningful way Marijuana The accepted viewpoint is that marijuana impairs STM and encoding into LTM Rastafarian children are sometimes introduced to marijuana at a young age and in a sacramental fashion Children exposed to marijuana from an early age show improvements in performance underthe in uence of marijuana There are no other known groups that demonstrate such improvements THC in rats may actually stimulate neuronal growth in the hippocampus Superlearning Based on a system developed by a Bulgarian physician named Georgi Lozanov quotsuggestopediaquot which uses Baroque music which has a tempo of 60beatsminute and plays that music in the background while students memory lists of vocabulary in foreign languages The nding which has not been consistently replicated is that retention levels skyrocket when students learn under these conditions PERCEPTION Sensation The information that comes through your five senses Perception The interpretation ofthat information Percept Perceptual representation This our interpretation of a pattern of sensory information that allows us to call that pattern a quotChairquot or a quotBirdquot Subliminal perception Assumes the existence of something called a quotimenquot The limen is now referred to as the quotobjective thresholdquot ofyour sensory system this is the minimimum intensity and duration of a stimulus that your sensory system can detect There is a second threshold that is called the quotsubjective thresholdquot this is the set of conditions that allow you to become AWARE of a stimulus What if you have a stimulus that is above the objective threshold and below the subjective threshold This is not the same as quotsubliminalquot stimuli which would be below both thresholds In this case we have what is called lMPLlClT PERCEPTION which is de ned as the effect of a percept on our experience thought and action even though we are unaware of that percept Marcel 1983 The masked priming effect On a computer screen the subjects saw 500 ms DOCTOR 20 ms 500 ms Then the subjects were given a lexical decision task in which they see a letter string and they have to decide if it39s a word or a nonword Not only were the subjects faster and more accurate at responding to DOCTOR than they were to a control word they were also faster and more accurate at responding to a related word like NURSE Greenwald Klinger amp Leu 1989 Showed that people can process the emotional content of masked stimuli Seeing an emotionallycharged word like ENEMY causes them to show a priming effect for quotnegativequot evaluative judgment words like BAD Silverman 1976 1983 Subjects were presented the following phrase in a masked fashion MOMMY AND I ARE ONE Smokers in a smoking cessation program showed better abstinence rates normal subjects showed improvements on a number of different kinds of tests 10207 Announcements 1 Midterm 1 Scores have been posted on httpvaswebarizonaedu Just look forthe quotPsyc 358 Gradesquot link 2 The cutoffs are as follows A 2530 B 2024 C 1519 D 1014 3 Some of you used 7digit lD39s and we can39t post your scores Please contact Dusana dusanaemailarizonaedu 4 Heart Shrine Relics Tour Dec 1416 2007 MEMORY Two kinds of phenomena with respect to memory that are related to consciousness studies 1 Memory without consciousness 2 The effect of quotconsciousness expansionquot on memory Types of memory We can make the following distinctions l Procedural vs Declarative Knowledge Procedural quotknowing howquot Declarative quotknowing thatquot ll Declarative Knowledge Semantic vs Episodic Memory Semantic Knowledge of noncontextual facts eg quotLincoln was the 16th President of the USquot Semantic memory can occur with source amnesia ie an absence of recollection ofthe speci c context in which that information was learned Episodic Memory Memory of events in our lives quotI travelled to Nebraska last monthquot Amnesia can be anterograde inability to recall information after you injury ortrauma vs retrograde inability to recall information from before Memory Processes 1 Encoding Information has to be put in a form or quotcodequot that results in a lasting memory 2 Storage Not a static process 3 Retrieval Partly a reconstruction process Multistore Model of memory Atkinson amp Shiffrin 1968 The concept of STM has been expanded Baddeley amp Hitch 1974 Working memory which has three components 1 Phonological loop Maintining acoustic information in memory 2 Visuaspatial sketchpad Maintaining visual information 3 Central Executive Directs the flow of information choosing which information will be processed when and how Homunculus quotsmall manquot lll Explicit vs implicit memory Explicit memory with awareness lmplicit Kihlstrom quotlmplicit memory is the effect of previous experience on our current thought experience and action even though we may not have conscious recollection ofthat experiencequot The research on implicit memory started with the study of patients suffering from amnesic syndrome resulting from bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus These patients showed dense anterograde amnesia even though other intellectual functions were intact Yet these patients showed PRIMING EFFECTS which are improvements in performance accuracy or speed as a result of prior exposure to a stimulus Typical experiment Give an amnesic patient a list ofwords to study then test their recall Although recall is poor they are more likely to complete a wordstem or word fragment with a word from the list compared to a control word Word Stem CON quotCONTACTquot was on the list Fragment AAl quotASSASSNquot was on the list These effects are not limited to amnesic patients People with normal memory show implicit memory that is independent of recognition or recall What happens to implicit memory when we alter or expand consciousness lmplicit memory in Hypnosis In hypnotized individuals who are given a list of words to study and then a suggestion that they won39t be able to recall the words recall performance is poor until the suggestion is reversed But implicit memory is relatively intact these individuals show priming for words that they cannot recall because ofa posthypnotic suggestion There is a big difference between posthypnotic amnesia and patients with amnesic