Review Sheet for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Review Sheet for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Bonine and Gerst ECOL 406R506R Fall 2005 Conservation Biology 20 October2005 Suggested Review Topics for Second MidTerm Exam 75 points on Thursday 27 October 2005 Please review your readings including VanDyke text chapters 58 and lecture notes for material through 20 October The global climate change lecture on 25 October will not be on this exam Your exam will take place in two parts The rst will be a typical individual exam which should take you about 4550 minutes The second part will be about 2025 minutes in groups of four students on a short set of additional questions See your syllabus for grading details 27 Sept Conservation Biology Important Paradigms 1 Equot HPWSQM P 0 11 12 13 14 What is the proposal in the Donlan et al 2005 Nature paper we discussed in lecture Why do you agree or disagree with the proposal Describe three factors that contribute to a quality oral presentation Describe three things that typically detract from an oral presentation What are some of the problems faced by small populations How do conservation biologists think differently about small vs declining populations What factors are taken into account when determining Effective Population Size Do larger or smaller populations have lower equilibrium heterozygosity List three of the ve threats associated with a loss of genetic diversity De ne genetic drift We discussed four extinction vortexes in lecture Explain two of them In the HardyWeinberg equilibrium what are p and q How do you calculate the equilibrium Explain what conclusions are typically taken from a reported F 5 value Wright s Fixation Index How do you calculate equilibrium heterozygosity for a population Draw a graph that explains the basics of the Equilibrium Theory of Island Biogeography De ne rescue effect 29 Sept Conservation Genetics Example Hans Werner Herrmann 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 04 Oct 23 24 25 26 What organism don t need to know the latin trinomial did HW discuss What species concept did he refer to several times How would you brie y describe the distribution of the speciessubspecies that HW discussed What largescale ecosystem restoration practice is the Kanab Amber Snail affecting How is the ESA involved Give three examples How might the observed geographic distribution of the KAS have come to be What is grey literature In a general sense how does the information gleaned from mtDNA differ from that gleaned from SNPs single nucleotide polymorphisms in nuclear DNA or AFLPs ampli ed fragmentlength polymorphisms in nuclear DNA Conservation Genetics In lecture I discussed Bill Birky s proposed de nition of species that might function for asexual organisms What was his proposal Do you agree or disagree and why Why do scientists study the MHC of Cheetahs What bill has congressman Pombo RCA recently submitted to the House of Representatives What effect would the bill s passage have De ne metapopulation Give an example 27 28 29 30 31 32 06 Oct 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 11 Oct 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Bonine and Gerst ECOL 406R506R Fall 2005 Explain source vs sink populations What are the two major threats to lowland leopard frogs around Tucson Explain what juggling balls oranges and mites all have to do with metapopulations and habitat heterogeneity What is the difference between endogenous disturbance and exogenous disturbance Give an example of each Explain the basic differences between older ideas about climax communities and current ideas about shifting mosaics Give 5 examples of information generated by conservation genetics that is useful in conservation biology Rob Robichaux adaptive radiation and Silversword conservation What is adaptive radiation Why does it occur rapidly on islands List 3 threats to the Hawaiian silverswords Explain Preparing for Loihi a httpwwwsoesthawaiieduGGHCVloihihtml b httphvowrusgsgovvolcanoesloihi From what continent did the Hawaiian Silversword s relatives originate Robichaux studied regulatory gene evolution in the Silverswords Why are these genes a good place to focus research attention What information can be inferred by studying the ratio of 1 mutations that alter the amino acid composition of a protein to 2 the mutations that are silent same amino acid coded for by altereddifferent genes What is monocarpic reproduction What do Robichaux and colleagues attempt to do with invasive ungulates in Silversword areas What was the problem with the captive propagation program that was undertaken for the Silverswords in the 1970s 80s and 90s Why won t the silverswords recover without human intervention even if the invasive grazers are removed Robichaux listed three large groups of organisms that are not native to Hawaii Can you name two of them Is the oldest Hawaiian island of Kauai about 500000 years old 5 million years old or 5 billion years old Do you think that Hawaii having 40 of the listed ESA species threatened or endangered but only 02 of the land area realistic ratios of what species are in trouble and where in the US Why was Robichaux jazzed about the Pizza Hut BioReader program Conservation Genetics Give an example of introgression and de ne the term What are the pros and cons of using molecular vs morphological characters in taxonomically de ning species What is a cryptic species Give an example of a noninvasive technique for collecting DNA from wild organisms De ne a ESU and b MU Which is bigger How many subspecies of puma are there according to Melanie Culver How many were there before her work Where did the current puma populations in N America originate Where did the current S American puma populations originate Evolutionarily when did the puma arise as a species 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 13 Oct 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 18 Oct 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Bonine and Gerst ECOL 406R506R Fall 2005 How was genetics useful in learning about the answers to the 2 questions above When was the most recent time when pumas were absent from N America What other species disappeared at the same time in history Are microsatellites generally part of DNA that codes for useful proteins What is an allele How many alleles do we each have for a given gene Is this different than the number of alleles for a given gene across all people in Tucson How can genetics inform family structure and relatedness in wild organisms De ne phylogeography How is mtDNA mitochondrial DNA passed on to subsequent generations Describe two likely geographic baniers to gene ow in pumas that are supported by Culver s data How would you describe PVA to an eighthgrader Why are population numbers not static over time How do marine iguanas demonstrate the con icting pressures of natural vs sexual selection Kathy Gerst Invasive Species Give two examples how invasive species can affect healthy ecosystem functioning Are all exotic species invasive Are all invasive species exotic Name two bene ts and two drawbacks of biological control Approximately how much money is spent to battle invasive species in the US each year What are the four ecological impacts of invasive species as listed by Gerst Pick two examples of invasive species discussed by Gerst and explain how they have affected their new habitats Can you identify a lifehistory trait that predisposes a species to become invasive Other predisposing traits What are three general characteristics of invaded habitats What is the tens rule with respect to invasive species Give an example of an effective biocontrol effort A disastrous one PVA MVP How did Brown Tree Snakes get to Guam What happens as lemming populations uctuate that makes some folks think they commit suicide De ne PVA What inputs do PVA models need to be useful Give an example of a dynamic population List four things that affect population size How is logistic growth different than exponential growth De ne lambda How is this different than r De ne the allee effect and give an example What is meant by the term structured population model How are elasticity and sensitivity useful in the study of population dynamics What are the four horsemen of the extinction apocalypse Based on the article on PVA for Florida pumas Maehr et al that I discussed in lecture what is VORTEX How and why do population viability estimates differ between earlier and more recent models How do estimates differ depending on the time scale being considered From what state were pumas imported to increase the heterozygosity of the orida pumas What species did Dr Pister hold in his hands temporarily Did he do the right thing Why or why not Bonine and Gerst ECOL 406R506R Fall 2005 20 Oct Bill Mannan Reserve Design 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Suerte What are two advantages and two disadvantages of corridors Explain why one large patch for a reserve is better than three patches that add up to an area equal to that of the large patch Is this always true De ne habitat reserve How much of the world s land is protected in some way for wildlife Draw the speciesarea curve Be sure to label the axes appropriately Why does the number of species increase as the area sampled increases What does it mean to soften the matrix between habitat reserve patches What did Dr Mannan use the Northern Spotted Owl as an example of In general terms eXplain how the edgeeffect may be manifest What are the implications of disturbance regimes and eXtemal in uences on reserve design and management
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