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Spaa 343, Week 3 Notes

by: Janell Barker

Spaa 343, Week 3 Notes SPAA 343

Janell Barker
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

This covers notes from 1/25-1/29/2016, mainly about THE EAR
Introduction to Audiology
Mr. Gregory Newman
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janell Barker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPAA 343 at Ball State University taught by Mr. Gregory Newman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Audiology in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
1/25/2016 Stapes (stirrup)  The ear canal is roughly an inch long - All ossicles can fit on the face of a  Children have smaller ear canals and dime they stop growing around 12 yrs of age Conductive loss -> temporary -> nerves are not  Lower frequency gives us volume damaged (vowels)  Higher frequency gives us clarity Tensor tympani – “originates” at Eustachian (consonants) tube & “inserts” into the manubrium of the malleus Ex. If a patient says they can hear people talking but can’t understand what they’re Stapedius – originates at posterior wall of saying, they have a hard time with higher middle ear cavity & inserts into neck of the frequencies stapes Eardrum: - Biggest conductive component you can have is 50-60 dB  The middle layer is the tough layer (fibrous layer) 1/27/2016  Eardrum, if healthy, is a pearly gray Eustachian tubes equalize pressure in the color middle ear Outer ear -> middle ear -> inner ear = If you are in a plane, your ears hurt worse Acoustic -> mechanical -> electrical energy coming down because there is more pressure at sea level Ear Canal (External auditory meatus) Acute otitis media – temporary, red hue to  Opening diameter: 5-7 mm (25.4 mm to eardrum an inch) Chronic otitis media – permanent, yellow hue  Area of opening = 15-21 mm^2  Length of canal = 25-30 mm (2-3 cm) The tensor tympani and stapedius contact and Functions of ear canal and pinna: cause ossicular chain to stiffen when there is a loud noise (on powerpoint) To amplify noise, the ossicular chain does the Eardrum (tympanic membrane) leveling and goes through that process. Then  Diameter = 17-28 mm (25.4 mm to an the ear undergoes ariel transformation. (the eardrum is much bigger than the stapes causing inch) an increase in pressure equivalent to about 26  Area = 55-90 mm^2 dB) Middle ear cavity: volume of airspace = 2 cubic centimeters (cm^3) Impedence mismatch - when we go from air to fluid in the ear (mechanical to hydraulic Ossicles: energy), we start to lose energy. It increases Malleus (will accept hammer on tests) energy via lever action of ossicles (amplifies by 2 dB) and ariel transformation. Incus (anvil) Eustachian tube is closed in its normal state. PE Neurological signals are what causes anything tubes cause us to have equal pressure to happen to your body  Left temporal lobe is where most people process speech COCHLEA: The auditory nerve – transmits information  Coiled like a snail shell  3 membraneous compartments: scala about the sound to the brain. Neurons of the auditory nerve synapse on the inner hair cells vistibuli, scala media, scala tympani  The basilar membrane  The 8 cranial nerve (vestibular How does the cochlea work? cochlear nerve) is what connects to the ear Stapes acts as a piston at the oval window  Paralymph – inside scala vestibule and starting a pressure wave in the fluid along the scala tympani basilar membrane  Endolymph – inside scala media The basilar membrane vibrates at a different 1/29/2016 place for each different place for each different frequency in the sound, in other words, the  High frequencies are “injured” first, basilar membrane has a tonotopic map because the part of the cochlea that the (frequency map) stapes footplate hits first is the part (the base of the cochlea) that makes Your lower brain stem is responsible for breathing and heartbeat high freq.  Lower freq. are deeper into the cochlea Vibration of the basilar membrane (known as (at the apex, at the middle of the the “traveling wave” because it is always in cochlea) motion) causes motion of the stereocilia on hair  Outer hair cells amplify sound cells  Inner hair cells are what differentiates - Causing the inner hair cell to /s/, from /f/, and things like that – primary sensory cells of hearing release a signaling molecule  Outer hair cells are arranged in rows (neurotransmitter) to audiotry neurons  Research is being done now to repair hair cells - Causing the other hair cell to produce a force that makes the Tonotopic – the concept that higher pitches are basilar membrane vibration even at the base of the cochlea and lower are toward bigger the apex Fuctions of inner ear: The basilar membrane separates scale media & scala tympani  Separates different freq. of sound (traveling wave on the basilar The organ of corti sits on top of the basilar membrane) membrane; primary sensory organ of hearing  Amplifying soft sounds (outer hair cells(  Sending information about sound to the auditory nerve (inner hair cells)


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