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NTRI 2000, week 3 notes

by: Alyssa Anderson

NTRI 2000, week 3 notes NTRI 2000

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These notes cover what we went over in class 1/25/16-1/29/16 and will be on the first exam.
Nutrition and Health
Dr. Greene
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Friday January 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
Alyssa Anderson Week 3 Nutrition Notes 1/25/16-1/29/16 NOTE: Peer tutoring is now free Monday and Wednesday from 1-4PM in Spidle 222 and also at RBD on the 2nd floor in the learning commons 5-7PM on Tuesdays. Specific Nutrient Standards A. The overarching goal of any healthy diet is to meet nutrient needs B. To do this we must determine what amount of each essential nutrient is needed to maintain health C. These standards are based on populations of healthy people The Scientific Method A. Used to gain knowledge B. Steps 1. Make observations and use knowledge of what is assumed to be true 2. Make a hypothesis (must be testable) 3. Preform experiments (epidemiological, case-control) 4. Report results (either support or refute hypothesis) C. The experiment must be independent of particular opinion D. The test must purposely test itself and criticize, correct, and improve itself DRI- Dietary Reference Intakes A. The umbrella term for dietary standards B. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 1. Nutrient intake sufficient to meet the needs of 97%-98% of individuals in a specific stage of life 2. What if you consume more or less? Being 70% above or below the RDA for an extended time (3 times longer for some nutrients) can result in a deficiency or toxicity C. Adequate Intake (AI) 1. Nutrient intake set for any nutrient for which insufficient research is available for RDA 2. AIs are based on estimates of intakes that appear to maintain a defined nutritional state in a specific life stage D. Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) 1. estimated energy (in kcal) intake needed to match the energy use of an average person in a specific life stage 2. Needs to be specific, taking into account age, gender, height, weight, physical activity 3. Serves as a starting point for estimating calorie need E. Tolerable upper intake limit (UL) 1. Maximum chloric intake daily level of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause adverse health affects in almost all people in a specific life stage 2. Problems arise from using many fortified foods and excess doses of vitamins and minerals F. Daily Value (DV) 1. DV is the nutrient standard used on the nutrition facts portion of a food label 2. The percent DV for each nutrient is based on consuming a 2000 kcal diet 3. Set at or close to the highest RDA value or related nutrient standard 4. DVs have been set for vitamins, minerals, protein, and other dietary components 5. Allow intake comparison from a specific food to desirable (or maximum) intakes Recommendations for Food Choice A. How do we translate the science of nutrition into practical terms B. 1992: the plan was illustrated using a pyramid shape (Food Guide Period) C. 2011: a plate was used to illustrate a guide Dietary Guidelines for Americans A. What is a healthy eating pattern? 1. Variety of vegetables 2. Fruits, especially whole fruits 3. Grains, half of which are whole grains 4. Fat-free or low-fat dairy, including milk, yogurt, cheese, and/or fortified soy beverages 5. variety of lean protein 6. oils- high in monounsaturated fat and polyphenols (make sure not to buy olive oil in clear bottles because the sunlight will break apart the polyphenols) B. A healthy eating pattern limits: 1. Saturated fast and trans fats- less than 10% 2. Added sugars- less than 10% 3. Sodium- 2,300 mg C. Healthy also includes the physical activity guidelines for Americans (ages 18-64) 1. Avoid inactivity 2. Get at least 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise, but aim for 300 Food Labels (check out figures in book) A. What is required? 1. Name of product 2. Who the manufacturer is aka where it’s coming from 3. How much you’re buying (in ounces and in grams) 4. Ingredients (in order by weight) 5. Nutrition Facts a. Serving size b. Number of servings c. Calories d. Calories from fat e. Percent of daily value f. Fat (both saturated and trans) g. Cholesterol h. Carbohydrates (dietary fiber, sugar) i. Protein B. They can choose to add additional stuff on the packages, such as different levels of vitamins or nutrients, but don’t be fooled if the serving size is inconsistent C. The FDA is in charge of the nutritional claims 1. “good source” means 10-19% of daily value for nutrient 2. “excellent source” means one serving contains 20% or more of the daily value 3. “reduced” means at least 25% less per serving than in the referenced food 4. “low-____” means 3 grams or less in one serving 5. “____-free” means less than 0.5 grams in one serving The Human Body and its Systems 1. Cells are the basic unit of life 2. each cell is a self contained, living entity 3. nutrients go in, waste products go out Cell Metabolism 1. Entire collection of chemical processes involved in maintaining life 2. Biochemical reactions take place in the cell cytoplasm and organelles 3. Anabolic requires energy (we need this to grow) 4. Catabolic takes more molecules apart, releases energy Levels of Organization 1. Chemical level (atoms combine to form molecules) 2. Cell level (molecules form organelles) 3. Tissue level 4. Organ level 5. Organ system level 6. Organism level Multicellular Organisms 1. Same tissue as a singular cell 2. Whole body metabolism is similar to a cell’s Organ Systems 1. Digestive 2. Urinary 3. Respiratory 4. Cardiovascular A. Carries blood B. Regulates blood supply C. Transports nutrients, waste products, cells, gases D. Regulates blood pressure E. Plays a role in immune responses and body temperature F. Components a. Heart- muscular pump for blood b. Blood vessels- arteries leave the heart; veins enter the heart c. Capillaries- exchange of nutrients, oxygen, waste products, and gases between blood and cells d. Blood- made up of plasma, red and white cells, platelets G. Portal circulation a. Artery to capillary to vein to portal vein to capillary to vein b. Nutrients absorbed by capillaries in the small intestine (go to the liver) 5. Lymphatic System A. brings fluid back to the cardiovascular system B. fluid is lymph (plasma, white blood cells (and absorbed fat), lymph nodes C. drains back into the CV system near the heart D. remove foreign substances from blood and lymph E. maintain tissue fluid balance F. adds in fat absorption G. forms white blood cells and provides defense against pathogens 6. Endocrine System A. Endocrine glands a. pituitary b. thyroid c. adrenal glands d. hypothalamus e. pancreas- endocrine/exocrine B. Hormones are produced in the glands (act as messengers) C. Function- metabolism, reproduction, water balance, many other functions D. They have different functions called endocrine, paracrine, autocrine


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