syndrome Encoding Patients with amnesia may have impaired encoding which means that the information was never properly stored in memory in the first place V th posthypnotic suggestion there is a temporary retrieval failure The information is momentarily inaccessible to awareness All that has to happen to make it accessible again is to reverse the posthypnotic suggestion quotNow you can remember everythingquot Implicit memory has also been seen in general anesthesia During anesthesia patients were read lists of paired associates like OCEANWATER After awakening they could not recall any ofthe words on the list but they were more likely to respond to the cue word OCEAN with WATER than they were with a matched control word How about sleep There have some studies that showed that implicit memory is preserved to some extent But the most wellknown study Wood Bootzin Kihlstom amp Schacter 1992 failed to support the nding of implicit memory in sleep Later the researchers admitted that were possible methodological problems because they looked at semantic priming instead of repetition priming Repetition priming Seeing DOCTOR once makes you respond faster or more accurately to DOCTOR the next time around Semantic priming Seeing DOCTOR makes you respond faster or more accurately to related words like NURSE or HOSPITAL StateDependent Memory Material learned while underthe in uence ofa drug such as alcohol or marijuana is recalled better when the person recreates the state at the time of retrieval Encoding Specific Information is recalled more effectively when the same cues that were available at the time ofencoding are also present at the time of retrieval 92507 Announcements 1 Midterm 1 on Thurs 2 Flotation Tank Still Waters stillwaterscoxnet wwwtucsonstillwaterscom 7774842 Hypnotizability scales 1 Harvard Group Scale group screening 2 Stanford Scale Three kinds of items 1 ldeomotor physical movement produced as a result ofa suggestion Example hand lowering 2 Challenge item the suggestion results in an inability to produce a movement Example arm rigidity 3 Cognitive item the suggestion results in a change in perception thinking memory or any other cognitive capacity Example fly hallucination Nova Dreamer lucid dreaming tool designed by Stephen LaBerge the device consists of a black mask with motion sensors that detect REM Trance logic A phenomenon that occurs in hypnosis that is not consistent with ordinary logic A hypnotized individual can quotseequot a hallucinated and actual person both occupying the same chair at the same time this is fairly unusual but does happen Hypnotic induction The procedure used to induce hypnosis Many different kinds of inductions have been used including relaxation mental imagery visualization and confusional techniques Tellegen Absorption Scale The items look at how focused people can be and how immersed in their own fantasies imagery etc quotI sometimes forget about my present selfquot Somebody getting quotlostquot in something a book a movie a creative process reverie Deikman 1963 blue vase study participants stared at a vase for 15 minutes Three things they reported 1 vase became more vivid and luminous 2 The shape became unstable as if the vase were losing its boundaries 3 A blurring ofthe subjectobject distinction occurred for some individuals Stroop effect the interference of reading a word such as quotREDquot on the recognition ofa color such as BLUE During hypnosis the Stroop effect is greatly reduced for highly hypnotizable individuals Noetic quality The word quotnoeticquot comes from the Greek quotgnosisquot which means quotto knowquot A noetic quality is the sensation or experience of knowing things directly without the intervention ofthought Most often that experience comes with a sense of connectedness or unity wherein the individual feels connected to others or even to all things According to James experiences that have a noetic quality come with certain insights and illuminations that last long after the experience is over quotThe Electric KoolAid Acid Testquot by Tom Wolfe LongTerm Memory is part ofa memory systems view of memory that proposes a set of systemsthat include LTM and ShortTerm Memory LTM includes both episodic memory which is memory about the events in your life and semantic memory which is quotdisembodiedquot facts implicit memory would be a subset of LTM speci cally referring to information in memory that is exerting an in uence on your present experience thought and action even though you are unaware ofthis information Hypnotic suggestions have improved visual acuity in nearsighted subjects Split consciousness Hilgard proposed quotneodissociation theoryquot in which processes and cognitive structures that are normally connected to consciousness become disconnected or dissociated For example in the arm rigidity item ofthe Stanford Scale passing that item requires the individual to keep their arm rigid without being aware of doing so Neodissociation theory can explain how something that is normally in your awareness drops out of it but it doesn39t do as good a job explaining how something that you are not aware of normally enters awareness How does a hypnotized subject get better at the Stroop or improve visual acuity Consciousness is split both in hypnosis and under the influence of marijuana because often people experiencing at two levels 1 The quotexperiencerquot 2 The quothidden observerquot Cold pressor pain The researcher places the hypnotized subject39s hand in cold water Compared to a nonhypnotized subject the hypnotized individual experiences less pain and endures the cold water longer But when the researcher asks the quothidden observerquot to rate the amount of pain to which the person is being exposed the pain ratings are comparable to those of a nonhypnotized subject Descartes said that the pineal was the point at which the soul enters the body 92007 Announcements 1 Review session on Tues 925 2 First midterm on Thurs 927 30 multiplechoice questions Please arrive on time Psychedelic Drugs Psychoactive drugs drugs used primarily for psychological effects on mood thinking behavior perception These drugs interact with neurotransmitter systems in the body Cocaine mimics dopamine quotPsychedelicquot literally means