Human Anatomy and Physiology Week 1 Notes
Human Anatomy and Physiology Week 1 Notes Bio 204-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michael Fucci on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 204-001 at Adelphi University taught by Dr. Schweyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Adelphi University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 18 – Endocrine System The Human Norms What is the underlying concept of physiology that allows the body to stay within the “norms”? o The answer is homeostasis. Some physiological norms to be aware of include: o Blood Pressure which should stay at approximately 120 over 80 (120/80) mm Hg The 120 is the pressure of the arteries when the heart beats The 80 is the pressure of the arteries in between the beats o Heart Rate within the range of 6080 beats per minute (bpm) Bradycardia would be an abnormally low bpm Tachycardia would be an abnormally high bpm o Respiratory Rate within 1218 breaths per minute Bradypnea would be an abnormally low respiratory rate Tachypnea would be an abnormally high respiratory rate o Body Temperature: 36.5 degrees Celsius to 37.2 degrees Celsius (or in Fahrenheit 97.8 – 99) o Glucose Levels: 100140 mg/dL Diabetics resting values over 140 o Blood Sodium Levels: 135145 milliequivalents per Liter. Homeostasis o A property of cells, tissues, and organs that: Allows the maintenance and regulation of the stability Allows for the constancy o Needed to function properly What organ systems are closely related in performing the functions of homeostasis? o The answer is the Nervous and Endocrine Systems Endocrine vs. Nervous Systems Response to stimulus o Nervous System: contains action potentials along specific pathways (nervers) that travel to a target cell. They travel as electrical signals and change into chemical messages (a neurotransmitter). o Endocrine System: travels through the blood stream or intracellular fluid as a hormone (chemical messenger). Time factor of response o The nervous system is much faster than the slow traveling endocrine system, but why is that? o The hormones first have to be synthesized, than transported, than accepted, than transcribed, and than protein synthesis (or some other action) must occur. Effect factor o Nervous: fast and brief effect with a specific target o Endocrine: slow and longer lasting with a broader influence. Nervous system performs shortterm crisis management. o Quickly responds to stimulus. o Ex: Hand on a hot stove Endocrine system regulates longterm ongoing metabolic activities. o Causes changes that can last from weeks to months. Endocrine communication is carried out by endocrine cells releasing hormones. o Alter metabolic activities of tissues and organs o Released in one part of the body, but travels to and affects another part of the body. o Target cells are any cells affected by the hormone. Target Cells An example of Target Cells are the ovaries and fallopian tube o The Luteinizing hormone (LH), which is produced in the pituitary gland, is transported through the bloodstream and causes the ovaries to detach from the fallopian tube. This is the process of ovulation. In this example, how does the luteinizing hormone specifically target the ovaries o The ovaries (like any Target Cell) have a specific shape that only the luteinizing hormone can attach to [Like a “Lock and Key” mechanism]. Note: blood levels carry various levels of different hormones at different times. ****Every hormone in the body has a target cell that it affects**** Overview of the Endocrine system It is a system of ductless glands Hormones are produced by specific organs for specific target cells Endocrine system is a group of tissues and organs that produce specific hormones for specific target cells. Organs of the Endocrine System: a brief overview Primary Endocrine glands: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, the pancreatic islets, the pineal glands, and the parathyroid glands. Secondary endocrine organs: heart, thymus (note that this undergoes atrophy during adulthood), adipose tissue, digestive tract, kidneys, ovaries, and gonads. True endocrine glands (100% endocrine) include the Pituitary Gland, the Thyroid Gland, and the Adrenal (or Suprarenal) Glands. The hypothalamus is the link between the nervous and endocrine systems. The pituitary gland is connect to the hypothalamus and is the clear connection between the nervous and endocrine system. The pancreatic islets are not exclusively endocrine (they also function as exocrine glands). Hormone Structures (chemical classes) Amino Acid derivatives o Small in size o Binds to receptor site on membrane of target cell and then employs a secondary messenger system to allow the hormone to enter the cell (this process is due to the protein makeup preventing it from diffusing into the cell) o Examples: Thyroid hormone (TH) Epinephrine (EPE) – AKA adrenaline Norepinephrine (NE) – AKA noradrenaline Peptide/ Protein derivatives o Peptide – 2 or more amino acids linked together through dehydration synthesis o Larger structure o Protein based hormone o Also binds to receptor site like amino acid derivatives o Examples Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Luteinizing Hormone (LH) – starts ovulation Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Oxytocin (OXT) – involved in childbirth Prolactin (PRL) Growth Hormone (GH) Lipid Derivatives o Lipid based hormones o Can directly get into target cells – diffuses through the membrane and attaches to a receptor site inside the cell. o Example: Steroid hormones, such as Testosterone Eicosanoids – signaling molecules dealing with immunity and inflammation (such as Prostaglandin) Catecholamines Protein based (note the name contains amine) Attaches to receptor site and requires a secondary messenger system to enter the cell. They are a team of hormones that act similarly and therefore are grouped together. The hormones are o Epinephrine o Norepinephrine o Dopamine
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