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Chapter 1-2

by: Dominique Johnson

Chapter 1-2 BIO 104 - 10

Dominique Johnson

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 1: Process of Science and Chapter 2: Chemistry & Molecules of Life
Biology for the 21st Century
Jennifer L Bromberg-White
Class Notes
Biology, process of science, Chemistry, Molecules, life
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dominique Johnson on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 104 - 10 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jennifer L Bromberg-White in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 1: Process of Science What is Science?  A method to answer questions  A process of using observations and experiments to draw evidence based  conclusions  A way of knowing Scientific Method Step 1: Ask a question Step 2: State a hypothesis Step 3: Conduct an experiment Step 4: Analyze the results Step 5: Make a conclusion How do scientists draw conclusions?  Use best evidence available  Ask: Was the science performed properly?  Conclusion may be modified in the future   Science is a never­ending process Science is a process: Make an observation  Start with an interesting, informal observation  Often unreliable, untested  Anecdotal evidence o An informal observation that has not been systematically tested Science is a process: Formulate a question  Use observation to question (Notes continued) Chapter 2: Chemistry & Molecules of Life (Continuation) All life is composed of the same building blocks Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass All matter is made of elements—substances that cannot be chemically broken down ATOMS The smallest unit of an element that still retains the property of that elements is called an  atom  Atoms have distinct chemical properties  Determined by the number of subatomic particles NUCLEUS The nucleus is the dense core of an atom PROTONS (+) Protons are positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom   NEUTRONS Electrically uncharged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom ELECTRONS (­) Negatively charged subatomic particles  They orbit the nucleus with negligible mass The periodic table of elements represents all known elements on Earth  Reports atomic number and atomic mass  Atomic number is the number of protons  Atomic mass is the total number of protons and neutrons CARBON  4  most common element in the universe  2  most common element in the human body One of six elements that make up most of humans  Oxygen (65%)  Carbon (18.5%)  Hydrogen (9.5%)  Nitrogen (3.3%)  Phosphorus and sulfur (2%) Carbon is a key component of the molecules of living organisms  It can form multiple covalent bonds, the sharing of a pair of electrons between  two atoms (strong bonds from sharing electrons)  Molecules form when atoms are linked by covalent bonds o Molecules are chains of atoms linked by covalent bonds  Carbon atoms can bond up to four atoms  Carbon can make macromolecules Carbon is a versatile component of life’s molecules.  Organic molecules have carbon­based backbones and at least one C­H bond.  Inorganic molecules lack carbon­based backbones and C­H bonds Molecules of Life Macromolecules  Large organic molecules  Composed of subunits called monomers  Monomers link together to form polymer chains Four types of complex macromolecules make up living things  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Lipids  Nucleic Acids Macromolecules share a similar organization—they are composed of monomers (one  chemical subunit) linked together to form a polymer (a molecule made up of monomers  linked together in a chain.) CARBOHYDRATES  Carbohydrates are made up of sugar monomers PROTEINS Proteins are made up of amino acid monomers  LIPIDS Lipids are not made of repeating monomers   Fatty Acids (Fat)  Required for life  Make up all of our cells NUCLEIC ACIDS Nucleic Acids are made up of nucleotides monomers   DNA & RNA  THE CELL  Basic structural unit of life  All cells have some basic architecture   Lipids make up the plasma membrane around every cell   All membranes in cells are a lipid bilayer (separates the water­based inside  from the water­based outside of the cell.)  Phospholipids define cell boundaries  Cells are bounded by a cell membrane  Have a double layer (bilayer)  Separate the contents of a cell from its environment Phospholipids have a hydrophilic (water­loving) head and hydrophobic (water­hating)  tails. WATER  Proxy for life  All of life’s chemical reactions take place in water  Composed of oxygen and hydrogen atoms  Many of its functions are due to its shape   Water is a such a good solvent because it is a polar molecule—a molecule in  which electrons are not shared equally between atoms, causing a partial negative  charge at one end and a partial positive charge at the other  Universal solvent o Many substances dissolve inside of water o Water can pull apart molecules o Can transport all of life’s dissolved molecules, or solutes  Cohesion and Adhesion o Water molecules stick together (Cohesive) o Water molecules cling to other polar surfaces (Adhesive) o Transport of nutrients and waste  High Surface Tension o Water molecules cling tightly together  High Heat Capacity  o Water absorbs heat without changing its chemical state (liquid to gas)  Density o Based on its temperature o Expands when it freezes (ice floats on liquid water) THE PROPERTIES OF WATER (2) Hydrogen Atoms + (1) Oxygen Atom  Water is a polar molecule (partial and opposite charge) o Oxygen side is slightly negative o Hydrogen side is slightly positive  When molecules have no charges, they are nonpolar  Electrons in bonds not shared equally between atoms  Partial negative charge at one end and a positive charge at the other  Forms special electrostatic attractions, known as hydrogen bonds o Electronegativity: ability to attract electrons  o Hydrogen bonds are abundant o Weaker than covalent bonds—break and reform constantly Hydrogen bonds give water its unique properties  Cohesion: water molecules cling together (Surface Tension)  Adhesion: water molecules cling to surfaces  Large liquid range  Solid water is less dense that liquid water, so ice floats Water molecules (H2O) split briefly into separate hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH­)  ions. PH is the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution  PH ranges from 0 (Acidic) to 14 (Basic)   Viruses An infectious agent made up of a protein shell that encloses genetic information  Reproduce and pass their genetic information to new viruses but are not made up  of cells   Reproduce by infecting a host cell and hijacking its cellular machinery to make  copies of itself Are viruses alive?  Lack machinery required for reproduction  Lack mechanisms necessary to obtain and use energy  Contains genetic material  Can respond to their environment/adapt Prions A protein only infectious agent (responsible for mad cow disease and related illnesses) Are Prions alive?  Form of a protein  Can reproduce  Indestructable 


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