quotmindexpandingquot Psychedelic drugs are a heterogeneous group that include marijuana minor psychedelic users generally feal more control when using the drug and the hallucinogens LSD psilocybin mescaline which are considered major psychedelics Marijuana Has been the subject of more systematic research than any other psychedelic drug salvia divinorum form of sage used in the tropics Derives from the hemp plant cannabis sativa which has been an important plant for thousands of years used in making rope sails ne cloth The main active ingredient there are 80 cannabinoids is delta9tetrahydrocannbinol THC which is concentrated in the resin that is found on the owers seeds and upper leaves ofthe female plant There are records of marijuana use dating back thousands of years to parts of Asia the Middle East and Africa During the 19th century marijuana was often prescribed as a medicinal drug In 1970 the Controlled Substance Act made it illegal 64 of young adults 1825 have tried it and 27 are current users Research on the subjective effects Tart shows 1 Sensory Perception Seeing patterns or forms in visual material that are not normally observed Hearing more subtle changes in sound Heightened sense of touch taste and smell lncreased enjoyment of food quotmunchiesquot lncreased sensuality intensified orgasms In actuality signal detection performance goes down Some theorize that it39s because sensation is somewhat deadened or blocked others surmise is that attention changes in such a way that people have a hard time pulling their attention away from something on which they39re focused Analogy concentrative meditators focus on one thing to the exclusion ofall else 2 Time perception Time seems to pass more slowly 3 Sense of identity Many individuals report losing their sense of self 4 Memory Rapidly forgetting conversations read information and one39s general train ofthought Marijuana disrupts STM and also the ability of information to be transferred from STM to LTM 5 Thinking New insights increase in originality More accepting of contradictions reminiscent ofquottrance logicquot Getting lost in thought or fantasy and being immersed in the present reminiscent of quotabsorptionquot and quotimaginative involvementquot 6 Split consciousness Both experiencing the high and observing objectively what is happening Crawford Looked at response to the same suggestion used in hypnosis under two conditions a the influence of marijuana and b hypnosis The degree of response was about the same quotThe Electric KoolAid Acid Testquot by Tom Wolfe 7 Emotion Feeling more childlike more open to experience more lled with awe and wonder 8 Selfcontrol Physical relaxation letting go Accepting whatever happens sense of surrender reminiscent of the classic suggestion effect in which people have the perception of involuntariness THC is fat soluble and gets absorbed in practically all of the body39s tissues it also leaves the body slowly Cannabinoid are among the most common in the human brain especially in the hippocampus basal ganglia cerebellum and parts of the cerebral cortex There are endogenous cannabinoids such as anandamide quotanandaquot is Sanskrit for bliss Their effect is to inhibit the release ofglutamate excitatory and GABA inhibitory Cannabinoids inhibit GABA release in the ventral tegmental area VTA which has an abundance of dopaminergic neuron The VTA is the starting point forthe brain39s major reward pathway GABA would normally inhibit dopamine release but because it gets inhibited by THC and other cannabinoids the end result is an increase in dopamine release Psilocybin occurs in a type of mushroom that is found most commonly in Mexico and the United States The Aztecs used psilocybin in their spiritual ceremonies and even though the Spaniards tried to stop the use ofquotmagic mushroomsquot these ceremonies continue today Psilocybin LSD and a number of other hallucinogens mimic serotonin in the brain Mescaline simulates norepinephrine Mescaline is the main active ingredient in peyote 918 Announcements Thurs class ends early Tues 925 Review Session Thurs 927 Midterm 1 KUAT interview httpwwwkuatorg click on quotArizona Spotlightquot link Guest presenter today Aryen Hart Midterm 1 30 multiple choice questions 95915905 BIOFEEDBACK What is it Biofeedback A behavioral technique that increases the individual39s awareness of speci c physiological responses so that she can bring those responses under control Controlled vs autonomic responses Autonomic response heart rate bp muscle tone EEG GSR galvanic skin response a measure of perspiration on the surface of the skin skinsurface temperature quotAutonomicquot comes from the same root as quotautonomousquot independent ofour conscious control and intention The distinction betweeen controlled and autonomic behavior has become blurred because 1 Even voluntary responses are to some degree outside of our conscious control Even a simple routine task like moving a nger is a black box 2 Biofeedback research has shown that responses labeled as quotautonomicquot can be controlled at least to some extent In 1965 Lisina Soviet Union showed that the constriction and dilation of blood vessels in the nger could be conditioned using a visual feedback display ofvasomotor activity In 1968 Joe Kamiya published his rst studies of alphawave biofeedback Ss in Kamiya39s study were hooked up to a visual feedback display showing their EEG activity speci cally in the 813 Hz range Through practice these Ss could alter the amplitude of alpha activity in their brain Biofeedback training places the individual in a closed feedback loop with an instrument that continually provides output about subtle changes in bodily processes In turn the individual adjusts his or her responses as more information is received Some researchers argue that we cannot control autonomic processes directly but only indirectly by altering the activity of skeletal muscles For example we may not be able to slow down our breathing directly but we can control the muscles surrounding our ribcase and in doing so have an indirect effect on breathing How does biofeedback work Biofeedback training happens in four types of sessions 1 Baseline sessions Here the researchers or technician obtains a representative