chapter 3 & 4
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrianna Elbon on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Zoology Professor Lee Chapters 3 amp 4 touches on 25 and 33 CHAPTER 3 0 Cells are the smallest unit of life to function alone The is composed of organic molecules It has a phospholipid bilayer It has a hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions It is uid and dynamic Phospholipids have a head and a tall the head is hydrophilic while the tail is hydrophobic The membrane acts as a barrier The barrier things lipidsnon polars to pass but it things ions polars to pass Inside the cell membrane Transport proteins is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism Recognition proteins protein that recognizes and targets speci c proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes Cholesterol is also a molecule embedded in proteins CHAPTER 4 Two types of energy chemical energy movement examples would be photons light sound etc Energy is always lost as heat Energy going IN or OUT 0 IN going from a lower energy state to a higher potential energy 0 OUT going from a higher to a lower energy state Cellulose requires endergonic reactions Thinking moment What happens when cellulose undergoes an exergonic reaction like re A It goes up in ames and releases C02 and heat 50 how d0 A potential energy l metabolism ATP l kinetic energy During this process the electron donor donates to the acceptor After the donation the donor is considered and the molecule that accepts the electron is considered loss of electrons releases energy 0 gain of electrons requires energy 0 An is a series of membrane proteins that harness energy as it passes The is the power house of the cell and it makes ATP 0 Energy is mainly stored in the phosphate bond of ATP 0 ATP adenosine triphosphate is a nucleotide that temporarily stores energy 0 When the phosphate bond is broken energy is released ATP is coupled with other reactions ATP is coupled with reactions The For example when monomers become polymers it requires ATP ATP donates a phosphate that changes the shape of the target molecule Question time How does our body control the rate of chemical reactions The answer is enzymes proteins lower activation energy kick start energy the energy required to actually start the process An and it binds to a speci c substrate For example lactase enzyme breaks down lactose it s a lock and key situation The active site of where a substrate joins an enzyme can change shape or be blocked off by an inhibitor when a reactions products inhibit the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction the opposite of negative feedback is when a product produces a pathway leading to its own production Indirect way of altering enzyme activity Enzymes are proteins proteins are genes and the rate of protein synthesis can be controlled by genes this will link unit 1 and 2 together Touching on chapter 25 Organs promote homeostasis within the body Interstitial uid bathes all body cells from the outside Touching on chapter 33 For example google images of the snowshoe hare vs the jack rabbit or the arctic fox vs the kit fox Each animal has adapted to its speci c environment regulate their heat internally humans are endotherms the controls endotherms body temperature and initiates responses move to areas in order to lose or gain heat used by wolves in cold climates conserves energy and prevents frostbite expands the diameter of blood vessels alcohol does this Is the maintenance of constant water pressure in the uids of an organism by the control of water and salt concentrations Urination regulates saltwater in the body Marine sh do not really pee but water leaves their bodies through osmosis Marine sh drink the salt water Freshwater sh do not drink the water yet they pee more dilute urine Water enters freshwater sh through osmosis Land animals also have strategies to obtain and conserve water DEFINITIONS TO KNOW FOR CH 3 amp 4 Ribosomes structures that make proteins Cytoplasm uid in the cell Adhesion proteins enable cells to stick to one another 0 Receptor proteins bind to molecules outside the cell and trigger an internal response Vesicles transport things within the cell 0 Competitive vs noncompetitive inhibition competitive means that substrates are competing to bind with the enzyme while noncompetitive means that the substrate bonded somewhere other than the active site but not intentionally blocking another Endocytosis cell engulfs material and brings it into the cell in a vesicle Exocytosis sends things out of the cell 0 Hypotonic solution has lower concentration than the interior of the cell 0 Hypertonic the cell has a higher concentration than the solution around it lsotonic has equal water Phagocytosis engulfs BULK matter Metabolism describes all chemical reactions in a cell Entropy measure of disorganization Cofactors enzyme helpers
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