American Revolutions Week 3 Notes
American Revolutions Week 3 Notes HIST 0848-002
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
(SU: Soviet Union US: United States GB: Great Britain) The Cold War Shift in the way that the world is organized o Balanceofpower to Binary system Beforehand: many nations dominate international politics (the big 5: The US, France, look up rest) Now: US and soviet are predominant forces Worldwide ramifications Consider these Questions: Define the cold war How did the cold war originate? Who was responsible? Atlantic Charter, 1941 o Disarmament, open seas and trade o Collective security Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945 o Soviet Union: demilitarize Germany o U.S.: Revitalize Germany o Compromise: four zones of allied occupation o Germany surrendered on may 8, 1945 Harry Truman o Almost no experience in foreign policy o Blustered in congress, forced his opinion on people o Not really prepared in 45 to become president. Potsdam Conference o Julyaugust 1945 o Reparations: each allied victor to take reparations only from own occupation zone. Stalin wanted reparations from Germany o Borders of Poland shifted westward (oderneisseborders) o Capital city of berlin split into four segments. o Nobody really got what they wanted in Potsdam but they agree that it’s the best possible compromise o Winston Churchill is voted out during this time, so this is a completely new conglomeration of people Atomic Bomb o Rapid physics advances in the early 20 century: splitting the nuclei of heavy atoms o Buy 42: programs to build such a weapon underway in the US, soviet union, great Britain , Germany, and japan. o Only the us has sufficient wealth, industrial capabilities, on slide o July 16, 45: US tests first atomic bomb at Alamogordo, new Mexico o August 6, 45: first atomic bomb used on Hiroshima o August 9: second atomic bomb, Nagasaki o August 14: japan surrenders, end of world war II o Truman’s main decision that he has to make is whether to use the bomb o We believe he chose to use it because it was so expensive, and that he wanted to save American lives by basically ending the war with this. o Bout 98160,000 people were killed from the initial explosion and exposure afterward o 6080,000 people killed in Nagasaki o Stalin orders his scientists to create a bomb like this as soon as possible, as the United States is the only country that has one and therefore has a monopoly on it. o US and Soviet union o US: democracy, capitalism, individual rights, private property, political pluralism o Soviet Union: communism, staterun economy, collective rights, collectivization, single party system Soviet Expansion: how the Soviet Union protects its system o Soviet security policy: needs to be the dominant influence in eastern Europe to assure its own safety o Land annexation (Poland) o Formation of client states Ring of buffer states around the soviet union—anyone trying to invade the SU has to go through these first Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, etc. They are established in 194549 mostly o How does the United States interpret these actions? George F. Kennan o (Guy who wrote the first reading) American diplomat, political scientist, and historian Questions: How did the US and great Britain interpret the us soviet’s actions o What is the argument of the text? To contain the expansion of the Soviet Union, prevent them from getting more powerful. o How does each describe the postwar world? They see themselves as the policemen of the world, like watchmen, to make sure they don’t do what they don’t want them to do. Countries are separated in different ways than they were before. o How does each see the Soviet Union? The U.S. role in the world? They see them as a threat, their expansion, they probably know that they are developing the nuclear weapons, and their governmental forms are so different. o Based on their recommendations, what policies should the US pursue in its foreign relations? Don’t be overly aggressive, walk on egg shells, any attacks could pretty much cause world war three. Also people don’t really know each other and it’s a whole new mix of people Ideology of Containment US needs to use counterforce to stop expansion of SU Military: stop soviets from expanding military and corresponding political power. Cant just decommission its army, it has to keep a military presence around the world so that it is, if possible, able to stop the Soviet Union. Also: political, economic, diplomatic confrontations—nowhere can the Soviet Union gain ground. Any time the SU tries to gain power, the us needs to step forward and stop it U.S. as a leader of the free world—because its morally superior it should spread those values and protect the world. Dominant ideology in the US foreign policy for the next forty years. US policy: strengthening Germany o 1947 Bizone of us and British sectors Common marketplace Preparation for political and economic reunification of a divided Germany o 1948 trizone including