sample of some physiological response before training 2 Shaping and reinforcement sessions The trainee learns to bring about a change in a physiological response using a device with a display of some kind most likely auditory or visual 3 Instrumentfree sessions The trainee is required to produce the same physiological changes wtihout the use of external feedback 4 Followup sessions Testing occurs several weeks after the initial training to make sure that the trainee is still able to produce the physiological changes that were taught in the training sessions Applications Treatment of headaches 80 of headaches are considered tension headaches produced by sustained contraction of skeletal muscles isn the scalp face shoulders and neck combined with ischemia blockage of blood flow in these muscles Budzynski EMG electromyography biofeedback with the frontalis muscle Produced significant reductions in headache activity within eight weeks ofthe start of biofeedback training A metaanalysis by Budzynski of 40 studies oftension headache confirmed that EMG biofeedback is effective at controlling these types of headaches Some researchers claim that biofeedback is no more effective than relaxation training at controlling headaches Migraine headaches are believed to be vasular headaches and they have the following characteristics unilateral accompanied by gastointestinal problems and an aura or quotprodomequot phase hypersensitivity 6080 of migraine patients show improvement with skin temperature biofeedback in combination with some type of relaxation or autogenic training Asthma Combination of factors including allergies stress endocrine changes genetics and personality Biofeedback training for facial muscle relaxation improves shortterm pulmonary function Biofeedback has been shown to be effective in treating Depression ADHD hyperactivity attention de cit learning de cits stressrelated incontinence in the elderly epilepsy in children irritable bowel syndrome speech disorders alcohol dependency hypertension painful menstrual symptoms Raynaud39s disease constriction of blood vessels in the extremities that produce a cold numb aching sensation 91307 Announcements 1 Term Paper 2 Book Release quotArizona Spotlightquot KUAZFM 891 Friday 914 930am 6pm MEDITATION part 2 VanNuys 1973 Participants were asked to push a button whenever they became aware ofan intruding thought while meditating After pushing the button they returned to concentration on the meditation mantra TM transcendental meditation Correlation between hypnotizability and concentration meditators who were highly hypnotizable pushed the button less often 80 what are the effects of meditation Psychological effects 1 Elevated mood People who have meditated for extended periods of time report being happier overall 2 Relaxation Increase in alpha activity for meditators not just when they39re meditating 3 Decreased need for sleep Some longterm meditators require as few as four hours per night of sleep 4 An increase in the occurrence of mystical experiences Experiences of connection bliss transcendence 5 Improved concentration In longitudinal studies the number of intrusions on attention that occur during meditation decreases There is a big difference in the attention of concentrative and mindfulness meditators Two processes associated with attention a Orienting Response When we perceive a stimulus in our environment we show signs of processing the information associated with the stimulus For example when we hear a noise if we39re in a relaxed state we will show quotalpha blockingquot which is a sudden decrease in alpha activity b Habituation Over time the same stimulus produces less of an orienting response Concentrative meditators show little or no orienting response while meditating Mindfulness meditators show a normal orienting response but little or no habituation Some meditators spend 20 oftheir meditation time in Stage 1 and 20 in Stage 2 So maybe meditation isjust a form oflight sleep In longterm meditators the EEG pattern associated with meditation is completely distinct from Stage 1 or Stage 2 sleep Clinical bene ts of meditation 1 Reducing anxiety 2 Treating speci c phobias 3 Addiction drugalcohol abuse 4 Treating insomnia Physical health benefits 1 Speed recovery from myocardial infarction heart attack 2 Managing the symptoms of asthma 3 Treating hypertension 4 Stressrelated health problems 5 Reducing the seizure frequency in epileptic patients Kasamatsu amp Hirai Zen monks can produce alpha wave activity at will and they can slow the frequency ofalpha waves from their normal range of 813 Hz down to 78 Hz Wallace amp Benson 1972 TM practitioners could reduce oxygen consumption carbon dioxide elimination respiration rate heart rate and bloodlactate levels They could also increase alpha activity The effects of collective meditation For a threemonth period a small group of meditators in Rhode Island meditated together a few times a week During that time the following trends were observed in their city drops in crime rte auto accidents auto fatalities and death due to alcohol consumption or smoking This research is plagued by all kinds of methodological challenges REST Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique REST Sensory deprivation methods 1 Flotation tanks 2 REST is putting somebody in a dark quiet room Suedfeld amp lkard 1974 REST is effective in helping in quit smoking and even in those smokers who start up again the rate of smoking decreases in a lasting manner Barabasz amp Barabasz 1989 REST can be used to enhance hypnotizability in pain sufferers allowing hypnotic analgesia to be more effective Recommended Readings quotThe Everyday Meditatorquot and quotThe Book of Secretsquot by Osho quotIn the Zonequot by Rhea White amp Michael Murphy 91107 Meditation What is it Meditation is both an experience and a practice Ram Das Be Here Now The experience is one of clarity connection transcendence bliss How do you get that experience The practice of meditation is an attempt to nd a systematic way to arrive at the experience of meditation The methods for practicing meditation usually involve some of the following activities Silencing thoughts Relaxing the mind quotBringing the mind homequot quotResting