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HIST 225 Week 4 Notes

by: Kira Gavalakis

HIST 225 Week 4 Notes HIST 225 0021

Kira Gavalakis
GPA 3.4

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U.S. History
Richard Meixsel
Class Notes
HIST225, history, American History, U.S. History, US History, hamilton, Founding Fathers, Washington, General Education
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 225 0021 at James Madison University taught by Richard Meixsel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Week 4 Notes  ● Emergence of political parties  ● Hamilton­ Secretary of Treasury ­­ largest department in executive branch and very  important role to George Washington!  ○ Hamilton’s Grand Design  ■  proposals to Congress:  ■ First Plan​ eport on the Public Credit (1790)   ■ THE CRITICS SAID plan would enrich speculators, but it was  approved in exchange for locating the national capital in the South  (on the Potomac)  ● we don’t know who originally paid us, so we need to give the  money we owe to the original holders  ● Slave owners did not want to lose their slaves and move north,  which is why they wanted the capital in the south  ■ Second Plan: ​ eport on a National Bank (1791)   ● THE CRITICS SAID national bank was not constitutional.  Hamilton responded with the doctrine of “Implied Powers”  ● UNCONSTITUTIONAL­ if the Constitution doesn’t say it, the  government cannot do it  ● Hamilton argues: The Constitution does not specifically say  everything we can and cannot do, but it is implied. “Loose  construction” of the Constitution (versus “strict constructionists”  ■ Third Plan:Report on Manufactures (1791)  ● THE CRITICS SAID this was nothing more than  government­sponsored privilege for Hamilton’s pals in  business and was rejected.  ● Hamilton thought that if you help the wealthy, then they will  spread/share their wealth    ● Hamilton basically says: WE NEED A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT, but people  were fearful of a powerful government abusing its authority and possibly taking away  their freedom  ● Mid 1790s, Hamilton’s opponent was now: Thomas Jefferson (?)    ● Thomas Jefferson  ○ born from influential Virginia family  ○ went to College of William and Mary  ○ elected to the House of Burgesses, 1769  ○ “Summary view of the Rights of British America” 1774  ○ Member of Continental Congress, 1775­1776  ■ He was on what was thought of as the least important out of the three  main committees  ○ Governor of Virginia, 1779­1781 (2 days after he fled from the British army, so  obviously no election)  ○ He was not involved in writing the Constitution (he was an American minister in  Paris)  ○ He was the main author of the Declaration of Independence  ○ He was elected (not by choice) to Secretary of State, 1789  ○ Founded the University of Virginia    Jefferson’s View: An Agrarian Republic  ● Government will be virtuous if they are predominately agricultural in order to make sure  the Americans survive    Jefferson → Opponents    Central (Federal) government → State government  Manufacturing → agricultural    ● Hamilton and the “Federalists” (not to be confused with the “Federalists” who supported  ratification of the Constitution  ● Jefferson and the “Republicans” (Later started calling themselves “Democrats”)    Division was ideological, but also regional, economiand personal     ● Jefferson wasn’t as well known as Hamilton in the 1780s/1790s  ○ Hamilton was a soldier in the war­­ Colonel Hamilton­­ the Revolutionary War  HERO  ○ Jefferson didn’t do anything during the war, and then went to France (nothing to  do for writing the Constitution, but did help with writing the Declaration of  Independence)  ● Political parties­­ there is no LOYAL OPPOSITION  ○ nobody wants people to be disloyal to their government    ● War in Europe, 1792­1815  ○ Federalists are more sympathetic towards Great Britain  ○ Republics are more sympathetic toward France    ● George Washington was elected to office twice­­ everyone wanted him to be the  president for as long as possible  ○ Was perceived “Federalist” (even though he didn’t want to support political  parties)  ○ Began tradition of president only being able to run for 2 terms (except for  Roosevelt)  ○ Election of 1796­ very close Electoral vote (no popular vote yet)  ■ 49% Democratic­Republican, 51% Federalist (clear North­South divide  already)  ● Issues of Adams Administration (1797­1801)  1. Jefferson was VP­­ A member of the other party!  2. To to maintain neutrality­­ was France really a threat?  3. Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 (could deport any Irish or French that are  suspicious)  4. Republican Response:  a. The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions (James Madison wrote VA  resolution, Jefferson wrote KY resolution)  ● People didn’t want Adams to be president  ○ Republicans feared that military power was put for the Federalists and against  the Democratic­Republicans  ○ Election of 1800 won by Jefferson (53% Democratic­Republican or JEFFERSON,  27% Federalist or ADAMS)    ● Hamilton is never president but leader of the FEDERALIST PARTY  ● Jefferson’s election: “The Revolution of 1800”  ○ The Democratic­Republican victory saved the corruption of Federalists  ○ “Midnight Appointments” ­­ back then the new elected officials come into the  office in March after the election in November  ○ 1801­ John Marshall­ Chief Justice of Supreme Court  ■ Strong Federalist  ■ Supported Hamilton no matter who the president was  ■ His being in the Supreme Court helped Adams    ● The “Republicans” in Power  ○ Jefferson  ○ Madison  ○ The purpose of government is limited­­ we do not want a vigorous government    ● Jefferson in Office:  1. Set a more informal tone  2. Reduced government expenses  a. army made smaller, navy ships are sold, close embassies overseas,  ENDED NATIONAL DEBT  3. Purchased Louisiana­­ not such as “strict constructionist,” after all?  a. Napoleon Bonaparte wanted to recreate a French empire in America, but  gave it up as a bad go...  4. Kept us out of war?    ● Jefferson­ Louisiana Purchase 1803    Britain and France wouldn’t respect any American president views    2/4/16  Why War with Britain in 1812?  1. Attacks on neutrality  2. Quasi­war with France (1798­1800)  a. undeclared war fought on the high seas  b. Alien and Sedition Acts  3. Impressment­­ The C​ hesapeake incident, June 1807  a. British Act  b. Stopping ships and seizing sailors to man the British ships  4. A “Second War of American Independence”  5. How else to get Britain’s attention?  a. They’re in a war with Europe during this time  b. Madison’s war letter to congress: “let’s declare war on them, that will get their  attention”  c. Constitution  doesn’t  say  that  war  declarations  have  to  be  passed  by  the  President­ Congress can declare war  d. 80% republicans­ war; 100% federalists­ no war (?)    ● British listened to US before war even started!  ● Outline of the War  ○ First half of wa­­ America on the offensive. The goal is to seize Canada! (It is  the only “British” thing we can get at.)  ○ Federalist opposition complicates strategy making  ■ Remember:  Federalists  didn’t  want  to  go  to  war­  can’t  ask  for  their  militias/troops  ○ Our  operations  characterized  by  lack  of  preparedness  and  incompetent  leadership  ■   ○ Only achievement­­ an important one­­ is Perry’s Victory at Lake Erie (on of the  great Lakes near Michigan) (Sept 1813)  ○ Second  half  of  the  war­­ ​mericans  are  on  the  defensive,  our  efforts  characterized by better­trained troops and better leaders (Generals Winfield Scott  and  Andrew  Jackson), but  with  Napoleon’s apparent defeat in 1814, Britain is  now able to send large forces to America  ○ British Naval blockade of the coast  ○ British burn the public buildings in Washington, DC  ■ Apparently in reaction to US burning buildings in Toronto  ○ Jackson wins big victory (January 1815) at New Orleans, but the war is already  over  ○ Lesser known  but more  important  was  the naval victory  (Sept 1814) on Lake  Champlain (Plattsburg) under Thomas Macdonough  ○ 1815­­ Peace Treaty  ● The Results of the War  1. Destroyed the Federalist party  a. Federalists opposed the war, nobody paid attention to them (opposition  party­ warning sign to not be like the Federalists)  b. Convention in Hartford, CT­­ modifications to Constitution to give them a  more equal say, asked Washington but looked like traitors  2. Destroyed Indian power in the west  3. Legacy of Anglophobia  a. hatred toward Britain  4. As for neutral “rights” on the high seas Read the chapter about “World War I” in  your textbook!  a. neutral rights respected?  ● War of 1812­­ British understands that America is independent    The Era of Good Feelings  Ante­Bellum America    ● James Monroe  ○ Monroe Doctrine­­ we don’t want Europe to interfere with us  ○ Everyone is calling themselves a Republican­­ the Era of Good Feeling  ● “The American Economic Miracle”  ○ Urbanization  ○ Declining farm employment  ○ Growing manufacturing employment  ○ Economic life isn’t defined by their own farm­­ it’s becoming national in scope! (in  other words, people are interacting with others to buy food and clothes instead of  just making it for themselves)    * Trend is more pronounced in the North than it is in the South    ● The Transportation Revolution  ○ Reduced time and cost of shipping goods inland  ○ Turnpikes­­ Major Toll Roads  ○ Steamboats on Western Rivers (from 1815 travelling North from New Orleans)  ■ 69 Steamboats in 1820, 727 in 1855  ○ Canals­­ “Erie Canal” (NY) the single most important, finished 1825  ■ Reoriented Western produce from south to east  ○ Railroads­ starting in 1820s; by the 1850s, 8 times as many rail miles as canal  miles  ■ lines ran east to west  ■ cheaper and easier than creating canal miles  ○     MIDTERM:    1. The English background to colonization  2. Contrasting colonies  3. The American Revolution  4. Articles of Confederation and the Constitution  5. The emergence of political parties and the War of 1812  6. The economic transformation of the United States and the Democratic age    (Chapter 1­16 in ​The American Past​ )    EXAM is Thursday, 2/18/16     


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