French sector o Fosters German economic recovery as a basis for a new, peaceful Europe. The US is less concerned about Germany gaining strength democratically than communistically Truman doctrine o March 12, 1947 o Greece and turkey mired in civil wars in which communists are heavily involved o Truman offers US financial aid to both nations o Implication: US will become guarantor of democracy capitalism, liberty in a postwar world. o “At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one”. o US expands into the world as a security monitor of democracy and freedom. o The us and SU protect themselves in opposite ways—the SU creates a buffer zone, while the us says that that is threatening to peace The Marshall Plan o Announced by Secretary of State George Marshall on June 5 1947 o US aid to any European nation that wants it Western European states accept o Allows war torn economies to rebuild o 13 billion dollars in aid given to “any European nation who wants it”—mostly to GB, France, Germany, etc. o Dangerous to SU mindset because it spreads the idea of democracy US policies—International Organizations o NATO: 1949 (North Atlantic treaty organization) System of collective defense, 12 states at outset Militaries share knowledge, training Attack against one is attack against all “Keep the Americans up, the Russians out, and the Germans down. o NATO and the Warsaw pact are instruments of collective security o The United Nations 1945—the system of international security that the charter was talking about International organization to create international laws and promote peaceful relations between states Setup: UN general assembly, UN security council (five permanent members with veto power) 1948: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (this expands its power to protecting individual and collective rights) The US thinks that this will help regulate relations between states By 1948 o US and SU both feel that their ways of organizing society are under threat, so they create security where possible Cold war o Political military economic and ideological rivalry between the us and SU and their respective allies, 194791 o Focus on militarization, martial language, and thinking o Encompasses rest of the world o Political ideology shapes world views (US containment) Berlin Blockade and Air Lift o June 24, 1948may 12, 1949 o Introduction of a new common currency. o Stalin decides that he’s going to make an example of berlin and show that the SU will shape the future of Germany more than the western, so he cuts off east Germany from west Germany completely, cuts off transportation, etc. o The us and GB respond with the berlin airlift sending millions of tons of food and fuel, enough to outlast the SU o This makes the west look peaceful, and Stalin look like the bad guy o The eastern government was the German Democratic Republic (GDR) o Giant propaganda machine working here—hardens the us/west against the SU The Twin shocks of 1949 o August 29, 1949, the SU tests its first atomic bomb. The US loses its military power over atomic weapons o October 1, 1949: Foundation of the peoples Republic of China –china establishes itself as a communist state. Nationalists retreat to the island of Taiwan after being defeated by the communists o Again, this causes hardening in ideologies By 1950 o Stalemate in Europe Both the us and SU have created countries and bolstered systems favorable to their world view o Focus on countries “on the periphery” outside of Europe National security council report 68 (NSC68) o April 14, 1950 o Clarifies and strengthens US commitment to containment The Korean War o Division of Korea along the 38 parallel o June 25, 1950: North Korea invades south o October 7, 1950: US and UN troops cross 38 parallel o 19511953: stalemate th o Armistice treaty created a boundary on the 38 parallel which is still active today. o As a result of the Korean war both sides don’t get involved in military things as much, but they do build up their military just in case. o The only time during the cold war that the US and SU face one another on the ground is in Korea The Atomic Bomb Recap: The cold war Two competing ways of structuring society o Us: capitalism, liberal democracy o Su: socialism Both states large enough to shape the national sphere The Manhattan Project Established in august 1942 Leadership: head physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer The science that enable the bomb was conducted internationally Project research centralized at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico First successful test on July 16, 1945 This was not just a part of world war two, the science behind the atomic bomb had been studied and developed for years before it was used, with the help of scientists all over the world. This creates two bombs, “Little Boy”, dropped on Hiroshima, and “Fat Man”, dropped on Nagasaki. At first after they dropped these bombs, they had no more because these were the only two we had, but afterward