in natural peacequot Two types oftechniques l Concentrative approaches Focusing your attention on a single object limiting the input to your attentional resources Zen Buddhist focusing on breath or on a quotkoanquot Riddle quotWhat isthe sound ofone hand clappingquot mantra sound on which one focuses quotOMquot the sound can be uttered or chanted mandala a visual pattern mudra physical movement or gesture Deikman 1963 Subjects wee asked to stare at a blue vase for 15 minutes Subjects reported the following experiences 1 Vase became more vivid and luminous 2 The shape became unstable as if the vase lost its boundaries 3 Subjectobject merging quotAt one point it felt asthough the vase were in my head ratherthan 39out there39 I knew it was out there but it seemed as though it were almost a part of mequot Personality correlate of hypnosis is absorption which is the ability to focus attention on one thing while screening out distractions Tellegen Absorption Scale ltems include quotlam sometimes able to forget about my present selfquot Kihlstrom 1989 wrote that absorption is quotthe individual39s capacity for dissociative and holistic experiences involving respectively the narrowing and broadening of attentionquot There are two components to absorption 1 The rst is disconnecting or quotdissocatingquot from your normal pattern of experiencing the world simply by focusing your attention narrowly on one thing 2 After you disconnect you shift into a new way of experiencing the world that is quotholisticquot and in which attention gets broadened ll Mindfulness approaches quotopening upquot meditation Instead of narrowing the input to your attention you expand it taking in as much as you can in your field of attention without focusing in on anything Deikman amp Ornstein Two modes of attention 1 Active mode Focus on a single object and distinguish it from its surroundings analytical sequential 2 Receptive mode Staying open to experience rather than concentrating on an object intuitive holistic trandscendent John Welwood The shift that occurs in meditation is like a gureground reversal in which the experience ofwholeness that is normally the ground ie background becomes the gure and the conceptual thinking that is normally the gure fades to the background How similar are hypnosis and meditation Both can involve relaxation both seem to be induced by a shift in attention but meditation has more reliable physiological correlates changes in EEG GSR galvanic skin response oxygen consumption blood lactate levels Just as hypnosis can occur without relaxation so can meditation Dummo meditation Energizing meditation 9607 Hypnosis What is it 1 Socialpsychological approach Sarbin amp Coe role enactment Barber Spanos demand characteristics Speci c tasks demand some kind of social response and the hypnotized individual responds to those demands 2 quotSpecial processesquot approach Hypnosis is distinct from quotnormal waking consciousnessquot Hilgard Neodissociation theory In hypnosis certain cognitive functions or processes that would normally be connected to phenomenal awareness get disconnected Classic Suggestion Effect Hypnotized individuals have the experience of involuntariness they feel as if certain responses happen on their own outside of conscious control Difference between the perception that something is involuntary and the reality ofit People do not give up control during hypnosis Orne Hypnosis is a psychological state or condition induced by a ritualistic procedure in which the subject experiences changes in perception thinking memory and behavior in response to suggustions by the hypnotist Hypnotic induction This is a littleunderstood aspect of hypnosis Relaxation Focusing attention Confusional overload Current research relies on two scales of hypnotizability Harvard Group Scale group screening Stanford Scale individual followup These scales have 12 items and subjects have to score between 912 passing these many items to be considered quothighly hypnotizablequot They have to do it on BOTH scales Three kinds of items on these scales 1 ldeomotor items To pass these items you must produce a seemingly involuntary movement as a result ofa suggestion head falling hand lowering eye closure moving hands apart 2 Challenge items To pass these items you must try and fail to produce a movement arm immobilizationcan39t lift your arm arm rigidity can39t bend your arm catalepsy can39t open your eyes communication inhibition can39t shake your head quotnoquot anosmia can39t smell something nger lock can39t separate intertwined ngers 3 Cognitive items y hallucination age regression hallucinated voice negative visual hallucination posthypnotic suggestion posthypnotic amnesia Hypnotic Phenomena Trance logic Example a hypnotized individual may experience an actual and hallucinated researcher sitting in the same chair Hidden observer Example cold pressor pain studies in which subjects immersed their arms in cold water and then rated their pain on a scale OH to 10 Hypnotized subjects given a suggestion ofanalgesia experiencing little or no pain rate their perceived pain as very low But when they are told that there is a quothidden observerquot inside ofthem who can rate the intensity of the pain stimuli accurately their pain ratings match thos of non hypnotized control subjects The Stroop effect Highly hypnotizable individuals have a sharply reduced stroop effect during hypnosis Visual acuity Hypnotic suggestion can improve acuity in nearsighted subjects Split in consciousness That there may be reversal in terms of which level is dominant The level of consciousness at which you experience pain may take a back seat if given the right suggestion Figureground reversal in Gestalt psychology What might be happening in hypnosis is that the gure and the ground are temporarily reversing How does that happen Through a shift in attention Three personality traits correlate reliably with hypnotizability 1 Absorption The ability to focus completely on one object 2 Imaginative involvement The ability to get drawn into your mental imagery 3 Effortless experiencing When ideas and experiences come to you as if on their own People who are hypnotizable appear to be able to focus completely on a single task and if