Week 3 Humanities Notes
Week 3 Humanities Notes 23032
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Higgins on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 23032 at Tulsa Community College taught by Dr. Bruce MacQueen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Humanities II in Arts and Humanities at Tulsa Community College.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Lecture 6 1.26.16 Intellectual Ferment • As the Ottoman Turks slowly but surely closed in on Constantinople (Istanbul); which fell in 1453 - Free monks began to flee to West, taking books with them - Trade routes to Venice and Genoa were already established • Thanks to these monks scholars in Western Europe recovered the knowledge of ancient Greek Unﬁnished Two Important Dates slide • January 2, 1492 - Grenada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain falls to the Spanish • October 12, 1492 - Christopher Columbus (an Italian) lands in New World • These events are connected: - Especially in the history of Spain, which started its career as a world power - Also in history of Europe, which began to feel its economic and military power as a sign of God’s favor - Also in the history of the world, as Europeans began to expand their trade, followed by colonization What is the Renaissance? • Many people disliked the Renaissance because they didn’t enjoy how everything was changing and nothing was the same anymore • The “rebirth” of the Greco-Roman heritage (started in Italy) - Setting aside the Medieval synthesis but without rejecting Christianity - Rereading the classical authors differently: that is, not always through lens of Catholic Christianity - Re-learning Greek and reforming the wayLatin was taught and written ✴ Was much less complicated than the Latin used by Cicero ✴ Purifying Latin caused it to be less conversational and it became extremely difficult to use on a day-to-day basis ✴ Latin was a language of the church and it was once used on a daily basis in the monasteries for the monks who came from different countries and couldn’t understand each other in their mother tongues - ✴pplying classical principals in art, architecture, and music Created opera based on the rediscovered Greek tragedies Lecture 6 1.26.16 - Education aside the church (that is, it becomes possible to get an education without being a priest, monk, or nun) • The formation of nation states - When they began to draw maps with actual borders between the countries - Secular authority becomes more assertive but without outright rebellion! - France, England, Spain form strong monarchies; kings become more important than both bishops and nobles RenaissanceArchitecture • Rounded arches and triangular pediments instead of the pointed arches of the Gothic - Used Greek and Roman architecture as an inspiration • Emphases on harmony, symmetry, geometry • Medieval cathedrals have a “sky” ceiling • Byzantine cathedrals have ceiling mosaics, usually including the 12 apostles RenaissanceArt • Perspective - The “vanishing point” makes 2D object seem to have depth • Painting from models Renaissance Literature • Much still in Latin - But its much more “classical” Latin • The appearance of literature in the “vernacular” (that is, languages actually spoken) - Dante’s Inferno - Machiavelli’s II Principe - Cervantes’Don Quixote Lecture 7 1.28.16 • The reformation and the renaissanceARE NOT the same The Protestant Reformation • Aconsequence of: - The breakdown of the medieval synthesis (both cause and effect) - The intellectual ferment of the Renaissance (critical thinking: the meaning of the word protestant) - The “northward shift” of the center of gravity in Europe, away from Italy to France and Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands • Luther’s challenge to Rome - Was not the first to rebel, but was the first one not to be burned at the stake, his movement actually started something - Rejection of both Thomistic theology and traditional Catholicism - Radicalized by the harsh response of the Church (overreaction to a small dispute) - Almost immediately followed by splits within the Protestant Movement What were the problems? • The “institutional” church - Bishops and cardinals had started to become more like lords and the aristocrats; they were WEALTHY - The pope’s claim to be the successor of St. Peter - The Church’s involvement in “secular’matters especially politics and economics • The selling of indulgences (now banned) - The doctrine of Purgatory ✴ Place between heaven and hell where you go when you’re not forgiven for your sins and are required to work them off in purgatory before being allowed into heaven (as long as you don't commit any of the mortal sins) - The apple authority (based on scripture) to “bind” or “loose,” delegated to agents • Renaissance and Reformation - Dissatisfaction with Medieval reality - The urge to go back to the beginning and start over Lecture 7 1.28.16 Luther’s 95 Theses ~ Martin Luther (1453 - 1546) • The practice of posting “theses” on the church door, now understood as a mark of protest, was common practice at the time - October of 1517, Matin Luther, anAugustinian monk, was preparing to deliver some lectures in Wittenberg and the “95 Theses” were hiss “syllabus” • Only 4 of the 95 theses (none of which are now objectionable in modern Catholicism) raised some objections, as they challenged the ideas behind the selling of indulgences - Luther was asked to retract them, but refused — at first, very politely - Within 3 years, he had been excommunicated and was calling the Pope “theAnti-Christ” • Lutherism was embraced by some German princes, especially in northern Germany, at least partly for political reasons - German at this point was NOT all under one leader, but instead ruled by several different princes and lords Basic teachings of Martin Luther • Salvation by Faith - You can’t “earn” a place in Heaven • “Sola scriptura” = scripture alone - The only authentic source of Christian doctrine is the Bible (not tradition, not the bishops or the pope) • Rejection of sacerdotalism - All baptized Christians belong to a “holy priesthood” which is why Lutheran clergy are not (usually) called “priests,” but “pastors” (latin word for Shepard) • Translation of the Bible into German - Latin is no longer the “priestly” language - Translations are always inexact
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