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by: Joanna Suriel


Joanna Suriel
Penn State
GPA 3.92

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notes on chapters 1,2,9. materials will be on the next test
Class Notes
Science, planet, EARTH, Geology
25 ?




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1 review
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"The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Joanna for help in class!"
Jettie Ritchie


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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joanna Suriel on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOSC 020 at Pennsylvania State University taught by DR. BRIAN EXTON in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see PLANET EARTH in Science at Pennsylvania State University.


Reviews for PLANET EARTH CHP 1,2,9

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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Joanna for help in class!

-Jettie Ritchie


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Date Created: 01/29/16
GEOSC 020 JAN 11- JAN 27 CHAPTER 1  70% of the Earth surface is covered by BASALT.  BASALT: composed of the following characteristics  Dense, volcanic igneous rock  Dark black rock (similar to road pavement) with a shiny top  Among the youngest rocks on planet  Contains iron and magnesium  Iron minerals in basalt line up with northern magnetic field  ORGIN OF THE UNIVERSE BIG BANG THEORY informs that EARTH began 14 billion years ago An extreme dense hot body of matter expanded and then cooled EVIDENCE Universe expands from central point Universe has constant glow (background radiation) thought to be from the explosion DISCOVERING AGE OF EARTH AND SOLAR SYSTEM Kelvin used caves to discover age of Earth Nuclear Fusion: hydrogen atoms fusing to create helium Earth contains part of an ancient star inside Every element on the periodic table after silicon will not be made by a star Elements from silndonrdnd down will be made by supernova Earth is part of a 2 /3 generation solar system dating to 14.6 BILLION YEARS Formed from rotating cloud (nebula) Soon after, internal heat differentiated the Earth into a layered planet  LAYERS OF PLANET EARTH THE CORE  Small solid inner core, larger liquid outer core composed of iron and nickel creating magnetic field THE MANTLE Partially molten ASTHENOSPHERE that behaves plastically and flows Composed of peridotite (igneous rock) THE CRUST  Outermost layer of the Earth divided into:  Thick continental crust  Thin oceanic crust (BASALT)  LITHOSPHERE: composed of the crust and upper mantle  Forms solid outer layers of the Earth  GEOLOGIC TIME  Earth’s cycle is much longer than perceived  Geological Time Scale: calendar that geologists use to date past events in Earths history  UNIFORMITARIANSISM: states that the laws of nature have remain unchanged throughout time  In order to understand evidence preserved in rocks, geologist must first study and understand present day rocks CHAPTER 2  CONTINENTAL DRIFT  Proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1912  Proposed the theory of PANGEA (supercontinent)  EVIDENCE  Close fits of continents  Similarity of rocks and mountain ranges  Fossil evidence ex. Mosasaurs  PLATE TECTONICS  Three types of plate boundaries driven by convection cycle: movement of Earths inside heat trying to escape  Divergent Boundaries: form when two plates move apart from each other -Most occur along crest of oceanic ridges ex. East African rift  Convergent Boundaries: occurs where two plates collide - Oceanic- Oceanic: one oceanic plate will sub duct under the other - Oceanic-Continental: oceanic plate will sub duct under the continental - Continental-Continental: both continents collide, none sub duct  Transform Boundaries: plates slide past each other along transform faults - Ex. San Andrea fault Movement of plates affects organic evolution and creates mountains and continental barriers. Mantle plums (hotspots): material coming from the inside of the mantle. - Ex. Hawaii, Yellowstone national park CHAPTER 9  EARTHQUAKES  Sudden release of energy usually around a fault  Elastic Rebound Theory: rocks that move away from each other try to get back into position  SEISMOLOGY: Study of earthquakes  SEISMOGRAPH: Measures earthquake  SEISMOGRAM: gets recorded on seismograph  FOCUS: where the earthquake occurs  EPICENTER: surface vertically above the focus  Earthquakes occur everyday, 80% occur in the Pacific Belt  Seismic Waves cause most damage and are felt  Two types of seismic waves - Body waves travel through Earth - Surface waves travel along, just below the surface  Primary Waves: compressional waves, first wave to hit  S Waves: shear waves, second wave to hit. - Time between P and S waves are dependent on where the earthquake is  LOCATING AN EARTHQUAKE AND MEASURING INTENSITY  Richter scale: used to determine amount of energy released by the earthquake  Must have information from 3 seismographs (triangular location) that will intersect at the Epicenter of the earthquake  Each seismograph station uses the following formula to figure out the diameter of there region affected by the earthquake DISTANCE= 9.75 (SWAVE-PWAVE INTERVAL)


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