resistance to the atomic bomb exploded, and other nations were developing their own. The US expectations o The Truman administration expects an “atomic monopoly” o Soviet Union accuses U.S. of “atomic diplomacy”—trying to bully the Su into doing what the Americans want based on the fact that the US has atomic weapons and the SU doesn’t o 1946 Baruch Plan US offers to turn over its atomic weapons to an international agency after all the world’s fissionable material was brought under the same agency Propaganda ploy—Truman administration can say “well we offered you guys to give them up and you guys didn’t want to” Domestic Responses—Positive o The US emerged from the war victorious, wealthy and optimistic o Notion that atomic power could fuel a new era of wealth and entrepreneurship. o They believe that a world war three is coming, to be fought with nuclear weapons. o The US will likely lose their atomic monopoly Domestic Responses—Negative o Early postwar America simultaneously at peace and on the cusp of the next war o Americans were profoundly uneasy with the destructive powers that could be displayed by such an atomic weaponry o Constantly fed with SLIDE Losing the Atomic Monopoly o August 29, 1949: SU tests its first atomic bomb “First Lightening” Mutually assured destruction (MAD) One side cannot destroy all of the other sides nuclear arms in first strike Any strike will lead to retaliation that will destroy both sides Result neither the us nor soviet union can successfully use their bombs o But both sides trying to keep up with the others research o They want to become powerful enough that an atomic bomb can never be used against them. o This is a psychological war of intimidation. Nobody can bomb the other in real life. The New Look Policy o President Eisenhower’s creation, 195360 o Symbolic of the importance US placed on military power in this age Shifts more and more emphasis on nuclear weapons Respond to aggression with ultimate force Strike where enemy is most vulnerable (not necessarily where the aggression occurred) The New Look Policy Results o Concept of Massive Retaliation Reaction disproportionate to original attack (asymmetrical) o Concept of Brinkmanship To carry dispute or conflicts to the brink of war, not be afraid of escalation Example: Mazu and Jinmen Islands, 1958’ Advantages of New Look Policy o Cheap through focus on nuclear over conventional weapons o Constant level of military preparedness possible o 1952: HBomb created (within the next few years the SU of course has one too) People are against it because its escalating just to scare each other, “playing with fire”— this is too dangerous Disadvantages of Policy o Problem of carrying through—what is important enough to risk nuclear war? Strategy of Deterrence o Examples: uprising in East Germany (1953) and Hungary (1956) The Flexible Response Policy o Creation of President John F. Kennedy, 19611963 o Buildup of U.S. conventional Forces o Symmetrical reaction o President has wide array of options—not just limited to bluff, or blow up the planet like Eisenhower was. Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 (look up more about this) o Fidel Castro rise to power 1959 o Bay of pigs invasion in 1961 o Construction of missile facilities starts in 1962—us regularly sends planes over these facilities in Cuba to spy on them American Reaction o Executive committee of the national security council Option of invasion Naval quarantine (calls it quarantine and not blockade because that would be an act of war) o Speech on October 22, 1962 o Contact with soviet leadership on October 26 and 27 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) o 1972: Nixon signs SALT I with the SU o Does not reduce the amount of nuclear weapons, but places a ceiling on future weapons that the two nations might build Ending the Cold War o 1987 intermediaterange nuclear forces treaty First treaty calling for the actual dismantlement of atomic weapons Band an entire class of nuclear weapons o Shows ho cold war and threat of nuclear weapons were interconnected Not tons of research done on the end of the cold war because so many sources are still classified What impact did the atomic bomb have on us society? o New fear started to spread—became a part of the pop culture as well. Defined a generation. It also gave the U.S. power along with the fear. What is the connection between the atomic bomb and this weeks readings o The newly defined generation of protection. She talks about the bomb shelters and preparing for atomic bombs. Also how women stay home and get married and have children even younger. Clarify how Elaine Tyler May utilizes terms like containment and brinkmanship to make her own argument? o Contain yourself in the family, protect yourself from the outside as a family, again talking about sex and things, being that people wait to have sex until marriage, whether people were really doing that but that was definitely the focus.
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