Chem 2, Chapter 13 Notes
Chem 2, Chapter 13 Notes 1041
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1041 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Waddell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 13 Notes Things to know: Solute: dissolves in a solvent (usua2ly H O) to form a solid. o Solute can be a solid, liquid, or a gas (but often is a solid) Solubility (s): max amount that dissolves in a fixed quantity at a given temperature LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE Substances w/ similar intermolecular forces they will dissolve in each other o polar dissolves in polar o Nonpolar dissolves in nonpolar o Ex: water & oil do not dissolve in each other (different intermolecular forces) Alcohol has dual polarity (3H (2 n) OH) o OH: polar / hydrocarbon: nonpolar o Can be soluble in both, however strength of solubility depends on how many polar or nonpolar bonds the alcohol contains Entropy: the amount of disorder or randomness a system has (freedom of motion) Substances dissolve because they favor increased freedom of motion Gases: highest entropy, then liquids, then solids The solution has a higher entropy than the pure solvent & solute Solvation & Hydration ∆H soln = ∆H solute ∆H solvent+∆H mix Solvation: when the solvent breaks apart and mixes (called hydration2in H O) Hydration is always exothermic since ion-dipole forces are so strong ∆H hyrd is dependent on charge density Periodic Table Trends Solubility & Equilibrium Increasing ∆H Saturated solution: undissolved solute is left over hyrd (max amount of solute has been dissolved) o Undissolved solute & dissolved solute reach an equilibrium Unsaturated solution: more solute can be added (has not reached equilibrium) FACTORS o Temperature Most solids are more soluble as temp increases Gases are less soluble as temp increases o Pressure Solids & liquids are NOT affected Gases are more soluble as pressure increases Henry’s Law S gas = K * H gas Solubility of gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas Concentration equations (memorize these!) mols(solute) Molarity (M) = ' Molality (m) = Liters(sol n) mols(solute) Mass(kg)solvent mols(solute) Mole fraction (X) = mols(solute+mols(solvent) Colligative Properties: These properties vary based on the number of solute particles (therefore, solute particles must be identified) Electrolytes separate into ions when dissolved in water Strong electrolytes dissociate completely Weak: very little Nonelectrolytes: no dissociation o Vapor pressure lowering P = i (C soluVan’t Hoff factor (i) Boiling point elevation T = i ( m) i= ‘effective’ number of ions b b measuredvalue forelectrolytesol' n Freezing point depression T f i (m) fi= expected value for nonelectrolytesol' n Osmotic Pressure pi = i (MRT) Colloids Solution’s with dispersed particles o Ex: Fog, smoke o Light bounces off of the particles, creating a Tyndall effect Ex: when the dust particles in the air are visible by sunlight
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