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Chapters 1 & 2

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by: Adrianna Elbon

Chapters 1 & 2 BIOL 1114, 001

Adrianna Elbon
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Intro to zoology
Class Notes
Zoology, Bio 1114




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"I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Adrianna delivered. Shoutout Adrianna, I won't forget!"
Jameson Conn IV

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrianna Elbon on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.


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I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Adrianna delivered. Shoutout Adrianna, I won't forget!

-Jameson Conn IV


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Date Created: 01/29/16
Intro to Zoo (BIO 1114) with Professor Lee CHAPTER 1- The Scientific Study of Life  Biology is defined as the scientific study of life  The cell is defined as the basic unit of life. -Every living organism contains one or more cells -Cells use DNA to produce proteins All life forms share 5 characteristics: 1. Organization - Atom (all living structures are composted of atoms) - Molecule (group of joined atoms) - Organelle (membrane-bound group of molecules) - Cell (fundamental unit of life, made up of organelles) - Tissue (collection of cells) - Organ (consists of multiple tissue types and has a defined/special function) - Organ system (a group of organs, either connected physically or chemically, that work together to perform) - Organism (living individual) Another level of organization is the organization among the living- - Population- members of the same species occupying the same space at the same time - Community- all the populations of different species in a place at a time - Ecosystem- both living and nonliving components of an area - Biosphere- all parts of the planet that sustain life 2. Energy use - Life requires energy - During each step of the cycle of life heat is lost Biologists organize organisms in the following categories: - Producers (autotrophs)- make their own food by extracting energy from nonliving things such as the sun - Consumers (heterotrophs)- obtain energy by eating other organisms, living or dead - Decomposers (heterotrophs)- obtain energy by eating dead organisms 3. Maintenance of internal consistency - Or HOMEOSTASIS - Blood glucose levels are maintained when we intake food - When the body’s temperature drops below or rises above the normal temperature, the body uses homeostasis to fix it. - Negative feedback: (example) if the temperature goes down, the body brings it back up. - Positive feedback: (example) Childbirth or labor- the body has contractions over and over until the baby is delivered. - Salt levels, nutrients levels, and water levels are all monitored by homeostasis. 4. Reproduction, growth, and development - Sexual reproduction- sexual reproduction requires two parents and is most successful in a changing environment - Asexual reproduction- asexual reproduction only requires one parent and is most successful in an unchanging environment 5. Evolution - A species adapts to its environment over time to become more successful/to thrive. An example would be a puffer fish. Over time they have become the exact color of their surroundings in order to prey on other things in camouflage or to hide from threats. - Natural selection: Process by which organisms with a certain successful trait reproduce and the organisms without that trait do not. THE THREE MAIN BRANCHES ON THE TREE OF LIFE: - Domain bacteria (no nucleus) - Domain archea (no nucleus and is made up one 1 cell) - Domain eukarya (nucleus) Domain bacteria and domain archea are prokaryotes. - Pro means before and karyote means nucleus, so that helps explain that those two do not have nuclei. Domain eukarya is a eukaryote. - Eu means true and karyote means nucleus, therefore domain eukarya have nuclei. Eukarya: - Protista- 1 cell of multiple autotrophs/heterotrophs - Kingdom Animalia- multicellular heterotrophs - Kingdom fungi- mostly multicellular organisms and heterotrophs (fungi use external digestion) - Plantae- multicellular autotrophs (use sun energy) The mnemonic levels of organization: - Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species *Other helpful notes from chapter 1:  The endothelial cell can be found in the stomach lining and blood vessels (among other places)  Emergent properties- properties that arise at each level of biological organization. For example, the bicep muscle is an organ made up of tissue and at this level it begins to serve its function (its function would be whatever the bicep muscle is used to do in daily life). Another example would be a blood vessel.. Before all of the cells came together to make it, it didn’t have a property.  