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Chem 2, Chapter 13 Notes

by: Nicole Notetaker

Chem 2, Chapter 13 Notes 1041

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Chemistry > 1041 > Chem 2 Chapter 13 Notes
Nicole Notetaker
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These notes go over all off chapter 13.
General Chemistry 2
Dr. Waddell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1041 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Waddell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 13 Notes Things to know:  Solute: dissolves in a solvent (usua2ly H O) to form a solid. o Solute can be a solid, liquid, or a gas (but often is a solid)  Solubility (s): max amount that dissolves in a fixed quantity at a given temperature LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE  Substances w/ similar intermolecular forces they will dissolve in each other o polar dissolves in polar o Nonpolar dissolves in nonpolar o Ex: water & oil do not dissolve in each other (different intermolecular forces)  Alcohol has dual polarity (3H (2 n) OH) o OH: polar / hydrocarbon: nonpolar o Can be soluble in both, however strength of solubility depends on how many polar or nonpolar bonds the alcohol contains Entropy: the amount of disorder or randomness a system has (freedom of motion)  Substances dissolve because they favor increased freedom of motion  Gases: highest entropy, then liquids, then solids  The solution has a higher entropy than the pure solvent & solute Solvation & Hydration ∆H soln = ∆H solute ∆H solvent+∆H mix  Solvation: when the solvent breaks apart and mixes (called hydration2in H O)  Hydration is always exothermic since ion-dipole forces are so strong ∆H hyrd is dependent on charge density Periodic Table Trends Solubility & Equilibrium Increasing ∆H  Saturated solution: undissolved solute is left over hyrd (max amount of solute has been dissolved) o Undissolved solute & dissolved solute reach an equilibrium  Unsaturated solution: more solute can be added (has not reached equilibrium)  FACTORS o Temperature  Most solids are more soluble as temp increases  Gases are less soluble as temp increases o Pressure  Solids & liquids are NOT affected  Gases are more soluble as pressure increases  Henry’s Law S gas = K * H gas  Solubility of gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas Concentration equations (memorize these!) mols(solute) Molarity (M) = ' Molality (m) = Liters(sol n) mols(solute) Mass(kg)solvent mols(solute) Mole fraction (X) = mols(solute+mols(solvent) Colligative Properties: These properties vary based on the number of solute particles (therefore, solute particles must be identified) Electrolytes separate into ions when dissolved in water  Strong electrolytes dissociate completely  Weak: very little  Nonelectrolytes: no dissociation o  Vapor pressure lowering P = i (C soluVan’t Hoff factor (i)  Boiling point elevation T = i ( m) i= ‘effective’ number of ions b b measuredvalue forelectrolytesol' n  Freezing point depression T f i (m) fi= expected value for nonelectrolytesol' n  Osmotic Pressure pi = i (MRT) Colloids  Solution’s with dispersed particles o Ex: Fog, smoke o Light bounces off of the particles, creating a Tyndall effect  Ex: when the dust particles in the air are visible by sunlight


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