that task involves mental imagery to get lost in their imaginations They also have ideas come to them with no perceived psychological effort Clinical applications 1 Involuntary disorders pain warts asthma Two ways that hypnosis can be used with pain control a analgesia removing existing pain such as chronic pain from arthritis headaches burn cancer b anesthesia preventing future pain such as dentistry major and minor surgery childbirth 2 Voluntary disorders a Smoking 3040 abstinence rate afterthree months compared to people going through more conventional psychotherapy alone who might have a 20 abstinence rate Motivation to quit is a much more effective predictor of success than hypnotizability b Weight loss Hypnosis doesn39t improve the effectiveness of a weight loss program 9407 Dreams What is a dream A subjective experience occurring during sleep that involves complex organized mental images and that shows temporal progression or change Mental imagery Not just visual imagery but also some auditory and to a lesser degree the other three senses Temporal progression Narrative or storylike structure The de nition shown above does not meantion the following 1 Any bizarre dramatic or emotional content of dreams Not all dreams have that kind of content 2 The quotdelusionalquot quality ofdreams We don39t know that they are NOT real It doesn39t account for lucid dreams dreams in which we are aware that we39re dreaming during the dream It doesn39t account for the quotdelusionalquot quality of waking What are dreams like Demographic data show the following 1 Sensory qualities 100 of dreamers have visual imagery 68 report color 94 experience conversations 13 have nonverbal auditory imagery 1 have touch taste or smell 2 Setting 38 take place in a familiar setting 43 take place in an unfamiliar but ordinary setting 5 have exotic settings eg tropical island 1 are fantastic occur in a fantasy setting 3 People Dreamer is the center actor in 95 of dreams Other people are present in 90 ofdreams Friends or relatives are present 35 of dreams 4 Bizarreness Zero low medium high 60 27 13 5 Emotionality 30 have emotional content awareness ofemotion anger fear joy Sexual content 1 6 Cognitive qualities Selfre ection 50 Reasoning 22 Memory experience 4 7 Clarity Medium to high 80 8 Coherence The dream has some kind of sensible sequence of events Medium to high 97 There is a correlation between perceived time in a dream and actual time Why do we dream Freud wish fulfillment the id has impulses that are sexual or aggressive in nature The ego tries to block the grati cation ofthose impulses when they are perceived as a physical or psychological threat to the individual Some impulses generate anxiety and guilt The unconscious carries out a process called quotdreamworkquot in which these impulses are disguised in symbolic form The quotmanifestquot content of the dream the actual symbols setting characters etc really hide the quotlatentquot content which has to do with the grati cation of impulses that are threatening to the individual Dream content is determined by unconscious and irrational psychological forces Jung Dreams allow for the development and expression of neglected parts ofour personality lndividuation the process by which those parts ofourselves that have been hidden become integrated with the parts of ourselves that are more conscious In our unconscious there isthe quotshadowquot quotanimaquot or quotanimusquot in men the anima is the hidden or suppressed feminine side in women the animus is the masculine side Adler Dream have a problemsolving function We work out the details of everyday problems in our dreams Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley activationsynthesis hypothesis The CNS has random activity during sleep and dreams are the the attempt of the cortex to give this activity some meaning Flying dreams are the result of activation ofthe vestibular system Chase dreams might result from activation of the motor cortex Emotions might be related to autonomic arousal Criticism There is NOT a good correlation between dream activity and psychophysiology Lucid dreaming Challenges the idea that dreams are determined by either unconscious factors or random ones Stephen LaBerge developed techniques for inducing lucid dreams At the core is the reality test First ask the question quotAm I dreamingquot Then have some kind oftask by which you check to see if you are light switch reading Mnemonic lnduc tion of Lucid Dreaming MILD 1 Write down your dreams 2 Replay your dreams incorporating the recognition that you39re dreaming 3 Autosuggestion quotThe next time that I dream I will recognize that I39m dreamingquot NovaDreamer 65 effective 83007 Announcements 1 The term paper is doublespaced 2 Class will end early on Sept 20 415 3 Happy Labor Day Sleep Consciousness expansion that may take place every night Consciousness expansion means moving from a level of consciousness that involves the mind to one that does not deep sleepineffability The scienti c study of sleep has depended on two major breakthroughs in psychophysiology 1 Loomis Harvey amp Hobart 1937 Brainwave recordings could be used to distinguish among the different stages of sleep 2 Aserinsky amp Kleitman 1953 Dreaming occurs during periods of rapid eye movement REM 5 Stages of sleep differentiated by EEG activity primarily EEG activity beta waves 1430 Hz alpha 813 Hz theta 47 Hz delta 054 Hz Stage 1 muscle tonus diminishes skeletal muscles start to relax heart rate slows down breathing becomes deeper and increase in alpha activity Stage 2 There are two unique brainwave patterns associated with this stage 1 Sleep spindles onehalf second bursts of activity 1214 Hz 2 K complex is a sharp high amplitude wave Loss of perceptual awareness Stages 3 and 4 are considered deep sleep or slowwave sleep SWS Stage 3 more than 20 delta Stage 4 more than 50 delta REM inreased EEG frequency which can look more like Stage 1 or even relaxed waking REM 5060 timesminute increase in respiration pulse rate and blood pressure irregular pulse genital arousal and total loss of muscle tonus for virtually all of the skeletal muscles increases in blood ow to the brain and in body temperature REM is called quotparadoxical sleepquot On the