Bacteria evolve rapidly  In order to write a good hypothesis it must be a possible explanation and it must be testable.  Taxonomy- scientific study of naming and classifying organisms CHAPTER 2- The Chemistry of Life  All life is made up of elements  An element (atoms) is basically protons, neutrons, and electrons.  Protons have a positive charge, neutrons have a neutral charge, and electrons have a negative charger  Protons/neutrons are in the core of each atom  Opposite charges attract  When looking at the periodic table, the mass # = protons + neutrons  Add a neutron, the mass increases  Atomic weight= the average mass of all isotopes of that element  Isotopes are the same element but with a different number of neutrons  For Zoology purposes, know that each atom has a 2-8-8 configuration of electrons  Hydrogen can hold 2 electrons in its shell  Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen have 2 rings  When the outer electron shell is full, the element(atoms) are at maximum stability  Everything is also made up of bonds- covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds  Covalent bonds share electrons (strong)  Ionic bonds transfer electrons (strongest, but weak in water)  Hydrogen bonds have partially positive and partially negative ends, so they are just sticky (weakest)  When something is polar, it has both positive and negative ends.  Water contains covalent and hydrogen bonds  Hydrogen bonds are what hold the double helix of DNA together  Electronegativity (how likely an element is to find an electron) helps predict what types of bonds will form. On the periodic table, bottom left elements have low electronegativity and as you go up and to the right on the table it increases. Water is important for all of life-  Water is both cohesive and adhesive.  Cohesive means that water sticks to itself, creating surface tension.  Adhesive means that water sticks or climbs other things.  Water does not dissolve hydrophobic solutes such as fats, wax, sand, etc.  Hydrophobic means “water fearing”  Hydrophilic “loves water”  Water is a good solvent, it dissolves solutes to create a solution THE pH SCALE:  The pH scale is based on the amount of H protons  Acids become more acidic when H is added, while bases become more basic. ORGANIC MOLECULES-  Carbohydrates (sugars)  Amino acids (proteins)  Nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)  Lipids (fats) Mono means one, poly means many.  A bunch of monomers make up a polymer.  Monomer- a single unit of carb, protein, or nucleic acid. NOT LIPID! Carbohydrates- - A carb polymer is made up of many sugar monomers. - Monosaccharides are monomers of carbohydrates - Disaccharide is two monomers - Polysaccharide is a chain of monomers The following contain carbs: - Leaf  cellulose - Potato starch - The liver produces glycogen Amino acids- - Amino acids are building blocks of proteins - Proteins have more variable structures and functions than any others. - The function of a protein depends on the shape - Their “R” group gives them their personalities - All have a core Carbon group - R groups are variable - 2 monomers ( amino acids) after dehydration synthesis= dipeptide bonds - During dehydration synthesis (breaks bonds) an enzyme binds two monomers, releasing water - The backward process of the above is called hydrolysis, which creates bonds. The four levels of structure of amino acids are: - Alpha helix- amino acids are twirled around each other and held together by Hydrogen bonds (secondary structure) - Beta sheet- a flat structure (secondary) - Tertiary structure- consist of both alpha helixes and beta sheets - Quaternary structure- subunits, a mixture of multiple polypeptides - Covalent bonds hold amino acids together, but hydrogen bonds make them sticky - When hydrogen bonds break, it produces a denatured protein - Heat can be used to break both hydrogen and covalent bonds - pH also denatures proteins NUCLEIC ACIDS: - DNA & RNA DNA RNA BOTH Adenine Adenine Adenine Guanine Guanine Guanine Cytosine Cytosine Cytosine Thymine Uracil - Cells contain two types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid. LIPIDS (fats): - Lipids are composed of long carbon chains - Kinks in the chain mean that the fat is not solid - Lipids are NOT composed of monomers and polymers - They have triglycerides - Triglycerides store fat in adipose tissue - 3 types of fat include saturated, unsaturated, and trans fat - Saturated fat is bad for consumption, but trans-fat is the WORST - Trans-fat is synthetically made - Unsaturated fat is the best fat - Sterols are lipid molecules such as cholesterol and testosterone (both hydrophobic) *Extras from chapter 2: - Hemoglobin can be found in red blood cells


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