Ecology 1000 Week 3
Ecology 1000 Week 3 ECOL 1000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Veliz on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Scott Connelly in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Ecology 1000, week three. v Lake Victoria Intro: • Introduced species, which caused a loss in the ecosystem services For ex: Nile perch was introduced in 1950s, which cause near extinction of several hundred native fishes. • Large commercial business also pushed out local fisherman. • Another consequence was the forest loss because of tree clearing for firewood. v There are many unintended consequences within a lot of industries. Bycatch-fish or other marine species that is caught unintentionally while catching certain target species and target sizes of fish, crabs etc. • Worldwide fisheries throw away 25% of their catch. • Bycatch is an example of how we destroy some part of the ecosystem to take advantage of another. • New technology has been created to decrease bycatch, one which is the Turtle Excluder Device (TEDs). -This means that if a turtle has been caught unintentionally, it can break the net and be free. -There are cons to this: 1. The cost comes out of the fisherman’s pocket. 2. Fishermen can lose part of their targeted animals once the net gets broken in an area. But, this can minimize the impact on non-target organisms. v Why do mainstream economics support some business practices even though they are not sustainable (for example, Interface Carpet Company)? • They do not account or acknowledge all cost. -Such cost are deal with the environment, such as pollution, and drilling of oil. • Externalities- cost that businesses do not pay directly, and therefor are not reflected in the price the consumer pays for the product. -For example: if a farmer sprays a field with pesticide, his cost may be the price of the pesticide and the benefits are dead unwanted organisms. However, the cost of a neighbor receiving the spray drift of the pesticide and intoxicating or polluting their house is not account for. Externalities are costs without any benefits. v Total Economic value is divided into two parts: Use value and Nonuse value. v Use value consist of: Direct and Indirect v Nonuse value consist of: Bequest and Existence v In between is an Option value classification. • Direct use value- directly using a resource. For example: catching a fish and eating it. • Indirect use value- Indirectly using a resource as long as we keep it in good shape. (Using a resource that probably wasn’t meant to be used the way it is) EX: Villagers in India planted mangrove saplings to set a world record, but when a tsunami struck, those mangroves protected the village from major damage. • Option Value- Not using a resource, but knowing that it will have value in the future, therefor it is valuable today. (Protecting a resource for future use) • Bequest value- Protecting resources for future generations, although they are not useful today. • Existence value- the right for something to exist whether we use it or not. Ex: Blue whales and uninhabited lands. v Sustainable development- meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. v We can do business and protect the environment at the same time. Ecosystem Services: Water Resources v San Joaquin River- 2 largest river in California, which now is dried up. • This means ecosystem services are lost. • Georgia gets crops and food from California, which is why the water must be restored. • John D. Sutter kayaked (and walked due to the dried up parts), the “most endangered” river in the U.S. • No one owns this river, but everyone thinks they do. This increases demand, which is hurting the river and its resources. v 10% of the population doesn’t have enough water. v Nearly 40% must drink and do other activities using the same water, which doesn’t meet even the most minimal standards of sanitation. v Freshwater is a limited resource and we are using it up faster than it can be replenished. Although the water is still somewhere on the Earth, we are changing its quality. v 97% of the water is salt water (found in oceans), while the other 3% are in glaciers, river, lakes, and other organisms. v Most of the freshwater isn’t easily accessible. v Hydrological cycle: Linkage of all marine and freshwater aquatic environments; the process of water travel form atmosphere to the earth, and back to the atmosphere. • We depend on energy form the sun. Heat causes evaporation and transportation. • At each stage within the cycle, bonds are made and broken. • Toxins may be picked up along the way, transported, or eliminated. v Watershed- The land area surrounding a body of water over which water could flow and potentially enter that body of water. • Anyone in that are is responsible for the water in the body of water (if it’s good or polluted). v People and the Planet • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that one in three people lack access to clean water. • Even more lack proper sanitation. • 265million gallons of raw sewage (water coming out straight out of a pipe and toilets) enter the Ganger River DAILY. • This results in death due to water-borne illnesses. • 1 in 5 people in the world survive on less water per day than is used to flush a toilet. • Although water may be cheap to us in Georgia, other people around the world cannot afford it. v How is water being used? • Used in our food. • Indirectly uses, such as transportation. • To meet basic needs. v Aquifer- underground region of soul or porous rock, which is saturated with water. (It can be used as storage by later drilling down for the water). v Infiltration- the process of water soaking into the ground. (Hopefully recharging the aquifer, and being filtered). v Water Table- Very top of the underground water. v If an aquifer is in a coastal area, and has a low water table, then this can result in saltwater intrusion into the freshwater. v GA gets most of the water from ACT and ACF river basins. v A solution to solving water shortage in GA has been damming ricers and creating reservoirs. • Benefits from doing this are: freshwater, flood control, electricity production, and recreation. • However, on hot seasons (which is when we need water the most) there is a higher potential for evaporation • Another disadvantage is that people who live downstream are affected greatly. • An example of a reservoir made from a dam is Lake Lanier. Army Corps of Engineers created this reservoir to have a steady supply of water for Atlanta, to generate electricity, and provide recreation. v Metro ATL gets most of their water supply (99%) from rivers, lakes and streams. v Rainfall is variable; it can be as low as 30 inches per year, or as high as 70 inches. v Metro ATL must use man-made reservoirs to store water supply during rainy periods in order to have water during dry periods. v Lake Lanier and Lake Allatoona are the 2 federal reservoirs used for water supply in metro ATL. v A Tri State War has been going on because of the allocation of water. • GA wants to have enough water to continue to grow and support the fast- growing Atlanta area. • Alabama is concerned with the bottom portion (downstream user) will dry up, therefor limiting the use of water for power generation, fisheries, etc. • Florida wants freshwater to reach the Apalachicola Bay to support its shellfish industry. v Water usage can decrease by using new technologies and buying less stuff, which means using less energy and saving more water. v Three Gorges Dam- • Massive hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River in China. • The world’s largest power station. • Became functional in 2012 • Increase the river’s shipping capacity. • Reduced potential for floods downstream by providing space for water storage. • However, this dam turned China into an “environmental nightmare.” • Equality of water decreased as pollution increase. • Dam has cause landslides, and this has resulted in deaths. • The government relocated 1.2 million people for the construction of the dam. • Around 1,3000 archaeological sites were moved or lost. • Freshwater fish are affected by the changes in water temperature and turbine blades. • Less sediment downstream as it settles upstream. v We need to conserve water and have knowledge on the realistic pricing of it. v Besides using new technology, people need to change their behavior. v How can we balance our water budget in GA? • Increase reserves (to store rainfall and use it during dry periods). • Reduce withdrawals (using less water, recycling water, and knowing the landscape architecture). • Recycling (grey water) means to use water that has been used once, but the second time the use will not be for drinking. v In pre-urban landscape architecture, 50% of precipitation would infiltrate into the groundwater, 10% would become surface runoff, and 40% would evaporate. v In urban, only 32% goes into groundwater, 43% is runoff, and 25% evaporates. v There are simple water conservation tricks such as having rain gardens, using rain barrels to capture rainfall water, having permeable pavers, etc. v Cuyahoga River • In 1969, laws regulating what could be discharged into waterways didn’t exist. • So much pollution had contaminated the Cuyahoga River that it was set on fire. v Nonpoint pollution is hard to pinpoint.
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