one hand you have an increase in autonomic and brain activity and on the other you have paralysis Why the paralysis The paralysis is considered adaptive it keeps dreamers from hurting themselves or potentially others For normal adults 1 hour and 40 minutes are spent in REM for every 8 hours of sleep Sleep occurs in cycles 1 2 3 4 3 2 REM Each cycle lasts about 90120 minutes Most deep sleep occurs during the first half of the night whereas most REM occurs during the final 13 As sleep progresses REM increases and Stages 3 amp 4 decrease V th age We spend less time in Stage 4 sleep more poorly wake up earlier and become less flexible in our sleep patterns REM occurs in all mammals except the echidna but not in reptiles and probably not in birds People deprived of REM sleep tend to feel mentally fatigued whereas those deprived of NREM sleep tend to feel physically fatigued The sleeping brain can still detect stimuli in the person39s surroundings which produce evoked potentials and increase heart rate Arousal thresholds the level of stimulation that causes awakening are lower for meaningful stimuli such as a baby crying for a parent Why do we sleep Restorative function We sleep to rest Then why not just relax for eight hours Sleep is adaptive because it ensures that animals stay still and quiet so that they won39t draw attention from nocturnal predators So why notjust have SWS Why do you need to cycle between REM and NREM sleep Theories to account for the pattern associated with the basic sleep cycle 1 Memory consolidation theory REM sleep deprivation seems to interfere with memory for recentlylearned information Therefore some theorists conclude that REM promotes consolidation of newly learned memories Doesn39t account for NREM sleep Why do we need NREM 2 REM promotes forgetting Crick amp Mitchison 1983 proposed that the function of REM is to promote forgetting by producing random inputs to the brain that wipe out unnecessary or even interfering information 3 Sleep in general and REM in particular are critical to brain maturation There is evidence of protein synthesis increases during REM lnfants spend 50 oftheir sleep period in REM 4 Hartmann proposed that the function of REM is not just brain growth but also restoration whereas NREM is associated with physical recuperaton Two levels of consciousness Sleep is on opportunity to dissolve old form and shut down the mind for a number of reasons including creative function 82807 Announcements 1 Lecture notes now online httpvaswebarizonaedu click on quot358 Lecture Notesquot 2 Book Release Party 430pm U ofA Bookstore Sept 20 quotThe Chanter39s Guidequot The Expansion of William James In 1890 he published the Principles of Psychology in which he linked the study consciousness to the mind Characteristics of consciousness at the level of mind 1 SUBJECTIVITY a It belongs uniquely to you Nobody else can share your exact conscious experience b You are the subject ofyour consciousness quotThe universal conscious fact is not that feelings and thoughts exist but that 39I think39 or 39 feel39quot 2 CHANGE The contents of consciousness are constantly changing as attention wanders from thought to thought quotNo state of consciousness once gone can recur and be identical with what it was beforequot Assumption Consciousness exists as a series of STATES Buddhist analogy Mind is like a monkey in a tree jumping from branch to branch and never staying still James39 analogy Attention is like a spotlight that shines on a part ofour eld of awareness That spotlight is pretty focused the beam is bright and focused although we can be aware ofthings that are slightly in the shadows A second analogy used by James is ofa stream The term quotstream of consciousnessquot is the steady flow of thoughts that move through our awareness 3 CONTINUITY Perceived continuity as opposed to actual continuity There was no doubt in James39 mind that consciousness is discontinuous For example he would say that we lose consciousness when we sleep But when we wake up we39re the same person we were when we went to sleep with the same idenity the same memory maybe even the sam thoughts in our mind quotEven when there is a timegap the consciousness after it FEELS as if it belonged together with the consciousness before it as another part ofthe same selfquot 4 NTENTONALTY In this case quotintentionalityquot means quotabout somethingquot Nobody can be conscious James claimed without being conscious OF something 5 SELECTIVITY Jamesquot quotWe actually ignore most ofthe things before ussquot Attention is selective it filters out irrelevant information OthenNise we would have what James called a quotblooming buzzing confusionquot For most of his lifeand especially after 1890James experimented with different drugs nitrous oxide chloral hydrate amyl nitrate and peyote In using these drugs James had a number of quotmysticalquot experiences which he wrote about quotThe Varieties of Religious Experiencequot James described mystical experiences as having the following properties 1 lneffability quotBeyond descriptionquot There are no adequate words or concepts to describe these experiences 2 Noetic quality From the Greek quotgnosisquot which means quotto knowquot But noetic as used by James means to know directly without the mediation of anything or anyone Example I may understand your experience to some degree but ifl could actually penetrate your consciousness maybe I could quotBrainstormquot with Christopher Walken and Natalie Wood Noetic experiences can be revelatory can produce insights or illumination 3 Transiency These experiences can39t be sustained by James 4 Passivity Having the sense that things enter your awareness oftheir own accord James made the claim that such experiences bestow certain powers or virtues on the individual the capacity for happiness clarity and compassion These experiences also suggest a level of consciousness that has nothing to do with the mind with intellect concepts judgment or analysis At the level ofquotspiritquot consciousness has these characteristics 1 NOT subjective It exists beyond all concepts including the self concept Morevoer this consciousnes cannot be unique yours because you don39t exist in this condition Plus there is a sense of connectedness to all things 2 NOT changing The Buddhists use the metaphor ofthe mind being the clouds and the spirit being the sky There is no flow of thoughts that can constantly change the contents that we know as thoughts don39t exist at this level 3 NOT seemingly continuous but actually so There are no timegaps at this level of consciousness It exists without disruption as an ongoing backgroup to all conscious experience 4 NOT intentional There can be consciousness without contents quotPure consciousnessquot 5 NOT selective Instead of selectivity there is receptivity Arthur Deikman makes the distinction of quotintake ofthe environment rather than manipulationquot 82307 quotGreat spirits have often encountered violent opposition from mediocre mindsquot Albert Einstein Two levels of consciousness 1 mind cognition emotion and motivation 2 spirit quotin nite mindquot quotnature of mindquot What is it Oxford quotan immaterial principle thought to govern vital phenomenaquot Why introduce this fuzzy construct called quotspiritquot What about the Law of Parsimony This law states that scientists should embrace the simplest theoretical framework that can account for the phenomena they are observing The problem is that excluding this level of consciousness keeps us from us from really understanding a number of psychological phenoman sleep and dreams creativity intuition certain health issues meditation psychokinesis PK Metaphor Mind is the clouds moving through the sky and spirit is the sky itself Mind is the writing on the paper and spirit is the paper on which the writing occurs Meditation is a condition in which consciousness exists without mind Dissociation between mind and consciousness There is evidence of mind without consciousness Recommended reading quotThe Psychological Unconsciousquot by John Kihlstrom What is unconscious mind Sensory inputs that are registered but are ltered out by our attention Subliminal perception Masked priming A stimulus like the word quotDoctorquot is ashed on a computer screen for 20 ms preceded and followed by quotquot Most people do not report having seen the word Yet they may show improvements in performance with respect to that word compared to a word that wasn39t flashed before them Improvements in both speed and accuracy of response to quotDoctorquot and even to quotNursequot or quotHospitalquot semantically related Declarative knowledge in longterm memory LTM Facts that you know but that you are not currently aware of knowing lmplicit memory Improvement on a memory task as a result of information that is in your memory but that you are not aware you have in memory Automatic processes Autonomic nervous system breathing heart rate immune function Nonconscious motives People make choices without being aware of the reasons behind them For example in the mere exposure effect just seeing a face before even for a few milliseconds makes us prefer that face the next time we see it This is all evidence of mind without consciousness The evidence of consciousness without mind is more firstperson If you39ve experienced you know exactly what it is Moments of quotlosing yourself39 The mindbody problem This is not a unitary problem in philosophy it has changed and evolved over the past 400 years This is the riddle of how the material and immaterial levels ofreality interact Originally Descartes was interested in this question How does the spiritual realm in the form of quotthe soulquot enter into the physical realm in the form of quotthe bodyquot Dualism That these two realms material and immaterial are essentially independent and that they intersect at one point only the pineal gland Before Descartes there were cultures that used the term quotmindbodyspiritquot Leibniz 1695 psychophysical parallelism the material and immaterial realms are parallel neither causes the other but they may correlate Berekeley 1710 immaterialism the material universe has to be perceived by consciousness in order to exist and so consciousness is fundamental Solipsism The premise that only quotIquot exist or am conscious quotyouquot exist only to the degree that my consciousness creates you LaMettrie 1748 Revived materialism matter is fundamental Consciousness isa function of bodily states epiphenomenalismmenta states have no causal relevance in the universe they are a quotby productquot of physical events Chalmers Easy and hard problem The easy problem with respect to consciousness is understanding the characteristics of consciousness the distinctions between conscious and unconscious sleep and waking etc The hard problem is understanding how the brain gives rise to consciousness The mindbody problem has changed It started out as the question of how the soul enters the body and now it has been reduced to the question of how the brain creates consciousness Spinoza 1677 doubeaspect theory mind and matter are two aspects ofthe same thing Lewes 1876 neutral monism there is only kind ofquotstuff39 in the universe and mind and matter differ only in terms ofthe arrangement ofthat quotstuff39 or the perspective from which it is perceived Viewed from a subjective point ofview this quotstuff39 is mental and from an objective point of view it39s quotphysicalquot Consciousness at the level of mind may be limited in terms oftime and space but consciousness at the level of spirit does not need to be That is why there is distinction between quotgreat spiritsquot and quotmediocre mindsquot Mind and matter are form Joseph Campbell quotThe Hero with a Thousand Facesquot Creation myths are all based on the idea of a quotcosmogonic cyclequot There is a cyclical process by which formlessness gives rise to form and in turn form returns to formlessness This cycle of creation and destruction goes on at all times Formless consciousness is the first principle the foundation from which all form is created and the ultimate source to which all form returns Formless universal consciousness spirit imbues all things has no limits cannot be con ned in space or time It transcends all things and at the same time encompasses them Our personal consciousness is like a well that taps an aquifer Jung called that aquifer the quotcollective unconsciousquot
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'